Glossary of Ch. 3 Habituation
Created by eoconno1
- Scientists who study how animals behave in natural environments (as opposed to psychologists who study in labs)
- control systems theory
- Branch of science - studies goal-directed behavior in living AND inanimate
- Something that compares reference input* (goal state) to actual input* (current situation) and triggers an output (action) if the two do not match.
Part of control systems theory
- reference input
- The idea (or goal state) which the actual input is compared to. When the actual input is not the same as this, the comparator prompts some action.
- actual input
- Some actual physical characteristic of the environment which is measured and compared to the reference input.
- action system
- The system that actually creates the change in behavior (it is controlled by the comparator)
- the product of the action system
- Feedback system or closed-loop system
- Name for goal-directed systems where the output affects (or feeds back on) the actual input.
- A factor other than the output which affects the actual input.
- 6 terms of control systems theory
- comparator, reference input, actual input, action system, output, and disturbance
- A stereotyped pattern of movement (of a part of the body) which can be reliably made to happen by presenting the right stimulus
- Small neurons that separate the sensory and motor neurons in the spinal cord
- Spinal reflex arc
- Name of the path of the flexion reflex (rapid withdrawal of hand caused by bending the elbow).
Path is: Pain sensory neurons in hand have axons that reach the spinal cord; they connect to interneurons which connect to the motor neurons (whose cell body is in spinal cord), motor neuron axons extend to & connect with muscle fibers, causing them to contract producing the reflex.
- A movement or change in orientation of an entire animal in response to a specific stimulus. Innate reaction like with a reflex (but moving whole body instead of part as w/reflex)
2 Types - Kinesis & Taxis
- Type of tropism where direction of movement is random in relation to the stimulus. (plural: kineses)
- Type of tropism where direction of movement relates to the location of stimulus
- fixed action pattern
- Innate sequence of behaviors triggered by a specific stimulus. Once started, it keeps going until the end even if behaviors are not appropriate for the situation. (1) All members of a species have it; (2) proven innate w/experiments; (3) rigid order (as described above)
- sign stimulus
- a fairly specific stimulus that initiates a fixed action pattern
- reaction chains
- A sequence of behaviors that depends on the presence of external stimuli. (Unlike fixed action patterns, w/out the stimulus the reaction chain will stop. It won't continue if the behaviors don't fit the context.)
- human universals
- Abilities & behaviors found in all known cultures (compiled by Donald Brown)
- A decrease in strength of response to a stimulus after that stimulus has been repeatedly presented.
- orienting response
- Innate response to sudden/unexpected (novel) stimuli where the animal/person stops what their doing to look at/listen to the stimulus.
- 6 principles of habituation
- 1.) Course, 2.) Effects of time, 3.) relearning effects, 4.) effects of stimulus intensity, 5.) effects of over-learning [below-zero habituation], 6.) stimulus generalization
- The transfer of habituation from one stimulus to similar, new stimuli.
- simple systems approach
- The strategy - in physiological research (of learning processes like habituation) - of studying primitive creatures because they have smaller, less complex nervous systems.
- The ability of the nervous system to change as a result of experience/stimulation.
- opponent-process theory
- Theory by Solomon & Corbit that states many emotional responses include an initial emotional reaction followed by an after-reaction of the opposite emotion
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