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Glossary of Ch 8

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liber libera liberum
free
miser, misera , miserum
wretched unfortunate poor
noster, nostra, nostrum
our, ours
pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum
beautiful, noble fine
sacer, sacra, sacrum
sacred, holy
vester, vestra, vestrum
your yours (when speaking to more than one person)
ante (prep with acc)
before, in front of
contra (prep with acc)
against
inter (prep with acc)
between, among
ob ( prep with acc)
because of, on account of
per ( prep with the accusative)
through
post (prep with the acc)
after behind
propter (prep with acc)
because of, on account of
trans (prep with the acc)
across over
______- is A society’s shared and socially transmitted ideas, values, and perceptions, which are used to make sense of experience and generate behavior and are reflected in that behavior.

culture
Every ______ is:
learned
shared
based on symbols
integrated
dynamic






culture
Culture is _________.
learned
Everyone learns their culture through the process of ____________.
enculturation
_______ behavior is exhibited in some degree by most mammals.

learned
what is the process by which a society’s culture is transmitted from one generation to the next and individuals become members of their society.

enculturation
In all cultures there is some difference between ______ roles.

gender
Anthropologists use the term ______ to refer to the meanings cultures assign to the biological differences between men and women.

gender
________ is an organized group or groups of interdependent people who share a common territory, language, and culture and who act together for collective survival and well-being.

society
Anthropologists distinguish between ___ and gender, and between gender roles and gender __________.
sex, ideology
what refers to inherited, biological differences between males and females?
sex
what refers to culturally constructed ideas about sex differences?

gender
Some societies recognize men who live as women or women who live as men as a _______ ______.
third gender
In some Plains Indian tribes, ______ were men who chose to live as women, performing women’s roles.

berdaches
what refers to the different participation of males and females in the social, economic, political, and religious institutions of a cultural group (describes culturally appropriate behavior for men and women)?

Gender role
what refers to the culturally specific meaning assigned to “male,” “female,” “sex,” and “reproduction"?

Gender ideology
________ is a perspective that focuses on what men do in a society, to the exclusion of women.

Androcentric
_______ is A set of standards and behavior patterns by which a group within a larger society operates
subculture
_____ _____ are people who collectively and publicly identify themselves as a distinct group based on cultural features such as shared ancestry and common origin, language, customs, and traditional beliefs
ethnic group
______ is the expression of the set of cultural ideas held by an ethnic group.

ethnicity
The term Ethnicity, was rooted in the Greek word _____ (“nation”) and related to _______ (“custom”),
ethnikos
ethnos
what is a society in which two or more ethnic groups or nationalities are politically organized into one territorial state but maintain their cultural differences?

pluralistic society
what are signs, sounds, gestures, and other things that are arbitrarily linked to something else and represent it in a meaningful way?

symbols
The most important symbolic aspect of culture is _______.

language
_______ uses words to represent objects and ideas
language
Through ________, humans transmit culture from one generation to another.

language
Anthropologists customarily imagine a _______ as a well-structured system made up of distinctive parts that function together as an organized whole
culture
________ is the worldview: the perception of the self, society, and world around us.
superstructure
_________ is the social organization: The patterned social arrangements of individuals within a society.
social structure
__________ is the economic base: the mode of subsistence.
infrastructure
Rule-governed relationships that hold members of a society together, with all their rights and obligations. what is this?

social structure
Households, families, associations, and power relations, including politics, are all part of social structure. what are these a part of?

social structure
It establishes group cohesion and enables people to consistently satisfy their basic needs, including food. what does this?

social structure
The economic foundation of a society, including its subsistence practices, and the tools and other material equipment used to make a living. what is this?

infrastructure
A society’s shared sense of identity and worldview. what is this?

superstructure
The collective body of ideas, beliefs, and values by which a group of people makes sense of the world—its shape, challenges, and opportunities—and their place in it. what has these?

superstructure
Cultures are ________ systems that respond to motions and actions within and around them.

dynamic
To _______, a culture must be flexible enough to allow adjustments in the face of unstable or changing circumstances
function
When a culture is too rigid and fails to provide its members with the means required for long-term survival under _______ conditions, it is not likely to endure.

changing
what are complex of ideas, activities, and technologies that enables people to survive and even thrive in their environment?

cultural adaptations
However, what is _________ in one context may be maladaptive in another.

adaptive
________ _______ takes place in response to population growth, technological innovation, environmental crisis, intrusion of outsiders, or modification of values and behavior within the culture.

Culture change
Although cultures must ________ to adapt to new circumstances, sometimes the consequences of change are ______ for a society.

change
disastrous
_______ is the belief that one’s own culture is superior to all others.

ethnocentrism
To avoid making ethnocentric judgments, anthropologists adopt the approach of _______ _________.

cultural relativism
_________ _______ requires that each culture be examined in its own terms, according to its own standards.
cultural relativism

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