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Glossary of Chapter 25: The urinary system

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How much fluid does the kidneys filter?
about 2000 liters
NAME
these filter about 2000 liters of fluid
kidneys
What are some exretory functions of the kidneys? (2)
(1)reg the volume and chemical make up of the blood (2)maitaining the proper balance btwn water and salts btwn acids and bases
NAME
these regulate the vol and chemical make up of the blood and maintaing the proper balance btwn water and salts btwn acids and bases
excretory functions
What are some functions of the kidneys other than exretory functions? (3)
(1)Gluconegoensesis (2)producing the enzyme renin and erythropoietin(3)metabolizing vitamin D to its active form
NAME
some of its functions include gluconeogenoesis, producing the enyzme renin and erythropoietin, and metabolizing vitamin D to its active form
kidneys
What is renin?
helps to regulate blood pressure and kidney function
NAME
this helps to regulate blood pressure and kidney function
renin
What is erythropoietin?
this stimulates red blood cells production
NAME
this stimulats the red blood cells prodcution
erythropoeitin
What are the organs of the urinary system? (4)
(1)kidneys (2)urinary bladder (3)ureters (4)urethra
NAME
this includes the kidneys, urinary bladder, ureters, and urethra
urinary system
What is the urinary bladder?
a temporary storage reservoir for urine
NAME
this is a temporary storge reservoir for urine
urinary bladder
What is the ureters?
are two tubelike organs
What is the three tublike organs that make up the urinary system? (3)
(1)paired urters (2)urethra
NAME
these include the paired urters and urethra
three tubelike oragns of the urinary system
NAME
all of these furnish transportation channels for urine
the paired urters (2)urethra
What are the kidneys shaped like?
beans
NAME
these are bean shaped
kidneys
Where are the kidneys located?
the lumbar region from T12 to L3
NAME
this organ is found in the lumbar region from T12 to L3
kidneys
Which kidney is crowded by the liver and lies lower than the left?
the right
Where is the right kidney located compared to the left?
the right kidney is crowded by the liver and lies lower than the left
NAME
this kidney is crowded by the liver and lies lower than the left
right kidney
What is the renal hilus?
is a vertical cleft that leads into the reneal sinus
NAME
this is a vertical cleft that leads into the reneal sinus
renal hilus
What is the reneal sinus?
is an internal space w/in the kidneys
NAME
is an internal space w/in the kidneys
reneal sinus
NAME
atop of each of these are the adrenal glands
kidneys
Atop each kidneys is a (1)
adrenal gland
ATop each of (1)there is a adrenal gland
kidneys
What are three supportive tissue layers that surround kidneys? (3)
(1)renal capsule (2)adipose capsule (3)renal fascia
NAME
this has three supportive tissue layers that surround it: renal capsule, adipose capsule, and renal fascia
kidneys
What is the renal capsule?
is a fibrous transparent capsule that prevents infections in surrounding regions from spreading the kidneys
NAME
this is a fibrous transparent capsule that prevents infection in surrounding regions from spreading the kidneys
renal capsule
What is the adipose capsule?
is fatty mass that attaches the kidney to the posterior body wall and cushions it against blows
NAME
this is a fatty mass that attaches the kidney to the posterior body wall and cushions it against blows
adipose capsule
What is renal fascia?
is an outer layer of the dense fibrous connective tissue that anchors the kidneys and the adrenal gland to the surrounding structures
NAME
this an a outer layer of the dense fibrous connective tissue that anchors the kidneys and the adrenal gland to the surrounding structures
renal fascia
What is the adipose capsule important for kidneys?
bc it holds the kidneys in thier normal position
the (1)of the kidneys is important in holding the kidneys in thier normal body postition
fatty encasement
What is renalptosis?
refers to when the amount of fatty tissue dwindles causing one or both kidneys to drop to a lower position
NAME
this refers to when the amount of fatty tissue dwindles causing one or both kidneys to drop to a lower postion
renalptosis
Renal ptosis may cause (1)
a urter to become kinked, which creates a problem bc the urine, unable to drain, backs up into the kidneys and exerts pressure on its tissue
NAME
this can cause a urter to become kinked, which creates a problem bc the urine, unable to drain, backs up into the kidneys and exerts pressure on the tissue
renal ptosis
What is hydronephrosis?
is the backup up of urine from ureteral obstruction or other causes
NAME
this refers to the backup of urine from uretral obstructions or other causes
hydronephrosis
What are (3) distinct regions of the kidney?
