Glossary of Chapter 4 Vocabulary AP PSYCHOLOGY
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- Formal Operational Stage
- In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (beginning at 12 years) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts.
- Stranger Anxiety
- The fear of strangers that infants commonly display beginning at about 8 months of age.
- An emotion tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation.
- Critical Perio
- An optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experience produces proper development.
- The process by which certain animals for attachments during a critical period early in life.
- Basic trust
- According to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers.
- A sense of one's identity and personal worth
- The transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence.
- The period of sexual maturation during which a person becomes capable of reproducing.
- Primary sex characteristics
- The body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make reproduction possible.
- Secondary sex characteristics
- Non reproductive sexual characteristics such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair.
- The first menstrual period.
- One's sense of self. According to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles.
- In Erikson's theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary development task in late adolescnce and early adulthood.
- The time of natural cessation of menstruation; the biological changes a women experiences as her ability to reproduce declines.
- Alzheimer's disease
- A progressive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and finally, physical functioning.
- Cross Sectional Study
- A study in which people of different ages are compared with one another.
- Longitudinal Study
- Research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period.
- Crystallized Intelligence
- One's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age.
- Fluid Intelligence
- One's ablility to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood.
- Social Clock
- The culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and environment.
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