Glossary of Chapter 4 Intro to Computing

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kilobyte (kb)
is about 1,000 bytes
megabyte (Mb)
is about 1 million bytes
gigabyte (Gb)
is about 1 billion bytes
the part of the microprocessor that tells the rest of the computer how to carry out a program's interface
microprocesor chip
the process retrieving data from a storage device
the process of copying data to a storage device
users should always do this to avoid losing data
often refered to as the "brain" of a computer
CPU (central processing unit)
the electircal data roadways through which bits are transimitted
buses (or bus lines)
a cable connected to this kind of port sends bits one at a time, one after the other
serial port
a cable connected to this kind of port sends 8 bits simultaneously
parallel port
its part of the disk-drive mechanism and transfers data between the computer and the disk
read/write head
also called "main memory", and is critical to computer performance
primary storage
are the fundamental math operations: addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division
arithmetic operations
are comparisons such as "equal to", "greater than", or "less than".
logical operations
a group of 8 bits
the extra bit attached to the end of a byte for error checking
parity bit
a tiny electronic device that acts as an on/off switch, switching between "on" and "off" millions of times per second
a form of flash memory media that plugs into a special port in a digital camera, camcorder, notebook PC, or photo printer and holds up to 1 Gb of data
secure digital card
another term for primary storage
is not included on a motherboard
used to hold data and instructions that will be used shortly by the CPU
RAM chips
a coding scheme widely used on microcomputers
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
used to measure processing speed in microcomputers
megahertz (MHz)
expansion bus that specializes in graphics processing
AGP (accelerated graphics port)bus
the company who is the main manufacturer of micro processors for non-Apple computers
element that is commonly used in the making of solid-state integrated circuits
what do DVD-Rs allow?
one-time recording by the user; they can't be written on more than once
true or false: a bus connects a computer's control unit and ALU
true or false: the machine cycle comprises the instruction cycle and the execution cycle
true or false: magnetic tape is the most common secondary storage medium used with microcomputers
true or false: main memory is nonvolatile
true or false: pipelining is a method of speeding up processing
true or false: today's laptop computers can perform more calculations per second than the ENIAC, and enormous machine occupying more than 1,800 sq. ft. and weighing more than 30 tons
true or false: USB can theoretically connect up to 127 peripheral devices
true or false: a petabyte is approx. 1 quadrillion bytes
true or false: online secondary storage services test your computer's RAM memory
true or false: keychain memory is a pipelining device

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