(1)cortex (2)medulla (3)pelvis
NAME
this has three distinct regions of the kidney cortex, medulla, and the pelvis
kidneys
What is the renal cortex?
is the most superficial region, light in color and has a granular appearnance
NAME
this is the most supericial region, light in color, and has a granular appearance
the renal cortex
What is the renal medulla?
is deep to the cortex, a darker reddish brown color, and has tissue masses called the medullary
NAME
this is deep the the renal cortex, a darker reddish brown color, and has tissue masses called the medullary
renal medulla
the (1) is also called the renal pyramids
medullary
the medullary is also called the (1)
renal pyramids
What are renal columns?
separate the renal pyramids
NAME
these separate the renal pyramids
renal columns
What is the renal pelvis?
is a flat funnel shaped tube, that is continous w/ the ureter leaving the ureter leaving the hilus
NAME
is a flat funnel shaped tube that is continous w/ the ureter leaving the hilus
renal plevis
NAME
these collect urine from the papillae and empty it into the renal pelvis. the urine flows through the renal pelvis into the ureter, which transports it to the bladder, to be stored
calyces
Calyces collect urine from the (2) and empty it into the renal pelvis. The urine then flows through the renal pelvis into the ureter, which transports it to the bladder to be stored
papillae
Calyces collect urine from the papillae and empty it into the (1). The urine then flows through the (1)into the ureter, which transports it to the bladder to be stored
renal pelvis
Calyces collect urine from the papillae and empty it into the renal pelvis. the urine then flows through the renal pelvis into the (1),which transports it to the bladder to be stored
ureter
Calyces collect urine from the papillae and empty it into then renal pelvis. The urine then flows through the renal pelvis into the ureter, which transports it into the (1) to be stored
bladder
What is the pvelitis?
is a infection of the renal pelvis and calyces
NAME
this is a infection of the renal pelvis and the calyces
pevlitis
What are pyelonephrisits?
refers to infections or inflammations that affect the entire the kidneys
NAME
this refers to infection or inflammations that affect the entire kidneys
pyelonephrisits
What are urinary infections caused by females?
fecal bacteria
T or F
some urinary infections can be caused from bloodborne bacteria that lodge and multoply in the kidneys
true
T or F
the kidneys continously cleanse the blood and adjust its composition
true
NAME
these continously cleanse the blood and adjust it composition
kidneys
Under normal resting conditions, the (1)deliver one fourth of the total cardiac output to the kidneys each min
renal arteries
Under (1), the renal arteries deliver one fourth of the total cardaic output to the kidney each min
normal resting conditions
What are the renal arteries?
under normal resting conditions, the renal arteries deliver one fourth of the total cardiac output to the kidneys for each min
NAME
under normal conidtions, these deliver one fourth of the total cardiac output to the kidneys per min
renal arteries
What happens as the renal arteries approach the kidneys?
they are divided into five segmental arteries
NAME
as the this appoarches the kidneys, it is divided into the five segmental arteries
renal arteries
What happens to the segmental arteries in the renal sinus?
each segmental atry branches into several lober arteries which then divide into several lobar arteries
NAME
this branches into several lober arteries which then divide into several lobar arteries
segmental arteries
Draw a chart of the blood flow of the renal arteries to the renal cortex
See p 1000 or notepad
What happens to the interlobar arteries at the medulla cortex junction?
the interlobar arteries branch into the arcuate arteries that arch over the branches of the medullry pyramids
NAME
At the medullar cortex junction, these branch into the arcuate arteries that arch over the branches of the medullary pyramids
the interlobar arteries
More than 90% of the blood entering the kidney perfuses the (1)
renal cortex
More than (1)of the blood entering the kidney perfuses the renal cortex
90%
Describe the blood flow from the veins starting w the renal cortex(HINT: is backwards of the arteries) (4)
Blood leaves the renal cortex goes to the (1)interlobaular (2)arcuate (3)interlobar and then (4)the renal viens
What is the renal plexus?
