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Glossary of Chapter 23 Digestive System

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NAME
this system takes in food, breaks down nutrient molecules, absorbs those molecules into the blood and then rids the body of the indigestible remains
digestive system
What are the two main groups of the digestive system? (2)
(1)those of the alimentary canal (2)accessary digestive organs
NAME
is made up of two groups of organs: those of the alimentary canal and the accessary digestive organs
Digestive system
The alimentary canal is also called the (1)
GI tract
the (1) is also called the GI tract
alimentary canal
What does the GI tract stand for?
the gastrointestinal tract
What is the GI tract?
is the continous muscular digestive tube that winds through the body
NAME
is the continous muscular digestive tube that winds through the body
GI tract
What does digests mean?
to break down into smaller fragmetns
NAME
means to break down into smaller fragments
digests
NAM
means that the digested fragments through the GI tract lining into the blood
absorbs
What does absorbs mean?
means that the digested fragments through the GI tract lining into the blood
What are the organs of the alimentary canal? (6)
(1)mouth (2)phanaryx (3)esophagus (4)stomach (5)small intestine (6)large intestine
NAME
this includes the mouth, phanaryx, esophagus, stomach, small intestines, and large intestines
alimentary canal
the (1) leads to the anus
large intestines
What are the accessary digestive organs?
(1)teeth (2)tongue (3)gallbladder (4)salivary glands (5)liver (6)pancreas
NAME
includes the teeth, tongue, gallbladder, salivary glands, liver, and pancreas
accessary digestive glands
the digestive system is often times viewed as one big (1)
disassembly line
The (1) is often viewed as one big diassembly line
digestive system
What are (6) essential activites of the digestive system?
(1)ingestion (2)propulsion (3)mechancial digestion (4)chemical digestion (5)absorption (6)defecation
What is ingestion?
taking food into the mouth
NAME
is taking food into mouth
ingestion
NAME
it's essential activites are ingestion, propulsion, mechanical digestion, chemical digestion, absorption, and defacation
ingestion
What is propulsion?
includes swallowing and peristalsis
NAME
includes swallowing and peristalsis
propulsion
NAME
are major means of propulsion, involves alternate waves of contraction and relaxation of muscles in the organ walls
peristalis
What is mechanical digestion?
is the physcial preparation of food for chemical digestion by enzymes
NAME
is the physical preparation of food for chemical digestion by enzymes
mechanical digestion
What is segmentation?
are rhythamic local constriction s of the intestine
NAME
are rhytamic local constriction of the intestine
segmentation
What can segmentation do?(2)
(1)mixes food w digestive juices (2)increases the efficiency of absorption by repeatedly moving different parts of the food mass over the intestinal wall
NAME
this mixes the food w digestive juices and increases the efficiency of absorption by repeatedly moving different parts of the food mass over the intestinal wall
segmentation
What is chemical digestion?
is a series of catabolic steps in which complex food molecules are broken down in thier chemical building blocks by enzyme secreted into the lumen of the alimentary canal
NAME
is a series of catabolic steps in which complex food molecules are broken down into thier chemical building blocks by enzymes secreted into the lumen of the alimentary canal
chemical digestion
What is defacation?
elimination of ingestible substances from the body via the anus in the form of fesus
NAME
is the elimination of ingestible substnaces from the body via the anus in the form of fesus
defacation
NAME
only this ingests things
mouth
NAME
only this defecates
large intestine
What provokes digestive activity? (2)
a range of mechanical and chemical stimuli
NAME
this is provoked by a range of mechanical and chemical stimuli
digestive activity
Controls of the digestive activity are both (1) and (2)
(1)extrinsic (2)intrinsic
Controls of the (1) are both extrinsic and intrinsic
digestive activity
What are two kinds of reflex activity occur?
(1)short and long reflexes
What are short reflexes?
are mediated entirely by the local plexuses in response to the GI tract stimuli
NAME
are mediated entirely by the local plexuses in response to the GI tract
short reflexes
WHat are long reflexes?
are intibiated by stimuli arising inside and outside of the GI tract
NAMe
are intiated by stimuli arising inside and outside of the GI tract and involve CNS centers and extrinsic autonomic nerves
long reflexes
Most digestive organ reside in the (1)
abdominopelvic cavity
T or F
most of the digestive organs reside in the abdominopelivic cavity
true
T or F
All ventral body cavites contain slippary serous membranes
true
All ventral body cavites contain slippary (1)
serous membranes
What is the peritoneum?
refers to the serous membran of the ventral cavity
NAME
is the serous membrane of the ventral cavity
peritoneum
What are the (2) types of peritoneum?
