Glossary of Care of Adults Midterm
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- Early Adolescence
Emotional break from parents, adjustment to physical change, unisex peer group, concrete thinking, begin to question parents' moral system.
- Mid Adolescence
- 14-16. Unsure about separation from family, Sexual experimentation, Begin heterosexual peer group, Self centered.
- Late adolescence
- 17-21. integrate independence with family ties. Begin to combine satisfying body image with personality, Individual relationships more important than peer group, Ability to abstract, Self centered idealism.
- Between 11-21, how often should adolescents have a preventive service visit?
- When should adolescents receive a complete physical?
- Once between 11-14, once between 15-17, once 18-21. 3x in the time period.
- Puberty in Girls
- Develop 2 yrs before boys. Starts at age 8. Begins with breast buds.
- Puberty in boys
- Begins about 12. Testicle enlargement is usually the first secondary sexual change in boys.
- Tanner staging girls
- Secondary sex changes between 8-13. Tanner 2-5 takes about 3 yrs. Axillary hair usually appears 2 yrs after pubic hair. Menarch usually occurs when breasts are Tanner 3-4.
- Tanner staging in boys
- Increase in size of testes is first reliable sign and usually occurs between the ages 9-13.
Tanner 2-5 takes an avg. of 3 yrs.
Ejaculation occurs as boys approach Tanner 3.
- Health Risks of teens
- Preventable, r/t behavior and lifestyle. Accidental injury, suicide, sexual activity, substance, violence.
- Communication with teens
- Direct questions for young teens. Open ended questions for middle and late teens. No phony teen talk. private questions in private. History, immunizations from parents.
- Infectious Respiratory problems
- Viral rhinitis
Otitis Media and Externa
- Non infectious resp. problems
- Allergic rhinitis
Eustachian tube dysfunction
- Viral rhinitis
- Rhinovirus, parainfluenza, RSV, coronavirus.
Major sx: nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, sneezing, cough, sore throat.
TX: analgesics, decongestants, antitussives, fluid, rest
- Influenza Presentation
- Abrupt onset of fever up to 105
headache, malaise,sore throat, cough.
PE:Fever, flushed,conjunctival inflammation, clear nasal discharge, hyperemic throat w/o exudate, tender cervical nodes
- Influenza Treatment
- Tamiflu is sx relief.
Amantadine or Flumantadine if seen in first 48 hrs of sx.
Treat sx.-decongestants, BR, fluids, tylenol.
F/u in 48 hrs.
- Allergic Rhinitis
- Sneezing, watery eyes, runny nose, postnasal drip, nasal congestion.
Exam-Pallor and swelling of conjunctiva. Pale turbinates. Allergic shiners, nasal crease, dull immobile tympanic membrane.
- Treat Allergic Rhinitis
- Avoid allergens. Antihistamines,decongestants (not in htn or glaucoma), Claritin or flonase otc.
- Hx of URI>1wk. Teeth pain, puralent nasal drainage>1wk, congestion, cough, h/a, fever, facial pain eye pain.
Do neuro exam if headache.
Puralent exudate, red nasal mucosa, tenderness over sinuses. Hyperemic oropharnyx with green/yellow PND, Halitosis
- Sinusitis diagnostics
- Decreased transillumination, nasal culture, sinus xrays will show air:fluid levels
thickening of mucosa
sinus ct with consult.
- Treat Sinusitis
- Amoxicillin, Bactrim, cephalosporins, Biaxin* and Zithromax, Decongestants, steroid sprays, saline spray 3-4 days, analgesics. No antihistamines (dries mucous and stays up there!)
- Acute Otitis Media
- Otalgia, hx of URI, drainage, decreased hearing, fever. OBJ-
Fever?, auricle tender, TMJ, loss of cone of light, obscured landmarks, bulging membrane, Cloudy infected fluid behind TM, Nose, throat, neck, lungs and heart. No diagnostics.
- Acute Otitis Media- What does inner ear look like?
- Can be dark gray drum. acute is bulging drum. Ruptured- see hole where it separates. Sudden relief of pain might mean rupture- relief of pressure.
- Managing Otitis Media
- Zpack, Amoxicillin, Ceclor.
Bactrim (sulfa).Biaxin (macrolide). Decongestants, no antihistamines.