is a variable network of automatic nerve fibers, ganglia, and provides the nerve supply of the kidneys and the ureter
NAME
this provides the nerve supply of the kidneys and the ureter
renal plexus
What are nephrons?
are the structural and functional units of the kidneys
NAME
these are the structural and functional units of the kidneys
nephrons
What are collecting ducts?
these collect urine from several nephrons and conveys it to the renal plevis
NAME
these collect urine from the several nephrons and conveys it to the renal plevis
collecting ducts
What does each nephron consist of?
glomerulus
NAME
each of these consist of a glomerulus
nephron
What is the glomerulus?
is a tough of capillaries associated w a renal tubule
NAME
this is a tuft of renal capillaries associated w a renal tubule
glomerulus
what is the glomerular capsule?
is the cup shaped end of the renal tubule that completely surrounds the glomerulus
NAME
this is the cup shaped end of the renal tubule that completely surrounds the glomerulus
glomerular capsule
the glomerular capsule can also be called the (1)
Bowman's capsule
What is the renal corpuslce?
refers to the glomerular capsule and the enclosed glomerulus
NAME
this refers to the glomerular capsule and the enclosed glomerulus
renal corpuslce
(1) can also be called the Bowman's capsule
glomerular capsule
What is filtrate?
is the raw material that the renal tubules process from the urine
NAME
this is the raw material that the renal tubules process from the urine
filtrate
What kind of tissue does the parietal layer of the glomerular capsule have?
simple squamous epthilia
NAME
this layer of the glomerular capsule is made up of simple squamous epthilea
parietal layer
What type tissue does the visceral layer of the glomerular capsule have?
consists of highly modifed branching epthilea cells called podocytes
NAME
this layer of the glomerular capsule consists of highly modifed branching epithelia cells called podocytes
the visceral
How do the parietal and the visceral layer of the glomerular capusle differ?
(1)parietal layer- has simple squamous epthelia (2)visceral layer- consists of highly modifed epthelia branching cells called podocytes
What are podocytes?
are highly modifed epthelia branching cells found in the glomerular capsule
NAME
these are highly modifed epthelia branching cells found in the glomerular capsule
podocytes
Podocytes terminated in (1)
foot processes
NAME
these terminate in foot processes
podocytes
What are filtration slits?
are clefts or openings btwn the foot processes
NAME
these are clefts or opening btwn the foot processes
filtration slits
Filtration slits are also called (1)
slit pores
(1)are also called slit pores
filtration slits
What do filtration slits?
allow the filtrate to enter the capsular space inside the glomerular capsule
NAME
these allow the filtrate to enter the capsular space inside the glomerular capsule
filtration slits
What does the PCT stand for?
proximal convoluted tubule
NAME
this makes a loop called the loop of Henle then whends and twists as the DCT before emptying into the collecting duct
PCT
What is the PCT?
makes a loop called the loop of Henle then whends and twists as the DCT before emptying into the collecting duct
What does the DCT stand for?
distal convoulated tubule
What gives the medullary pyramids there striped appearnce?
bc the collecting ducts run through them
NAME
these have a strip appearnce bc the collecting ducts run through them
medullary pyramids
What is the papillary ducts?
deliver urine to the minor calyces via pappillae of the pyramids
NAME
this delivers urine to the minor calyces via papillae of the pyramids
papillary ducts
As the collecting ducts approach the renal pelvis, they fuse to form the large (1)
papillary ducts
NAME
as these approach the renal pelivs, they fuse to form the large papillary ducts
renal pelvis
What kind of tissue does the renal tubule have?
single layer of polar epthilea cells w each of its regions having a unique cellular atomony that reflects the role in processing filtrate
What are the walls of the PCT like? kind of tissue?
are formed by cubiodial epthilea cels w large mitochondria (2)thier lumar surface bear microvilli
NAME
these are formed by cubiodial epthilea cells w large mitochondira, and thier lumar surface bear microvilli
PCT
What is are the walls of the loop of Henle likes?