(1)viscreal (2)parietal
What is the viscreal peritoneum?
covers the external surfaces of the most digestive organs
NAME
this covers the external surfaces of most of the digestive organs
viscreal peritoneum
What is the parietal peritoneum?
lines the body walls
NAME
this lines the body walls
parietal peritoneum
What is the differ btwn the parietal peritoneum and the visceral peritoneum?
(1)parietal peritoneum-covers the external surfaces of most of the digestive organs (2)visceral peritoneum--that lines the body wall
Btwn the partial and visceral peritoneum is the (1)
pertioneal cavity
Btwn the (1) and (2) is the pertioneal cavity
(1)partial (2)visceral
What is the pertioneal cavity?
is a slitlike potential space containing fluid secreted by the serous membranes
NAME
is a slitlike potential space containing fluid secreted by the serous membranes
peritoneal cavity
What does the serous fluid do for the digestive organs?
lubricates the mobile digestive organs allowing them to gluide easily across one another and alongs the body wall as they carry out their digestive activies
NAME
this lubricates the mobile digestive organs allowing them to gluide easily across one another and along the body wall as they carry out thier digestive activites
serous fluid
What is mesentary?
is a double layer of peritoneum
NAME
is a double layer of peritoneum
mesentary
NAME
this provides routes for blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves to digestive viscrea, hold organs in place, and store fat
mesentary
What does the mesentary do? (3)
(1)provides routes for blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves digestive viscrea (2)hold organs in place (3)store fat
What are the retroperitoneal organs?
are the alimentary organs that are not suspended by a mesentary
NAME
are the alimentary organs that are not supended by a mesentary
retroperitoneal organs
What are the peritoneal organs?
are alimentary organs that are suspended in the mysentry and remain in the peritoneal cavity
NAME
are alimentary organs that are suspended in the mysentry and remain in the peritoneal cavity
peritoneal organs
What are the peritoneal organs? Give examples
(1)stomach
The stomach is a example of a (1) organ
peritoneal
What are some examples of the retroperitoneal organs?
(1)the large intestine (2)most parts of the pancreas
NAME
The large intestines and most parts of the pancreas are examples of this type of organ
retroperitoneal
Intraperitoneal organs are also called (1)
peritoneal organs
(1)organs are also called peritoneal organs
intraperitoneal organs
What is peritonitis?
inflammation of the peritoneum
NAME
is the inflammation of the peritoneum
peritonitis
What can cause peritonitis?
a peircing of an abdominal wound (2)from a perforating ulcer that leaks stomach juices into the paeritoneal cavity (3)appenditis
NAME
this can be caused by a peircing of an abdominal wound, from a perforating ulcer that leaks stomach juices into the peritoneal cavity, and appednitis
peritonitis
What are the four layers from the esphagus to the anal canal? (4)
(1)mucosa (2)submucosa (3)muscularis externa (4)serosa
NAME
has four layers: the mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa
the four layers from the esophagus to the anal canal
The mucosa is also called the (1)
mucous membrane
(1) is also called the mucous membrane
mucosa
What is the mucosa?
is the inner most layers consisting of a moist epihelial membrane that lines the alimentary canal lumen from the mouth to the anus
NAME
is the inner most layer consisting of a moist epithelial membrane that lines the alimentary canal lumen from the mouth to the anus
mucosa
what are the (3) major functions of the mucosa layer?
(1)secretion of mucus, digestive enzymes, and hormones (2)absorption of the end products of digestion into the blood (3)protection against infectious disease
NAME
this layers major functions include secretion of mucus, digestive enzymes, and hormones, absorption of the end products of digestion into the blood, and protection against infectious disease
the mucosa layer
What are the (3) sublayers of the mucosa layer?
