Glossary of Chapter 11 Vocab AP Psychology
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- Intelligence Test
- A method for assessing an individual's mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores.
- Mental Age
- A measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance. Thus, a child who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8.
- The widely used American revision (by Terman at Stanford University) of Binet's original intelligence test.
- Intelligence Quotient
- Defined originally as the ratio of mental age to chronological age multiplied by 100 times. On contemporary intelligence tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100.
- Mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations.
- Factor Analysis
- A statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one's total score.
- General Intelligence
- A general intelligence factor that Spearman and others believed underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measures by every task on an intelligence test.
- Savant Syndrome
- A condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing.
- Emotional Intelligence
- The ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions.
- The ability to produce novel and valuable ideas.
- Aptitude Test
- A test designed to predict a person's future performance; the capacity to learn.
- Achievement Test
- A test designed to assess what a person has learned.
- Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale
- The most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance subtests.
- Defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested "standardization group".
- Normal Curve
- The symmetrical bell shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes. Most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes.
- The extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, on alternate forms of the tests, or on retesting.
- The extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to.
- Content Validity
- The extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest.
- The behavior that a test is designed to predict; thus the measure used in defining whether the test has predictive validity.
- Predictive Validity
- The success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior.
- Mental Retardation
- A condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score below 70 and difficulty in adapting to the demands of life' varies from mild to profound.
- Down Syndrome
- A condition of retardation and associated physical disorders caused by an extra chromosome in one's genetic makeup.
- Stereotype Threat
- A self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype.
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