has descending and ascending limbs
NAME
the walls of this, have descending and ascending limbs
the loop of Henle
What is the thin segment?
is the rest of the descending limb of the loop of Henle
NAME
this is the rest of the descending limb of the loop of Henle
thin segement
What kind of tissue does the thin segement have?
simple squamous epthiliea freely permeable to water
NAME
this has simple squamous epthiliea freely permeable to water
thin segment
What are the thick segment?
is the part of the loop of Henle that in which the epthila becomes cuboidal or even low columnar
NAME
this is part of the loop of Henle in which the epthiliea becomes cubiodal or even low columnar
thick segment
What are (2) of the most important types of cells in collecting ducts?
(1)intercalated cells (2)prinicpal cells
NAME
these are two of its most important cells: intercalated cells and prinicpal cells
collecting ducts
What are intercalated cells?
are cubodial cells w abundant mircovilli that play a role in maintaining the acid base balance of the blood
NAME
these are cubodial cells w abundant micorvilli that play a role in maintaining the acid base balance of the blood
intercalated cells
What are principal cells?
they lack microvilli and help maintain the body's water and Na+ balance
NAME
these lack microvilli and help maintain the body's water and Na+ balance
principal cells
What are cortical nephrons?
represent 85% of the nephrons in the kidneys
NAME
these represent 85% if nephrons in the kidneys
cortical nephrons
What are the juxtamedullar nephrons?
are located close to the medullar junction and play an important role in the kidney's ability to produce concentrated urine
nAME
these are located in the medullar junection and play an important role in the kidney's ability to produce conecntrated urine
juxamedullar nephrons
Every nephron is assocaited w (1)
two capillary beds
NAME
each of these is assocaited w 2 capillary beds
nephron
What are the (2)capillary beds of the nephron?
(1)glomerulus (2)peritubular capilaries
NAME
these have two capillary beds: glomerulus and the pertiubular capillaries
nephron
What is the glomerulus capillary bed? (2)
(1)has capillares that run parallel for filtration (2)is both fed and drained by the afferent arteriole and the efferent arteriole
NAME
this has capillaries that run parallel and is speacialzed for filtration and it is both feed and drained by the afferent arteriole and the efferent arteriole
the glomerulus capillary bed
What is the big differ btwn the glomerulus cappilary bed compared to all other capillary beds?
it is both fed and drained by the efferent arteriole and the afferent arteriole
Where do the afferent arterioles arise from?
the interlobular arterioles that run through the renal cortex
NAME
this arises from the inerlobular artries that run through the renal cortex
afferent arterioles
Why does the afferent arterioles arise from the interlobular arteries that run through the renal cortex? (3)
(1)arterioles are high resistance vessels (2)the afferent arteriole has a large diamter then the efferent, the blood pressure in the glomerulus is extraordinarily high for a capillary bed and easily forces fluid and solute out of the blood into the glomerular capsule
NAME
The is (1)like this because arterioles are high resistance vessels and the afferent arteriole has a large diamter then the efferent, the blood pressure in the glomerulus is extraordinarily high for a capillary bed and easily forces fluid and so
the afferent arterioles arise from the interlobular arteries
Most of the (1) (99%) is absorbed by the renal tubule cells and returned to the blood in the pertibular capillary beds
filtrate
Most of the filtrate (99%) is absorbed by the (1) and returned to the blood in the (2)beds
(1)renal tubule cells (2)pertiubular capillary beds
Most of the filtrate (99%) is absorbed by the renal tubule cells and returned to the blood in the (1)
pertiubular capillary beds
What is one differ btwn the pertiubular capillaries and the glomerulus cappilary beds?