(1)a lining epithelium (2)lamina propia (3)muscularis mucosae
NAME
consists of three sublayers: a lining epithelium, lamina propia, and a muscularis mucosae
the sublayers of the mucosa
What type of tissues does the epihtelium layer have?
has simple columnar rich in mucus-secreting Goblet cells
NAME
this sublayer of the digestive system has simple columnar rich in mucus-secreting Goblet cells
epithelium layer
What does the mucous produced by the Goblet cells do?
helps to prevent certain digesive organs from being digested by enzymes
NAME
this helps to prevent certain digestive organs from being digested by enzymes
mucous produced by goblet cells in the epithelium layer
What kind of tissue does the lamnia propia have?
loose areolar connective tissue
NAME
this sublayer in the digestive system is made up of loose areolar connective tissue
lamina propia
What does MALT stand for?
the mucosa associated lampthtic tissue
Describe the lamina propia?
(1)its capillaries noursish the epithelium and absorb digest nutrients (2)its assocaited nodules, part of the MALT helps to defend us against bacteria and other pathagens
NAME
this layer's capillaries nourish the epithelium and absorb digest nutrients, and its asssociated nodules, part of the MALT helps to defend us against bacteria
lamina propia
What is the muscularis mucosae?
is a scant layer of smooth muscle cells that produces local movements of the mucosa
NAME
is a scant layer of smooth mucles cells that produces local movements of the mucosa
muscularis mucosae
NAME
a example of this sublayer is the twitching of this muscle layer dislodges food particles that have adhered to the mucosa
muscularis mucosae
What type of tissue does the submucosa have?
dense connective tissue
NAME
this tissue is just external to the mucosa
submucosa
Where is the submucosa in relation to the other two layers?
is external to the mucosa
What is the submucosa?
is a moderatley dense connective tissue containing blood and lymphatic vessels, lympathoid folliceles, and nerve fibers
NAME
is a moderately dense connective tissue containing blood and lymphatic vessels, lympathoid follicles, and nerve fibers
submucosa
What enables the submucosa in the stomach regain its normal shape after temporarily storing a large meal
its supply of elastic fibers
The elastic fibers of the submucosa enables the stomach to (1)
regain its normal shape after temporarily storing a large meal
The (1) of the submucosa in the stomach enable it to regain its nromal shape temorparily after storing a large meal
elastic fibers
(1) is also called the muscularis
muscularis externa
the muscularis externa is also called the (1)
muscularis
What is the function of the muscularis? (2)
it is responisble for segmentation and peristalsis
NAME
is responsible for segmentation and peristalsis
muscularis externa
What type tissues doe the muscualris externa have?
the inner circular layer and an outer longitudinal layer of smooth muscle cells
NAME
this layer consists of a inner circular layer and an outer longitudinal layer of smooth muscle cells
muscularis externa
NAME LAYER
in several places along the tract, the circular layer thickens, forming sphinceters that act as valves to prevent backflow and control of food passage from one organ ot the next
muscularis externa
What is the serosa?
is the protective outermost layer of the intarperitoneal organs
NAME
is the protective outermost layer of the intareperitoneal organs
serosa
What is the serosa really?
the vesceral peritoneum
NAME
this is really refers to / is the vesceral peritoneum
serosa
What type of tissue does the serosa have?
areolar connective tissue covered w a single layer of squamous epihelia
NAME
this layer has areolar connective tissue covered w single layer of squamous epithlia
serosa
What is the adventitia?
is ordinary fibrous connective tissue that binds the esophagus to the surranding structures
NAME
is ordinary fibrous connective tissue that binds the esophagus to the surranding structures
adventita
What kind of tissue does the adventita have?
is ordinary fibrous connective tissue
The mouth is the only part of the alimentary canal that is inolved in (1)
ingestion
NAME
this is the only part of the alimentary canal involved in ingestion
the mouth
NAME
contains the releated accessary glands such as the teeth, salivary glands, and tongue
mouth
What does the saliva do in the mouth?
has enzymes that begin the process of chemical digestion
The (1) begins the propulsion process of swallowing which carries food through the pharnyx and esophagus to the stomach
tongue
the tongue begins the (1)process of swallowing which carries good through the pharanyx and esophagus to the stomach
propulsion
The mouth is also called the (1) or (2)
(1)oral cavity (2)buccal cavity
The (1) is also called the oral cavity or buccal cavity
mouth
THe mouth is also called the (1) or buccal cavity
oral cavity
The mouth is also called the oral cavity or (2)
buccal cavity
What is the mouth?
is a mucosa lined cavity
NAME
is a mucosa lined cavity
mouth
The anterior opening of the mouth is called the (1)
oral orfice
What is the oral orfice?
