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Glossary of Chapter 11 Vocab AP Psychology

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Intelligence Test
A method for assessing an individual's mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores.
Mental Age
A measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance. Thus, a child who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8.
Stanford-Binet
The widely used American revision (by Terman at Stanford University) of Binet's original intelligence test.
Intelligence Quotient
Defined originally as the ratio of mental age to chronological age multiplied by 100 times. On contemporary intelligence tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100.
Intelligence
Mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations.
Factor Analysis
A statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one's total score.
General Intelligence
A general intelligence factor that Spearman and others believed underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measures by every task on an intelligence test.
Savant Syndrome
A condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing.
Emotional Intelligence
The ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions.
Creativity
The ability to produce novel and valuable ideas.
Aptitude Test
A test designed to predict a person's future performance; the capacity to learn.
Achievement Test
A test designed to assess what a person has learned.
Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale
The most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance subtests.
Standardization
Defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested "standardization group".
Normal Curve
The symmetrical bell shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes. Most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes.
Reliability
The extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, on alternate forms of the tests, or on retesting.
Validity
The extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to.
Content Validity
The extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest.
Criterion
The behavior that a test is designed to predict; thus the measure used in defining whether the test has predictive validity.
Predictive Validity
The success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior.
Mental Retardation
A condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score below 70 and difficulty in adapting to the demands of life' varies from mild to profound.
Down Syndrome
A condition of retardation and associated physical disorders caused by an extra chromosome in one's genetic makeup.
Stereotype Threat
A self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype.

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