Glossary of Chapter 18 AP Psychology Vocabulary
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- Adjusting one’s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.
- Social Facilitation
- Improved performanc of tasks in the presence of others; occurs with simple or well-learned tasks but not with tasks that are difficult or not yet mastered.
- Social Loafing
- The tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when indivudally accountable.
- The loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
- Group Polarization
- The enhancement of a group\'s prevailing attitudes through discussion within the group.
- The mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives.
- An unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and predisposition to discriminatory action.
- \"Us\", people with whom one shares a common identity.
- \"Them\", those perceived as different or apart from a group.
- Ingroup Bias
- The tendency to favor one\'s own group.
- Scapegoat Theory
- The theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame.
- Just-World Phenomenon
- The tendency of people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
- Any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy.
- Frustration-Aggression principle
- The principle that frustration- the blocking if an attempt to achieve some goal-creates anger, which can generate aggression.
- A perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas.
- Social Trap
- A situation in which conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior.
- Mere Exposure Effect
- The phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking them.
- Passionate love
- An aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship.
- Companionate Love
- The deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined.
- A condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it.
- Revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others.
- Unselfish regard for the welfare of others.
- Bystander Effect
- The tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to aid if other bystanders are present.
- Social Exchange Theory
- The theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs.
- Super Ordinate Goals
- Shared goals that override differences among people and require cooperation.
- Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction-- a strategy designed to decrease international tensions.
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