Glossary of Cellular Transport and Mitosis C8

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Water moves into a cell placed in a(n) _____ solution.
Water moves out of a cell if the cell is placed in a(n) _____ solution.
If cells are placed in a strong sugar solution, water will _____.
pass from the cells to the sugar solution
A cell moves particles from a region of lesser concentration to a region of greater concentration by _____.
active transport
If it is not watered, a tulip plant wilts because it _____.
loses turgor pressure
If a cell is placed in salt water, water leaves the cell by _____.
List 3 forms of passive transport
facilitated diffusion
The structure most responsible for maintaining cell homeostasis is the _____.
plasma membrane
List 3 causes of cancer.
environmental influences


UV radiation
A gene is a segment of DNA that controls the production of _____.
Which of the following monitors a cell's progress from phase to phase during the cell cycle?
a series of enzymes
What do enzymes do?
They control the rate (or speed) of reactions. They can turn reactions on or off.
If the sides of a cell double in length, its volume increases by _____ times.
Which of the following explains why a cell's size is limited?
Volume increases faster than surface area.

Homeostasis is disrupted by a cell that is too large.
As a cell grows, its _____ increases more than its _____.
volume, surface area
List the steps of the cell cycle.
When people move from one country to another, their cancer rates follow the pattern of _____.
the country where they live
By the end of prophase, each of the following has occurred except _____.
lining up of chromosomes in the cell
Unlike plant cells, animal cells contain _____.
The longest phase of the cell cycle is _____.
A chromatid is attached to a spindle fiber by the _____.
List the levels of organization in a complex organism such as a human.
organ systems
The structures that hold together sister chromatids are ____________________.
In a dividing cell, the football-shaped structure consisting of thin fibers is the ____________________.
The process by which nuclear material is divided equally between two new cells is ____________________.
The dark-staining structures that carry the genetic material are the ____________________.
The uncontrolled division of cells is known as ____________________.
The two halves of a doubled chromosome structure are called _________________________.
sister chromatids
The sequence of growth and division of a cell makes up the ____________________.
cell cycle
The phase of mitosis in which the sister chromatids separate from each other is ____________________.
Cells that have the same function are organized into ____________________.
movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to one of lower concentration
dynamic equilibrium
continuous movement of particles but no overall change in concentration
contractile vacuole
structure inside protists that collects excess water and squeezes it outside through the membrane
loss of water from a cell resulting in a drop in turgor pressure
diffusion of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane
release of wastes or cell products from inside to outside a cell
Compare and contrast the structure and function of channel proteins and carrier proteins.
Both are transport proteins embedded in the plasma membrane. Channel proteins enable passive transport to take place; channel proteins are tubelike and provide openings that allow dissolved particles to diffuse across the cell membrane. Carrier proteins generally have a shape that fits a specific molecule or ion. When the proper molecule binds with the carrier protein, it causes the protein to change its shape so that the particle is moved across the membrane. Once the particle is released, the protein returns to its original shape. In the case of active transport, energy is required by the carrier protein.

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