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Glossary of Chapter 4 Vocabulary AP PSYCHOLOGY

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Formal Operational Stage
In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (beginning at 12 years) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts.
Stranger Anxiety
The fear of strangers that infants commonly display beginning at about 8 months of age.
Attachment
An emotion tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation.
Critical Perio
An optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experience produces proper development.
Imprinting
The process by which certain animals for attachments during a critical period early in life.
Basic trust
According to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers.
Self-Concept
A sense of one's identity and personal worth
Adolescence
The transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence.
Puberty
The period of sexual maturation during which a person becomes capable of reproducing.
Primary sex characteristics
The body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make reproduction possible.
Secondary sex characteristics
Non reproductive sexual characteristics such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair.
Menarche
The first menstrual period.
Identity
One's sense of self. According to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles.
Intimacy
In Erikson's theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary development task in late adolescnce and early adulthood.
Menopause
The time of natural cessation of menstruation; the biological changes a women experiences as her ability to reproduce declines.
Alzheimer's disease
A progressive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and finally, physical functioning.
Cross Sectional Study
A study in which people of different ages are compared with one another.
Longitudinal Study
Research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period.
Crystallized Intelligence
One's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age.
Fluid Intelligence
One's ablility to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood.
Social Clock
The culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and environment.

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