- Serous Otitis
- Fullness of ear and decreased hearing.
Retraction of TM, air bubbles, or air:fluid levels. Decreased membrane mvmt.
- Treating Serous Otitis
- Unless infected, no abx.
Relieve congestion with decongestants if r/t URI or allergy. antihistamines if allergic rhinitis is culprit.
- Eustachian Tube Dysfunction
- Ear pain, decreased hearing improves with yawn, hx URI, allergic rhinitis, OM.
Retracted TM, decreased motility, typical findings of URI or rhinitis.
- Managing Eustachian Tube dysfunction
- Oral decongestants. Tx underlying. Avoid air travel or diving.
Sudafed 30 min before takeoff.
- Otitis Externa
- Swimmers Ear
Ear pain, decreased hearing sensation of obstruction, green or yellow discharge.
Pain with mvmt of auricle, edema of ext. canal, tender, red canal, lymphadenopathy
- Treat Otitis Externa
- Antimicrobial ear gtt, remove foreign body, Fungal- Clotrimazole gtts. Floxacin for infection.
- Nose bleed p trauma, forceful blowing, certain meds.
Bloody discharge. difficult to observe if foreign body (pt anxious)
Tx-Stop bleeding, pack nose, may refer to ENT
- Pharyngitis non infectious causes
- Hep B, allergies, envt. sources, subacute thyroiditis, GERD
- Pharyngitis Presentation
- Dysphagia, throat pain, swollen/tender nodes, fever, HA, n/v. If epstein barr-fatigue
- Pharyngitis Objective Presentation
- Nonexudative/exudative erythema of pharnyx. Vesicular lesions with viral. size of tonsils, abscess formation unilateral. Viral is slimy shiny uvula.
Bacterial is white patches-treat!
- Pharyngitis Diagnostics
- Rapid strep and send to lab, serologic test for mono, CBC
- Pharyngitis Management
- PCN(Amoxicillin)x5d or PCN g inj for strep.
Warm salt water gargles, fluids, rest, soft diet. Avoid throat sprays with alcohol.
Refer peritonsillar abscess.
- Immunosuppression or from inh steroids.
Teach to rinse mouth.
Diflucan po or Nystatin swish and swallow.
- Precancerous lesions.
Oral surgeon referral.
- Oral herpes
- Apthous ulcer (canker sore)
GI distress or stress.
Tx-Trieminolone dental paste
- Sensation of mvmt. of the head. Stand up too fast. Unsteady on feet.
Neuro checks with CN's, gait, Romberg.
Causes-Orthost. hypotn., Imbalance/ataxia, psychogenic dizziness, Hyperventilation.
- Treat Vertigo
- Hard! r/o CNS d/o.
Meclizine 25mg 1 po TID x7d.
Peripheral vs. central
- Diagnosing CAP
- Acute infection of the pulmonary parenchyma.
Pt. can not have been hospitalized or residing in a long term care facility 14 d prior to onset of sx.
Infiltrate on CXR or ausc. findings of altered breathsounds or localized rales.
Leukocyte count and c reactive protein level may help.
Do not have to have secretions to be dx.
Negative CXR does not r/o pneumonia in mod to severe illness.
- Presentation of CAP
- Cough +/- sputum production.
Change in sputum color.
Fever, chills, Rigors, Malaise, Loss of appetite, Possible altered breath sounds, Rales.
S/S do not correlate with causative organism!
- Risk factors for mortality of CAP
- Age>65, immunosuppression, Other lung dx, CHF, DM, ETOH, Neuro d/o, Lab abnormalities.
Most CAP is strep pneumonia, then h.influenza, then viral..
- TX of CAP
- Symptoms-Decongestants, mucolytic (Guaifenisen), Cough suppressants only if can't sleep, BR, humidifiers, Tylenol etc., stop smoking. Antimicrobials as indicated. Short term, high dose. Careful of resistance.
1. Fluoroquinolone-Levaquin 1poqdx5d. Esp. if >65 c comorbidities.
2. Macrolides Biaxin 1000mg qd or Zithromax 500mg qd. Esp if no comorbid. or <65.
Cephalosporins-Rocephin 500mg IM-(comorb. or nsg. home)
Augmentin (Betalactam)XR-2g BID
may combine meds.
