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Glossary of Ch8 Pt2

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Created by diamondzgirl99

Conditioned Reinforcer
A stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through it's association with a primary reinforcer, AKA secondary reinforcer.
Continuous Reinforcement
Reinforcing the desired response everytime it occurs/
Partial Reinforcement
Reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement.
Fixed-Ratio Schedule
In operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses.
Variable-Ratio Schedule
In operant Conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses.
Fixed-Interval Schedule
In operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed.
Variable-Interval Schedule
In operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals.
Punishment
An event that decreases the behavior it follows
Cognitive Map
A mental representation of the layout of one's environment. For example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it.
Latent Learning
Learning that occurs but is not apparent unless there is an incentive to demonstrate it.
Overjustification Effect
The effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do.
Intrinsic Motivation
A desire to perform a behavior for it's own sake and to be effective.
Extrinsic Motivation
A desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment.
Observational Learning
Learning by observing others
Modeling
The process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
Prosocial Behavior
Positive, constructive, helpful behavior. The opposite of antisocial.
Mirror Neurons
Frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation, language learning, and empathy.
Habituation
An organism's decreasing response to a stimulus with repeated exposure to it.
Higher-order Conditioning
A procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus.
Learned Helplessness
The helplessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events.
Discriminative Stimulus
In operant conditioning, a stimulus that elicits a response after association with reinforcement (in contrast to related stimuli not associated with reinforcement).
Positive Reinforcement
Increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli such as food. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that when presented after the response, strengthens it.
Negative reinforcement
Increases behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli such as shock.When removed,the response is strengthened.

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