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Glossary of Chapter 16:Endocrine system

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what is the endocrine system?
the secound great control system that interacts with the nervous system to coordinate and integrate the activity of body cells
NAME
is the secound greatest control system that interacts w the nervous system to coordinate and integrate the activtiy of body cells
endocrine system
T or F
the means and control of the endocrine system do not very different from those of the nervous system
false
What are some of the differ btwn the nervous and endocrine system?
(1)the nervous system regulates the actvity of muscles and glands via electrochemical impulses delivered by neurons and those organ respond w/in milllisecounds (2)the endocrine system infuleucnes metabolic activity by means of hormones and responses typically occur after a lag period of secounds or even days, but once intiated these responses tend to be more prolonged than those induced by the nervous system
NAME
regulates the activity of muscles and glands via electrochemical impulses delivered by neurons and those organs respond w/in millisecounds
nervous system
NAME
this system infleucnes metabolic activity by means of hormones and responses to hormones typically occur after a lag period of secounds or even days. Furthermore, those responses tend to be more prolonged than those induced by the nervous syst
endocrine system
what are hormones?
are chemical messengers released into the blood to be transported throughout the body
NAME
are chemical messengers released into the blood to be transported throughout the body
hormones
What are (2) major processes controled and integrated by hormones?
(1)reproduction (2)growth
What is endocrinology?
is the scientific study of hormones and the endocrine system
NAME
is the scientific study of homrones and the endocrine system
endocrinology
What are two kinds of glands?
(1)endocrine (2)exocrine
What are exocrine glands?
produce nonhormonal substnaces such as sweat and salvia and have ducts through which substances are routed to a membrane surface
NAME
produce nonhormonal substances such as sweat and salvia and have ducts through which substances are routed to a membrane surface
exocrine glands
What are endocrine glands?
are ductless glands that produce hormones
NAME
are ductless glands that produce hormones
endocrine glands
Endocrine glands are typically have a rich (1)receives thier hormones
vascular and lymphatic drainage
NAME
are typically vascular and lymphatic drainage
endocrine glands
Most of the hormones-producing cells in endocrine glands are arranged in (1)
cords and branching networks
NAME
most of the hormone producing cells in the (2) are arranged in cord and branching networks
endocrine glands
What are the endocrine glands? (9)
(1)parathroid (2)pituitary (3)thyroid (4)adrenal (5)pineal (6)thymus glands (7)pancreas (8)gonads (9)hypothalamus
NAME
includes the pancreas, and gonads,hypothalamus, parathroid, pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, pineal, and thymus glands
endocrine glands
What are the (3) major endocrine glands?
(1)pancreas (2)gonads (3)hypothalamus
NAME
is considered a neuroendocrine organ
hypothalamus
The hypothalmus is considered a (1)
neuroendocrine organ
T or F
local hormones are considered part of the endocrine system
false
Why are local hormones not considered part of the endocrine system?
bc hormones are long distance chemical singals
What are two kinds of local hormones?
(1)autocrines (2)paracrines
What are autocrines?
are chemicals that exert thier effects on the same cells that secrete them
NAME
are chemicals that exert thier effects on the same cells that secrete them
autocrines
NAME
include autocrines, and paracrines
local hormones
NAME
a example of this homrones is when certain prostaglandins released by smooth muscle cells cause the smooth muscle cells to contract
autocrines
What are paracrines?
act locally but affect cell types other than those releasing the paracrine chemicals
NAME
act locally but affect cell types other than those releasing the paracrine chemicals
paracrines
What is the chemical def of a hormones?
are chemical substances secreted by cells into the extracellular fluids that regulate the metabolic function ofother cells in the body
NAME
are chemical substances secreted by cells into the extracellular fluids that regulate the metabolic function of other cells in the body
hormones
How can hormones be classified chemically? (3)
(1)amino acids (2)steriods (3)eicosanoids
Most hormones are (1) based
amino acid
Steriods are synthesized from (1)
cholestral
NAME
are synthesized from cholestral
steriods
what are the only two types of steriods produced by the endocrine system?
