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Glossary of Ch.2 Mental Health - Mental Health

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Created by daisy497

Mental Illness Myths:
- there is no hope for people with mental illnesses
- I can't do anything for people with mental illnesses
- ***People with mental illnesses are violent and unpredictable

Note: you can't predict a patients behaviour based on their diagnosis

*what is normal in our culture is not necessarily normal for other cultures





Mental Health/Mental Illness
- Not polar opposites
- they are on separate continuums
- a person with a mental illness can be mentally healthy
- See Fig 2.1 (p.20)
- mental health is MORE than the absence of mental illness
- varying degrees of mental health
- good mental health enables us to cope/foster recovery

*anyone can have a mental break - our coping skills can help







WHO definition of Health
"A state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease."

- 6.7 million Canadians are living with mental illness
- By 2041: predicted increase of 8.9 billion (impact on society: 42.3 billion [direct costs] and 6.3 billion [indirect costs])


Kirby (2005)
- 1/5 Canadians experience mental illness during their lifetime
- Mental health - "Orphan child"
- high prevalence mental illness/addictions (1st/2nd causes of disability in Canada)
- vulnerable populations: 70% of mental health problems/illnesses onset in CHILDHOOD/ADOLESCENCE (usually REOCCUR later in life and become more CHRONIC)
- huge economic costs on Canada
- Burden (Stigmatization/discrimination)
- Canada does not have an action plan
- UNDERFUNDED and not enough programs
- High majority of Canadians do not seek help/receive professional help







Current System
- Mental health illnesses are on the INCREASE
- UNDERSERVICED areas:
*RURAL
*NOTHERN
*other REMOTE areas
- Public mental health SPENDING is LOWER in CANADA than MOST developed countries
- LENGHTY waiting lists





What IMPACTS mental health?
- SOCIAL determinents of health
- Income, employment, housing
- Mental Health PROMOTION: important for ALL (not enough being done in the community - need more funding and appropriate health policies)
- Mental Health PREVENTION: meeting needs for people across the lifespan
- #1 concern with PRIMARY HEALTH CARE (PHC): ACCESSIBILITY



Causes and Risk Factors of Mental Illnesses:
1. GENETICS
2. BIOLOGICAL
3. ENVIRONMENTAL
4. CULTURAL (ex. using young people as soldiers)
5. OCCUPATIONAL (stress)
6. GENDER - for some disorders (ex. #1 disorder: MOOD DISORDER - women are more affected; underreporting of MDD in men because they do not express their feelings the same as women)
7. History of ABUSE: physical and verbal - trauma
8. Chronic STRESS

*Coping mechanism: RESILIENCY (ability to return to normal state quickly)








Mental Illness - Diagnosable
1. Syndromes/Clusters of symptoms
2. Edpidemiology - not well kept
3. DSM-IV-TR - MULTIAXIAL diagnostic system (5 axes)

DSM-IV-TR: MULTIAXIAL diagnostic system (5 axes)
AXIS I: Most CLINICAL disorders (ex. mood disorders such as major depressive disorder, bipolar, schizophrenia)
AXIS II: PERSONALITY disorders (ex. borderline personality disorder, antisocial disorder)
AXIS III: General MEDICAL conditions (ex. liver disease, heart disease)
AXIS IV: PSYCHOSOCIAL/ENVIRONMENTAL problems (ex. living in substandard housing, social assistance)
AXIS V: GLOBAL assessment of FUNCTIONING (GAF) - Table 2.1 (p.25)



Contexts of Mental Health/Illness
1. CULTURAL: perceptions/attitudes
2. CULTURAL roots of mental health (normal)
3. DSM-IV - PROBLEM (ignore cultural factors)
4. BELIEFS of mental illness
5. CULTURAL DIVERSITY
6. ROLE of the nurse (continuum of care)




GOALS for Nurses:
- use a RECOVERY orientation (suggested)
- RECOVERY: returning to optimal quality of life for that individual person
- does not necessarily mean cure
- Role of FAMILIES if recognized (aid recovery/well-being)
- SERVICES/SUPPORTS (meet the needs across the lifespan)



Mental Health Services:
1. Mental HEALTH PROMOTION & ILLNESS PREVENTION
2. SELF-HELP
3. CRISIS response teams
4. INPATIENT/OUTPATIENT care
5. Housing & COMMUNITY support



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