(1)pertiubular cappilary beds arise from the efferent arterioles draining from the glomeruli (2)the glomerulus capillary beds arise from the inerlobular arteries that run through the renal cortex
Where do the pertiubular capillary bed arise from?
the efferent arterioles draining the glomeruli
NAME
these arise from the efferent arterioles draining from the glomeruli
pertibular capillary beds
What are the pertibular capillaries?
they are low pressure, porous capillaries that readily absorb solutes and water from the tubule cells as these substances are reclaimed by the filtrate
NAME
these are low pressure, porius capillaries that readily absorb solutes and water from the tubule cells as these substances are reclaimed by the filtrate
pertibular capillaries
What are vasa recta?
are bundles of long striaght vessels that extend deep into the medullar
NAME
these are bundles of long striaght vessels that extend deep into the medullar
vasa recta
In summary, what does the first capillary bed or glomerulus do?
produces the filtrate
NAME
this produces the filtrate
the glomerulus capillary bed
What does the secound or peritubular capillary bed do?
reclaims most of the filtrate
NAME
this reclaims most of the filtrate
the peritubular capillary bed
Blood flowing through the renal circulation encounters (1)in the afferent and then in the efferent arterioles
high resistance
Blood flowing through the renal circulation encounters high resistance in the (1) and then (2)
(1)afferent (2)efferent arterioles
What is the blood flow like inthe afferent and efferent arteriooles of the renal circulation?
has high resistance
Which has a high blood pressure? renal arteries or renal veins?
renal arteries
Which has a lower blood pressure, renal arteries or renal viens?
renal viens
What is the blood pressure in the renal arteries?
about 95 mm Hg
What is the blood pressure in the renal veins?
about 8 mm Hg or less
NAMe
the blood pressure here is about 95 mm Hg
the renal arteries
NAME
the blood pressure here is about 8 mm Hg or less
renal viens
What is the differ in blood pressure in the renal viens compared to the renal arteries?
(1)renal veins-less (8 mm Hg or less (2)renal arteries is 95 mm Hg
the renal blood pressure declines from (1)in the renal arteries to about (2) in the renal viens
(1)95 mm Hg (2)8 or less mm Hg
The renal blood pressure declines from 95 mm Hg in the (1)to about 8 or less mm Hg in the (2)
(1)renal arteries (2)renal veins
Each nephron has a region called the (1)
juxtaglomerular apparatus
NAME
each of these has a region called the juxtaglomerular apparatus
nephron
What is the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
is where the initial portion of its coiling DCT lies against the afferent arteriole feeding the glomerulus
NAME
this is where the inital portion of the its coiling DCT lies against the afferent arteriole feeding the glomerulus
juxtaglomerular apparatus
What does JG cells stand for?
juxtaglomerular cells
What are JG cells?
are enlarged smooth muscle cells w prominent secertory granules containing renin
NAME
these are enlarged smooth muscle cells w prominent secretory granule containing renin
JG cells
Where are JG cells found?
in the arteriloe walls of the juxtaglomerular apparatus
NAME
these are found in the arteriole walls of the juxtaglomerular apparatus
JG cells
what is macula densa?
is a group of tall, closely packed DCT cells that lie adjacent to JG cells
NAME
these are a group of tall, closely packed DCT cells that lie adajacent to JG cells
macula densa
What are mesangial cells?
surround the glomerular capillaries and seemginly part of the JGA have phaogcytic and contractile properites
surround the glomerular capillaries and seemginly part of the JGA have phaogcytic and contractile properites
mesaangial cells
Where is the filtration membrane located?
btwn the blood and the interior of the glomerular capsule
NAME
this lies btwn the blood and the interior of the glomerular capsule
filtration mebrane
what is the filtration membrane>
it is a porous membrane that allows free passage of water and soultes smaller than plasma proteins
NAME
it is a porous membrane that allows free passage of water and soultes smaller than plasma proteins
filtration mebrane
What are the (3)layers of the filtration membrane?
(1)the fenestrated endothelium of the glomerular capillaries (2)the visceral membrane of the glomerular capsule made of podocytes (3)the intervening basement membrane composed of the fused basal laminae of the other layers
NAME
this has three layers: (1)the fenestrated endothelium of the glomerular capillaries (2)the visceral membrane of the glomerular capsule made of podocytes (3)the intervening basement membrane composed of the fused basal laminae of the other layer
filtration membrane
NAME
in the filtration membrane, these allow for passage of all plasma components but not blood cells
capillary pores
in the filtration membrane, the capillary pores allow for (1)
passage of all plasma components but not blood cells
the filtration membrane also seems to confer (1)
eletrical selecivity on the filtration process
NAME
this also seems to confer eletrical selecivity on the filtration process
filtration process
What is the charge of most of the glycoprotiens in the filtration membrane?
negative
How does the filtration membrane confect eletrical selecivity?
by most the proteins are negativly charged (2)they repel other macromolecular anions and hinder thier passsage
NAME
this happens bc most of by most the proteins are negativly charged and they repel other macromolecular anions and hinder thier passsage
electrical selectivity in the filtration membrane
NAME
these organs consume 20 to 25 % of the body's oxygen
kidneys
How much total oxygen do the kidneys consume?