(1)gonadal (2)adrenocortical
NAME
include gonadal and adrenocortical
steriod hormones
what are some types of eicosanoids? (2)
(1)leukotrienes (2)prostaglandins
NAME
this types of homrones include leukotrienes, and prostaglandins
eicosanoids
What are eicosanoids?
are local hormones that are biologically active lipids released by nearly all cell membranes
NAME
are local hormones that are biologically active lipids released by nearly all cell membranes
eicosanoids
What are leukotrienes?
are signaling chemicals taht mediate inflammation and some allergic reactions
NAME
are signaling chemicals that mediate inflammation and some allergic reactions
leukotrienes
What are prostaglandins?
have multiple targets and effects ranging from raising blood pressure and increasing the expulsive uterine contractions of birth to enhancing blood clotting, pain, and inflammation
NAME
have multiple targets and effects ranging from raising blood pressure and increasing the expulsive uterine contractions of birth to enhancing blood clotting, pain, and inflammation
prostaglandins
T or F
eicosanoids fit the true role of circulating hormones
False
Do eicosanoids fit the true role of circulating homrones?
no
A given hormone influences the activity of only certain tissue cells called (1)
target cells
Hormones bring about thier characteristic effects on target cells by (1)
either decrease or increase the rates of normal cellular processes
How do hormones bring about thier characteristic effects on target cells ?
by either decreasing or increasing the rates of normal cellular processes
How does a hormonal stimulus typically produce one or more following changes? (5)
(1)alters plasma membrane premeatbility or membrane potential or both by opening or closing ion channels (2)stimulates synthesis of protiens or regulatory molecules such as enzymes w/in the cell (3)activates or deactivates enzymes (4)induces secretory activity (5)stimulates mitosis
What are two main mechanisms that account for how a hormone communicates w its target cell?
(1)how a hormone receptor binding is harnessed to the intracellular machinary needed for hormone actin (2)one or more secound messengers
Why do amino based hormones use secound messengers?
bc proteins and peptides cannot penetrate the plasma membrane
How do amino acids based hormones exert thier signaling effect when protiens and polypeptides cannot cross the plasma membrane?
2nd messengers
What is a secound messenger?
exert a hormones singal when a hormone binds to the receptors on the plasma membrane
Give a ex of 2nd messenger?
cyclic AMP
NAME
a example of this is cyclic AMP
2nd messenger
What are (3) plasma membrane components that interact to determine intracellular levels of cAMP?
(1)a hormone receptor (2)a singal tranducer (a G protien) (3)an effector enzyme (adenylate cyclase)
What activates the G protien?
GDP
W/ amino acid based hormones the first messenger binds to the receptor causing it to (1)
to change shape and bind to a inactive G protien
NAME
this activates the G protien
GDP
How does the second messenger mechanisms of amino acids based hormones work? (5)
(1)the first messenger binds to the receptor causing it change shape and bind to a inactive G protien (2)the G protien is activated by GDP (3)G protien binds to and activates the enzyme adenylate cyclase and the G protien is displaced by high energy compound GTP(4)the activated cyclase generates the 2nd messenger cAMP from ATP (5)cAMP triggers a cascade of chemical reactions in which in one or more enzymes called protien kinases are activated
what does GTP stand for?
Guanosine triphosphate
What is GTP?
deactivates the G protien
NAME
deactiavates the G protien
GTP
what is GDP?
activates the G protien
for amino-based hormones, the activate G protien binds to and activates the enyzyme, (1)
adenylate cyclase
w amino acid based homrones, the actiavted adenylate cyclase generates the (1)
the 2nd messenger from ATP
w amino based hormones, the (1)generates the 2nd messenger from ATP
activated adenylate cyclase
w amino acid based hormones, cAMP can trigger a cascade of chemical reactions in which one or more enzymes called (1) are activated
protien kinases
w amino acid based hormones, (1) can trigger a cascade of chemical reactions in which one or more enzymes called protien kinases are activated
cAMP
each activated adenylae cyclase generates a large number of (1)
cAMP molecules
t or f
a receptor binding of a single hormone molecule could generate millions of final product molecules
true
the sequence of reactions set up into motion by cAMP depends on (1)
type of target cell
what is phospohodiesterase?
is intracellular enzyme that rapidly degrades cAMP
NAME
is a intracellular enzyme that rapidly degrades cAMP
phosphodiesterase
Why is it good thing that phosphoiesterase degrades cAMP?
bc cont production of hormones prompts conted cellular activity
t or f
bc of the amplifiaction effect, most hormones only need to be present briefly to cause the desired results
True
Bc of the (1), most hormones only need to be present to cause the desired results
amplification effect
T or F
some hormones act through a different 2nd messenger other than cAMP--Ca
true
What is the other 2nd messenger that some hormones act through?
