Glossary of Ch8 Pt2
Created by diamondzgirl99
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- Conditioned Reinforcer
- A stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through it's association with a primary reinforcer, AKA secondary reinforcer.
- Continuous Reinforcement
- Reinforcing the desired response everytime it occurs/
- Partial Reinforcement
- Reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement.
- Fixed-Ratio Schedule
- In operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses.
- Variable-Ratio Schedule
- In operant Conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses.
- Fixed-Interval Schedule
- In operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed.
- Variable-Interval Schedule
- In operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals.
- An event that decreases the behavior it follows
- Cognitive Map
- A mental representation of the layout of one's environment. For example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it.
- Latent Learning
- Learning that occurs but is not apparent unless there is an incentive to demonstrate it.
- Overjustification Effect
- The effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do.
- Intrinsic Motivation
- A desire to perform a behavior for it's own sake and to be effective.
- Extrinsic Motivation
- A desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment.
- Observational Learning
- Learning by observing others
- The process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
- Prosocial Behavior
- Positive, constructive, helpful behavior. The opposite of antisocial.
- Mirror Neurons
- Frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation, language learning, and empathy.
- An organism's decreasing response to a stimulus with repeated exposure to it.
- Higher-order Conditioning
- A procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus.
- Learned Helplessness
- The helplessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events.
- Discriminative Stimulus
- In operant conditioning, a stimulus that elicits a response after association with reinforcement (in contrast to related stimuli not associated with reinforcement).
- Positive Reinforcement
- Increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli such as food. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that when presented after the response, strengthens it.
- Negative reinforcement
- Increases behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli such as shock.When removed,the response is strengthened.
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