20 to 25%
What does filtrate contain?
everything found in the blood plasma except protiens
NAME
this contains everything found in the blood plasam except proteins
filtrate
What happens to filtrate by the time it reaches the collecting ducts?
it has lost most of its nutrient and ions and is now urine
NAME
when this has percolated into the collecting ducts, it has lost most of its water, nutrients, and ions, what remains is urine
filtrate
What is urine?
is mostly metabolic wastes and unneed substances
NAME
this is mostly metabolic wastes and unneeded substances
urine
How much do the kidneys process of blood-dervied flood a day?
about 180 L
NAME
this organ processes about 180 L of blood derived fluid daily
kidneys
How much urine actually leaves the body ?
1%
NAME
only about 1% of this actually leaves the body as this, and the rest returns to circulation
urine
What are (3)major processes of urine formation and adjustment of the blood composition?
(1)glomerular filtration by the glomeruli (2)tubular reabsorption (3)secretion in the renal tubules
NAME
this inolves three major processes: glomerular filtration by the glomeruli, tubular reabsorption, and secretion in the renal tubules
urine formation and adjustment of the blood compostion
What is the glomerular filtration?
is a passive, nonselective process in which the hydrostatic pressure forces fluids and soultes through the membrane
NAME
is a passive, nonselective process in which hydro pressure forces fluids and solultes through the membrane
glomerular filtration
NAME
this can be veiwed as a simple mechnical fibers
the glomeruli
Why can the glomeruli be viewed as simple mechincal fibers?
bc filtrate formation does not consume metabolic energy
T or F
filtrate formation does consume metabolic energy
false
Does filrate formation require metabolic energy?
no
Which is a much more efficient filter, glomerulus or other capillary beds?
glomerulus
Why is the glomerulus a more efficeint filter compared to other capillary beds? (2)
(1)its filtration membrane has a large surface area and is thousands of times more permeable to water and solutes (2)glomerular blood pressure is much more higher than in other capillary beds`
NAME
this is more more efficient filter because its filtration membrane has a large surface area nd is thousands of times more permeable to wter and solutes and glomerular blood pressure is much more higher than in othe capillary beds
glomerulus
What can of molecules can pass through the renal tubule?
molecules smaller than 3 nm in diamter such as water, glucose, amino acids, and nitrogenous bases
NAME
only molecules smaller than 3nm in diamter such as water, glucose, amino acids,and nitrogenous bases can pass through this
the renal tubule
Keeping the (1) in the capillaries helps to maintain th colloid osmotic pressure of the glomerular blood, preventing the losss of all water to the renal tubules
plasma proteins
NAME
this helps to maintian the coloid ostmoticp pressure of the glomerular blood, preventing the loss of all water to the renal tubules
the keeping of plasma protiens in the capillaries
What does the keeping of plasam proteins in the capillaries do?
helps to maintian the coloid ostmoticp pressure of the glomerular blood, preventing the loss of all water to the renal tubules
What is the NFP?
is resposnible for filrate formation and involves foreces acting at the glomerular bed
NAME
this is responsible for filtrate formation and inolves forces acting at the glomerular bed
NFP
What does NFP stand for?
net filtration pressure
What does HPg stand for?
glomerular hydrostatic pressure
What is HPg?
is the chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood and across the filtration membrane
NAME
this is the cheif force pushing water and solutes out of the blood and across the filtration mebrane
HPg
What are two forces oppose that drive fluids back into the glomerular capillaries the HPg? (2)
(1)OPg (2)HPc
NAME
this is opposed by two forces that drive fluids back into the glmoerular capillaries: OPg and HPc
HPg

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