Ca
what is PIP2?
is a plasma membrane phoshpolipod that is split into DAG and IP3 by phospholipase
during the PIP-calcium signal mechanism, the actiavted G protien binds and activates membrane bound (1)
phospholipase
During the PIP-calcium signal mechanism, phospholipase splits the plasma membrane phospholipid called the (1) into (2) and (3)
(1)PIP2 (2)DAG (3)IP3
What are the 2nd messengers for the PIP-CA signal mechanism? (2)
(1)DAG (2)IP3
NAME
examples are DAG and IP3
are 2 messengers for the PIP-Ca mechanims
NAME
is a plasma membrane phospholipid that is split into IP3 and DAG by phospholipase
PIP2
What does DAG stand for?
diacyglycerol
What does IP3 stand for?
inositol trphosphate
what are the steps for PIP-Ca mechanism? (6)
(1)hormone docking on the receptor causes it to bind to the nearby inactive G protien (2)the G protien is activated by GTP and displaced by GDP (3)the activated G-protien then binds and activates membrane bound phospholipase and the G protien becomes inactive (4)Phospholipase splits a plasma mebrane phospholipid called PIP2 into DAG and IP3 and both of these messengers acts as 2nd messengers (5)DAG activates specfic protien kinases and IP3 triggers the release of Ca2+ from the ER and other storage sites (6)the liberated Ca2+ takes on the 2nd messenger role, then once Ca2+ binds to calmodulin, enzymes are activated that amplify the cellular response
DAG activates (1)
specfic protien kinases
NAME
this 2nd messenger activates specic protien kinases
DAG
NAME
this 2nd messenger triggers the release of Ca2+ from the er and other intracellular storage sites
IP3
IP3 triggers the release of (1)from the er or other intracellular storage sites
Ca2+
How are two ways that Ca2+ takes on a 2nd messenger role in the PIP-Ca mechanism?
(1)directly altering the activity of specfic enzymes and plasma membrane Ca2+ channels or (2)binding to the intracellular regulatory protien calmodulin
by either directly altering the activity of specfic enzymes and plasma membrane Ca2+ channels or binding to the intracellular regulatory protien calmodulin

are two ways that (1) acts like a 2nd messenger in the PIP-Ca mechanism
Ca2+
what is calmodulin?
is a intracellular regulatory protien
NAME
is a intracellular regulatory protien
calmodulin
T or F
some other acid based hormones may act on thier target cells through different mechanisms such as cGMP
true
Some other acid based hormones may act on thier target cells through their target cells through different mechanisms such as (1)
cGMP
Give a example of one acid based hormone that does not work w the help of 2nd messengers?
insulin
Insuldin is a example of a hormone that does not (1)
work w the help of a 2nd messenger
how does the insulin work? (2)
the insulin receptor isa tyrosin kinase enzyme that is activated by autophosphorylation when insulin binds (2)the activated receptor provides docking sites for intracellular relay protiens that in turn initiate a series of protien phosphorylation that trigger specfic cells responses
T or F
steriod hormones cannot diffuse into thier target cells
false
Can steriod hormones diffuse into thier target cells?
yes
hormone binds to a DNA assocaited (1) for it. the only exception to this is (2)
(1)receptor protien (2)thryoid hormone
How is the thyroid hormone bind to DNA differntly?
by the binding of the hormone to the receptor protien causing a gene to turn on that prompts the transcription of DNA to produce RNA
T or F
in order for a target cell to respond to a hormone, the cell must have a specfic protein receptors on the plasma membrane
true
in order for a target cell to respond to a hormone, the cell must have a (1)
specfic protein receptors on the plasma membrane
Hormones are (1) rather than informational molecules
molecular triggers
NAME
are molecular triggers are molecular triggers rather than informational molecules
hormones
What are the (3) factors that determine target cell activation by hormone-receptor actiavtion?
