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Glossary of Chapter 16: Treatment of Psychological Disorders

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Psychotherapy
the treatment of psychological disorders using psychological methods
Psychiatrists
medical doctors who specialize in the treatment of medical disorders; use biological treatments and psychotherapy
Psychologists
people who practice some form of psychotherapy; many have Ph.D's; cannot prescribe medication
Psychoanalysis
method of psychotherapy; seeks to help clients gain insight by recognizing, understanding, and dealing with the unconscious thoughts and emotions presumed to cause problems
Client-Centered Therapy
developed by Carl Rogers; assumes client has a drive toward self-actualization; based on relationship between client and therapist; client learns on their own
Unconditional Positive Regard
attitude of total acceptance and respect that a therapist must have toward a client to create a therapeutic environment
Empathy
important feature of client-centered therapy; therapist must see the world as the client sees it
Reflection
method used in client-centered therapy; therapist restates or paraphrases a client's responses to show that he is listening
Congruence
refers to a consistency in a therapist's feelings and behavior toward the client
Gestalt Therapy
a form of humanistic treatment developed by Frederick Perls; takes an active role in helping client
Behavior Therapy
uses the principles of classical conditioning to change behavior by helping or teaching clients to act or think differently
Cognitive-Behavior Therapy
attempts to pin-point thought patterns that lead to depression, anger or anxiety
Systematic Desensitization
behavioral therapy method based on classical conditioning that is especially effective in the treatment of phobias
Modeling
behavior modification method in which a client can learn new behaviors by watching the behavior of others and then practicing these behaviors
Assertiveness and Social Skills Training
set of behavioral methods used to teach clients how to be more comfortable, expressive, and effective in social situations
Positive Reinforcement
anything that increases the likelihood
that a person will repeat a behavior that elicited the positive consequence
Token Economy
based on principles of operant conditioning; used by behavior therapists in institutional settings; client must display certain behaviors to receive tokens
Extinction
occurs when stimuli that previously elicited a conditioned response no longer cause that response; result of the breakdown of a relationship on which the original conditioning was based
Flooding
behavior therapy technique used to treat phobias, client is placed in a feared but harmless situation; realizes there is no reason to be afraid
Aversive Conditioning
behavior therapy based on classical conditioning; negative behaviors must be eleminated, at least partially, before new can be learned; associates negative behavior with negative response
Punishment
behavior modification method; negative consequence that follows a behavior; last resort to eliminate behavior problems
Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy
form of cognitive-behavior therapy; developed by Albert Ellis; client taught to recognize self-defeating thought patterns and replace them with constructive thoughts
Cognitive Therapy
type of cognitive restructuring in which a client sees that his depression is due in part to erroneous and illogical thought patterns
Group Therapy
psychotherapy conducted with groups of about 5-10 people; therapist observes clients interacting with one another in real social situations; clients feel less alone when they realize others feel as they do
Family Therapy
involves 2 or more individuals from the same family; goal is to create family harmony by helping each family member understand each other
Couple's Therapy
focuses on communication between partners
Empirically Supported Therapies (ESTs)
therapies whose effectiveness has been validated by controlled experimental research
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
involves passing electric currents though the brain; used to treat depression when other treatments have failed; only applied to one hemisphere along with extreme muscle relaxant
Psychosurgery
involves destroying a very small amount of brain tissue to alleviate psychological disorders; used as a last resort in treating emotional problems
Neuroleptic Drugs
used to treat severe psychopathology; effective in reducing hallucinations, delusions, paranoid suspiciousness, and incoherence; side effects: tardive dyskinesia
Antidepressants
increases levels of seratonin and norepinephrine; useful in treating depression; includes monoamine oxidase inhibitors, tricylic antidepressants, and fluoxetine
Anxiolytics
tranquilizers such as Librium and Valium; used to reduce anxiety, tension, and in some cases agoraphobia (Xanax); can be addictive and should not be combined with alcohol
Community Psychology
attempts to minimize or prevent psychological disorders; attempt to eliminate causative factors of underlying psychological problems; early recognition of psychological problems and intervention designed to prevent problems from becoming worse
Eclectic approach
with this approach, therapists are not locked into one form of psychotherapy, but draw on whatever combination seems best suited to a client's need.
transference
psychoanalytic term for a patient's redirecting emotions from other relationships to their analyst.
Meta-analysis
procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies
Psychopharmacology
Study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior

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