the anterior opening of the mouth
The oral cavity is continous w the (1)
oropharnynx
The (1) is continous w the oropharnyx
oral cavity
What kind of tissues lines the walls of the mouth? and what does it help to do?
it is lined w startifed squamous eptihleium which can with stand considerable friction
NAME
this is lined w startified squamous epithleium that can with stand considerable friction
the walls of the mouth
The tongue is slightly (1) for extra protection against abrasion during eating
kerantinized
NAME
this slightly keratnized for extra protection against abrasion during eating
tongue
Why is the tongue slightly kerantized?
for extra protection against abrasion during eating
How does the oral mucosa respond to injury?
by producing antimicrobal peptides called defensins
What are defensins?
function to call defensive cells into the mouth for battle
NAME
are antimicrobal peptides that are produced in response to injury
defensins
What kind of tissues does the lips and cheeks have?
core of skeletal muscles covered externally covered by skin
NAME
has a core of skeletal muscles covered externally covered by skin
lips and cheeks
What muscle forms the lips?
orbicularis oris
What is the orbicularis oris?
is the muscles that forms the lips
NAME
is the muscles that forms the cheeks
the bucinators
what is the bucinator?
is the muscle that forms the cheeks
What do the lips and cheeks do?
help keep food btwn the teeth when we chew and play a small role in speech
NAME
these help to keep food btwn the teeth when we chew and play a small role in speech
lips and cheeks
What is vetibule?
is the recess bounded externally by the lips and cheeks internally by the gums and teeh
NAME
is the recess bounded externally by the lips and cheeks internally by the gums and teeth
vestible
What is the oral cavity proper?
is the area that lies within the teeth and gums
NAME
is the area that lies within the teeth and gum
oral cavity proper
What is the red margin?
is the reddened area where one applies lipstick or lands a kiss
NAME
is the reddened area where one applies lipstick or lands a kiss
red margin
Why does the red margin appear red?
bc this transtional zone is poorly keratinized skin and transuluscent allowing the red color of blood in the underlying capillaries to show through
What is the labial frenulum?
is a mediain fold that joins the internal aspect of each lip to the gum
NAME
is the median fold that joins the internal aspect of each lip to the gum
labial frenulum
What is the palate?
bone that forms the roof of the mouth
NAME
bone that forms the roof of the mouth
palate
What are the two parts of the palate?
(1)hard (2)soft palate
What is the hard palate?
forms the rigid surface against which the tongue forces food during chewing
NAME
forms the rigid surface against which the tongue forces food during chewing
the hard palate
What is the soft palate?
is a mobile fold formed mostly of skeletal muscle
NAME
is a mobile fold formed mostly of skeletal muscle
soft palate
What does the soft palate do when we swallow?
rise reflexively to close off the nasopharnyx
NAME
when we swallow this rises reflexivly to close off the nasopharnyx
the soft palate
What is the tongue?
occupies most of the mouth and fills most of the oral caivty when the mouth is closed
NAME
occupies most of the mouth and fills most of the oral cavity when the mouth is closed
tongue
The tongue is composed of interlacing bundles of (1)
skeletal muscle fibers
NAME
is composed of interlacing bundles of skeletal muscle fibers
tongue
What does the tongue do during chewing?
it grips the food and constantly repostions it bwn the teeth
NAME
during chewing, this grips the food and constantly repositions it btwn the teeth
tongue
What is the bolus?
is a compact mass that is formed when the tongue mixes food w saliva
the tongue also mixes food w salvia and forms it into a compact mass called (1)
bolus
What is the filform papillae?
gives the tongue surface a roughness that aids in licking semisold foods
NAME
gives the tongue surface a roughness that aids in licking semisold foods
filform papillae
What is fungiform papillae?
is mushroom shaped that each has a vascular core that gives it's reddish hue
NAME
is a mushroom shaped that each has a vascular core that gives it's reddich hue
fungiform papillae
Both the (1) and (2)house taste buds
fungiform and circumvallate papillae
Where are the taste buds on the tongue?
in the fungiform and circumvallate papillae
Circumvallate papillae are also called (1)
vallate papillae
(1) are also called the vallate paillae
circumvallate papillae
What are the circumvallate papillae?
are located in a V shaped row at the back of the tongue
NAME
are located in a V-shaped row at the back of the tongue
circumvallate papillae
T or F
the papillae are the taste buds
false
What is the sulcus terminalis?