(1)blood levels of the homrone (2)relative numbers of receptors for that hormone on or in the target cells (3)affinity of the bond btwn the hormone and the receptor
What does affinity mean?
strength
NAME
means strength
affinity
what is up regulation?
is the phenomenon in which target cells form more receptors in response to rising blood levels of the specfic hormones to which they respond
NAME
is the phenomenon in which target cells form more receptors in response to rising blood levels of the specfic hormones to which they respond
up regulation
What is down regulation?
is when prolonged exposure to high hormone concentrations dsensitizes the target cells, so that they respond less vigorously to hormone stimulation
NAME
is when prolonged exposure to high hormone concentrations dsensitizes the target cells, so that they respond less vigorously to hormone stimulation
down regulation
down regulation involves the (1)
loss of receptors
down regulation can prevent the (1)
the target cells from overreacting to presistently high hormone levels
NAME
involves the loss of receptors and can prevent the target cells from overreacting to presistently high hormone levels
down regulation
NAME
influence the number and affinity not only thier own receptors but also of the receptors that respond to other hormones
hormones
T or F
hormones influence the number and affinity not only thier own receptors but also of the receptors that respond to other hormones
true
NAME
are potent chemicals, and can exert profound effects on thier target organs at very low concentrations
hormones
What are two ways that hormones that circulate the blood? (2)
(1)free (2)bound to a protien carrier
In general what type of homrones are circulate through the blood by a protien carrier?
lipid souble hormones (steroids and thyroid hormones)
What does the concentration of a circulating hormone in a blood affect? (2)
(1)its rate of release (2)the speed at which it is inactivated and removed from the body
NAME
this reflects the hormones rate of release and the speed at which it is inactivated and removed from the body
concentration of a circulating hormone
How are most hormones removed from the body?
the kidneys or liver
Some hormones are rapidly (1) but most are removed from the blood by the kidneys or liver
enzymes
What is a half-life?
the length of time a hormone remains in the blood from one min to 30 mins
NAME
the length of time a hormone remains in the blood from one min to 30 mins
half life
What hormone has the shortest half-life?
water soluble hormones
Water soluble hormones have the shorest (1)
half life
T or F
the time required for a hormone effects to appear does not vary greatly
false
describe how long its takes to see the affect of a hormone
some hormones provoke target organ respones immediatly, while others particulary the steriod hormones require hours or days for thier effects to be seen
T or F
the effects of a hormone may disappear rapidly as blood levels drop or they may presist for hours after very low hormone levels have been reached
true
What are the different types of hormone interaction? (3)
(1)permissiveness (2)synergism (3)antagonism
NAME
include permisssiveness, synergism, and antagonism
hormone interaction
What is permisssiveness?
is the situation when one hormone cannot exert its full effects w/out another hormone being present
NAME
is the situation when one hormone cannot exert its full effects w/out another hormone being present
permissiveness
What is synergism?
occurs in situations where more than one hormone produces the same effects at the target cell and their combined effects are amplified
NAME
occurs in situations where more than one hormone produces the same effects at the target cell and their combined effects are amplified
synergism
Give a exmaple of permissiveness?
for normal timely development of reproductive structures, w/out thyroid hormone, reproductive structure system development is delayed
NAME
for normal timely development of reproductive structures, w/out thyroid hormone, reproductive structure system development is delayed
permissiveness
NAME
a example is when both glucagon and epinephrine cause the liver to release glucose to the blood when they act together
synergism
What is antagonism?
is when one hormone opposes the action of another hormone
NAME
is when one hormone opposes the action of anotehr hormone
antagonism
What is insulin?
lowers the blood suger levels
NAME
this lowers the blood suger levels
insulin
What is glucagon?
acts to raise blood sugar levels
NAME
acts to raise blood sugar levels
glucagon
the synthesis and release of most hormones are regulated by some type of (1)
negative feedback system
What is negative feeback system? (2)
is when hormone secretion is triggered by some internal or external stimulation (2) as the hormone levels rise, they cause the target organ effects and inhibit further hormone release
NAME
is when hormone secretion is triggered by some internal or external stimulation and as the hormone levels rise, they cause the target organ effects and inhibit further hormone release
negative feedback system
What stimulates endocrine glands to release and stimulate hormones? (3)
(1)humoral stimluli (2)neural stimuli (3)hormonal stimuli
Endocrine glands are (1) by thee major facors:humoral, neural, and hormonal.
to release and stimulate thier hormones
What is humoral stimuli?
is when endocrine glands secrete their hormones in direct responses to chnaging blood levels and certain ions and nutrients
NAME
is when endocrine glands secrete thier hormones in direct response to changing blood levels and certain ions and nutrients
humoral stimuli
How do u tell the difference btwn humoral and hormonal stimuli?
by the word humor in humoral refers to various body fluids such as blood, bile, and others
What does humor mean?
refers to the various body fluids like blood, and bile.
NAME
refers to various body fluids like blood, and bile
humor
NAME
is the simplist of tthe endocrine control system
humoral stimuli
NAME
a example of this is when cells of parathryoid glands monitor blood Ca2+ levels, and when they detect a decline from a normal values,, they secrete parathyroid horomones
humoral stimuli
What are some hormones are released in response to humoral stimuli? (3)
(1)PTH (2)insulin (3)aldosterone
PTH, insulin, and aldosterone are released in response to this stimuli
humoral stimuli
What neural stimuli?
is when nerve fibers stimulate hormone release
NAME
is when nerve fibers stimulate hormone release
neural stimuli
What is the classic example of neural stimuli?
is when the sympathetic nervous system stimulation of the adrenal medulla to release catecholamines during periods of stress
NAME
is when the sympathetic nervous system stimulation of the adrenal medulla to release catecholamines during periods of stress
neural stimuli
What is a hormonal stimuli?
is when many endocrine glands release thier hormones in response to hormones produced by other endocrine organs
NAME
is when many endocrine glands release thier hormones in response to hormones produced by other endocrine organs
hormonal stimuli
NAME
a example of this stimuli is when the release of most anterior pituitary hormones is regulated by releasing and inhibiting hormones produced by the hypothalamus
hormonal stimuli
Give a example of hormonal stimuli?
is when the release of most anterior pituitary hormones is regulated by releasing and inhibiting hormones produced by the hypothalamus
What organ produced insulin?
pancreas
The pancreas produces (1)
insulin
T or F
endocrine organs only respond to one stimuli
False
How many stimuli can some endocrine glands respond to?
multiple
Both turn on factors (1,2,3)and "turn off" factors"(4) can be modified by the nervous system
(1)hormmonal (2)humoral (3)neural (4)feedback inhibition and others
Both turn on factors (hormonal, humoral, and neural) and "turn off" factors can be modified by the (1)
nervous system
W/out "turn off" and "turn on", the endocrine system would be like a (1)
thermostat
T or F
the nervous system can in, certain cases, override normal endocrine controls as needed to mantain homestasis
true
When the body is under severe stress, why do blood sugar levels rise?
bc the hypothalamus and sympathetic nervous system centers are strongly activated
The pituitary gland can also be called the (1)
hypophysis
The (1) can also be called the hypophysis
pituitary gland
What is the pituitary gland?
is securaly seated in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone and secretes at least nine hormones
NAME
is securaly seated in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone and secretes at least nine hormones
pituitary gland
Where is the pituitary gland located?
is securaly seated in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone
What does the pituitary gland look like?
is set to be a pea on a stalk
NAME
is said to look like a pea on a stalk
pituitary gland
What is the infundibiulum?
is the stalk part of the pituitary gland that connects the gland to the hypothalamus superiorly
NAME
is the stalk part of the pituitary gland that connects the gland to the hypothalamus superiorly
infundibiulum
NAME
this has two major lobes: the posterior lobe and the anterior lobe
pituitary gland
What are the two major lobes of the pituitary glands?