is a groove that distniguishes the anterior two thirds of the tongue
NAME
is a groove that distnigushes the anterior two thirds of the tongue
sulcus terminalis
T or F
the muscosa covering the root of the tongue lacks papillae
true
A number of glands assocaited w the oral caivty secrete (1)
salvia
What are the salivary glands?
secrete salvia
NAME
these glands secrete salvia
salivary glands
What are the functions of the salvia? (4)
(1)cleanses the mouth (2)disolves food chemicals so that they can be tasted (3)moistens food and aids in compacting it into bolus (4)contains enzymes that begin the chemical breakdown of starchy foods
NAME
this cleanses the mouth, disolves food chemicals so that they can be tasted, moistens food and aids in compacting it into bolus, and contains enzymes that begin the chemical breakdown of starchy foods
salvia
Where is most of the salvia produced?
by the extrinsic salivary glands
What are the extrinsic salviary glands?
produce most of the salvia
NAME
produce most of the saliva
extrnistic salviary glands
the intrinsic salviary glands are also called the (1)
buccual glands
(1) the are also called the buccual glands
intrinisic salviary glands
NAME
these glands are scattered throughout the oral cavity mucosa
buccal glands
The buccal glands are scattered throughout the (1)
oral cavity mucosa
What is the mumps?
is the inflammation of the parotid glands
NAME
is the inflammation of the partoid glands
mumps
What causes the mumps?
mumps virus
NAME
this is caused by the mumps virus
mumps
What are the two kinds of secretory cells that make of the salviary glands?
(1)serous cells (2)mucous cells
NAME
this gland is composed of two types of secretory cells:serous cells and mucous cells
salviary glands
What are serous cells?
produce a watery secretion contaning enzymes, ions, and tiny bit of mucin
NAME
produce a watery secretion containing enzymes, ions, and tiny bit of mucin
serous cells
What are mucous cells?
produce mucus
NAME
produces a mucus
mucous cells
What is mucus?
a stringy viscous solution
NAME
is a stringy viscous solution
mucus
NAME
this gland contains only serous cells
parotid glands
What kind of cells do the parotid glands contian?
only serous cells
NAME (2)
both of these two glands contain serous and mucous cells
(1)submandibular glands (2)buccual glands
what kinds of cells do the submandibular and buccal glands have? (2)
(1) serous (2)mucous cells
What kinds of cells do the sublingual glands have?
mostly mucous cells
NAME
this glands mostly contain mucous cells
sublingual glands
What is the compostion of the saliva?
largely water -- 97% to 99% and is highly acidic
NAME
this largely water (97% to 99%) and is highly acidic
salvia
What is mucin?
forms thick mucous that lubricates the oral cavity and hyrdrates foodstuff when desolved in water
NAME
when this is disolved inwater, it forms a thick mucous that lubricates the oral cavity and hyrdrates foodstuff when desolved in water
mucin
What parts of the saliva protect the oral caivty against mirobes?
(1)IgA antibodies (2)lysozyme (3)a cyande compound (4)defensins
NAME
is composed of IgA antibodies, lysozyme, a cyandie compound, and defensins
saliva
NAME
function to call defensive cells into the mouth for battle
defensins
T or F
the intrinsic salivary glands secrete salvia continousaly in amounts just sufficeint to keep the mouth moist
true
What primarly controls salivation?
the parasympathetic division
The (1) division of the nervous system primarly controls salivation
paprasympathetic
The parasympathetic division of the nervous system primarly controls (1)
salivation
How does natural bacteria at the back of the tongue help the digestive system?
convert food derived nitrates in saliva into nitrates are converted into nitric oxide in an acid environment
NAME
these convert food derived nitrates in salvia into nitrates are converted into nitric oxide in an acid anvironment
natural bateria at the back of the tongue
T or F
sometimes the just the sight or smell of food can trigger salivation
true
What does the sympathetic division cause in the oral cavity?
release of a thick mucin rich salvia and extreme activtion it causes dry mouth
NAME
this nervous system can cause the release of a thick mucin rich salvia, and in exterem activation it causes dry mouth
sympathetic division
From the mouth, bolus passes posteriorly into the (1) and then (2)
(1)oropharnyx (2)larynopharnyx
What is the esophagus?
a mascular tube that is collapsed when it is not involved in food propulsion

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