(1)the anterior lobe (2)posterior lobe
Describe the two major lobes of the pituitary glands?
one is made of neural tissue and the other glandular tissue
What is the posterior pituitary lobe?
composed largely of pituicytes and nerve fibers
NAME
is composed largely of pituicytes and nerve fibers
posterior pituitary lobe
What is the function of the posterior pituitary lobe?
releases neurohormones thus acting as a hormone-storage area
NAME
releases neurohormones thus acting as a hormone-storage area
the posterior pituitary lobe
Is the posterior pituitary lobe considered a true endocrine gland? if no explain why.
no bc its a hormone storage area
T or F
the posterior pituitary lobe is considered a true endocrine gland
false
T or F
the term neurohypophysis refers only to the posterior pituitary lobe
flase
What is neurohypohysis?
is the region that consists of the posterior pituitary lobe and the infundibulum
NAME
refers to the region consisting of the posterior pituitary lobe and the infundibulume
neurohypohysis
What is the anterior pituitary lobe?
is composed of glandular tissue and it manufactures and releases a number of hormones
NAME
is composed of glandular tissue and it manufactures and releases a number of hormones
anterior pituitary gland
How is arterial blood delivered to the pituitary gland?
via the hypophyseal branches of the internal carotid arteries
NAME
the arterial blood is delivered to the pituitray gland via the hypophyseal branches of the internal carotid arteries
pituitary gland
T or F
the posterior pituitary lobe is part of the brain
true
How does the posterior pituitary lobe mantain its neuarl connection w the hypothalamus?
through the nerve bundle hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract
What is the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract?
is the the neural connection tbwn the posterior pituitary lobe and the hypothalmus
NAME
is the neural connection btwn the posterior pituitary lobe and the hypothalmus
hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract
Where is the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract located?
it runs through the infundibulum
NAME
runs through the infundibulm
hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract
Where does the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract arise from?
neurons in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus
NAME
arises from the neurons in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus
hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract
What do the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei do?
these neurosecretory cells synthesize two neurohormones and transport them along thier axons to the posterior pituitary lobe
NAME (2)
these neurosecretory cells synthesize two neurohormones and transport them along thier axons to the posterior pituitary lobe
supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei
What two hormones do the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei synthesize? (2)
(1)oxytocin (2)ADH
NAME
synthesizes the oxytocin and the antidiuetic hormones
supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei
What makes Oxytocin?
is made by the paraventricular neurons
NAME
this is made by the paraventricular neurons
Oxytocin
What is the antidieretic hormone made by?
the supraoptic neurons
NAME
is made by the supraoptic neurons
ADH
Where does the anterior pituirtay lobe orginate from?
the superior outpocketing of the oral mucosa and is formed from the epitheal tissue
NAME
is the superior outpocketing of the oral mucosa and is formed from the epitheal tissue
the anterior pituitary lobe
T or F
there is a direct neural connection btwn the anterior lobe and hypothalamus
false
Is there a neural connection btwn the anterior lobe and hypothalamus? if no what type of connection is there?
no but there is a vascular connection
NAME
thier is a vascular connection aka the primary capillary plexus in the infundibulum communicates inferiorly via the small hypophyseal portal viens w the secoundary capillary plexus
anterior pituitray lobe
The primary capillary plexus in the (1) communicates inferiorly via the small hypophyseal portal veins w the secoundary capillary plexus in the (2)
(1)infundibululm (2)anterior pituitary lobe
the(1)in the infundibulum communicates inferiorly via the (2)w the (3)in the anterior pituitary lobe
primary capillary plexus (2)small hypophyseal portal viens (3)secoundary capillary plexus
What does hypersecretion mean?
means that to much of a particle hormone was produced
NAME
means that to much of a particlar hormone was produced
hypersecretion
What is hyposecretion?
is when not enough of a hormone is produced
NAME
is when not enough of a hormone is produced
hyposecretion
The hypersecretion of the GH results in (1)
gigantism
The (1) of the (2) results in gigantism
(1)hypersecretion (2)gigantism
NAME
is when a person becomes abnormally tall often reaching a height of 8 ft tall
gigantism
the hypersecretion in children results in gigantism as the still active (1) are targeted by the GH
(1)epiphyseal plates
if excressive amounts of GH are secreted after the epihyseal plates have closed, (1) will result
acromegaly
When does acromegaly ocur?
when excressive amounts of GH are secreted after the epihyseal plates are closed
What is acromegaly?
this is a condition in charcaterized by the over growth of bony areas still responsive to GH such as the extermites
What does acromegaly literally translate into?
enlarged extermites
NAME
this conidtion literally transaltes into "enlarged extermites"
acromegaly
What does the hypersecretion of GH normally result from?
adenohypohyseal tumor that churns out excessive amounts of GH

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