Hospital tx- Azithromycin and Rocephin IV.
- Primary vs Secondary HTN
- Primary Htn- 95% of all cases. No identifiable cause. Uncommon before age 20.
Secondary Htn- Underlying cause present. Small # cases.
- Patho of Primary Htn.
Genetic, Diet/Exercise, Increased SNS, Renin angiotensin system, Defective natiuresis, Na intake, Etoh, Nsaids, K intake.
- Patho of Secondary Htn
- Renal disease***
Renal vascular htn,
Primary hyperaldosteronism (low K, htn)
Cushing's syndrome (^sodium^h2o)
Coarctation of aorta
- Untreated HTN
- Complications of untreated Htn.
Hypertensive heart dx
LV hypertrophy>diastolic dysf.>HF, ischemia, arrythmia.
- Staging HTN
- Normal- <120/80
- Physical Exam Findings for HTN
- Dependent on cause..
Retina-Exudates, hemorrhages, papilledema.
Cardiac-LV enlargement(normal PMI at 5th intercostal @MCL)
LVH-Hyperdynamic apical impulse.
S4-Diastolic dysf. blood coming into a noncompliant heart.
Pulses-Assess for equality
Renal arteries- Assess for bruits
FYI- S3 is blood coming into a big boggy heart.
- Diagnostic Data for HTN
- UA- Assess for hematuria, proteinuria, casts.
Fasting blood glucose (Diabetes with CV risk)
Lipids- ^CV risk
Serum uric acid levels (gout)
-Contraindic. thiazide diuretics)
EKG for LVH and ischemia
CXR if HF
Echo for LVH
24hr urine for cortisol and metanephrines for Pheo/Cushings
CT for Pheo (mass on adrenals)
- When should drug therapy be initiated for HTN?
- When BP >140/90
Pts with pre htn and at least one additional high risk condition.
Goal is <130/80
DM or renal patients start drug therapy sooner!
- Which med to choose for HTN for different pt population?
- Ca channel blockers>edema
Beta blockers-erectile dysf.
Blacks-CCB's and thiazide diur.
Elderly and obese-Thiazide diur.
DM- ACE or ARB. Usually combination of 2-3 meds.
- Initial Drug choices for HTN
- Stage 1-Thiazide Diur.
Consider ACEI, BB, CCB or combin.
Stage 2-2Drug combo-Usually Thiazide Diur + ACEI or BB,CCB
- Diuretics-Decrease plasma volume and PVR
- Thiazide- can use just for htn
Loop- never start for only htn. Also, start when thiazide loses potency GFR<60.
Good for blacks, elderly,obese
- Beta Blockers- Decrease HR, CO, release of renin.
- Beneficial in young caucasians.
Use cautiously in DM, reactive airway, brady-arrythmias, severe PVD, pheo (use alpha blocker)
Also helps angina, post mi,stable hf, migraines, anxiety.
- ACE Inhibitors-Inhibit renin angiotensin aldosterone system. Inhibit bradykinin degradation. Stimulate prostaglandin release. Reduce SNS activity.
- More effective in younger caucasians. Less effective in AA and elderly.
1st line for DM**Prevents proteinuria>renal disease.
Use in HF, decreased LV function.
Watch for hypotn, ARF, hyperkalemia, cough, dizzy, angioedema.
- Cozaar. Less stroke, Less development of DM.
- CCBs-Peripheral Vasodilation
- Effective in all groups.
Dihydroperidines- Vasodilate (Cardene, Norvasc)
Non dihydroperidines- decrease contractility (Verapamil, Cardizem)
Adverse effects- edema** headache.
- Arteriorlar Dilators-Relaxation of smooth muscle.
Profound peripheral vasodilation.
- Arteriolar dilators-Not first line agent!!
- Central Sympatholytics-Stimulate alpha adrenergic receptors in cns.
- Not first line therapy!!
Clonidine, Catapres patch.
SE- sedation, fatigue, dry mouth.
- Alpha Adrenoreceptor agonists-
Relaxation of smooth muscle. Decrease PVR. Alpha receptor blocker.
- Cardura, Hytrin, Terazosyn.
1st line for men with BPH.
- Hypertensive drug therapy for DM
- Ace/ARB-prevents proteinuria>renal failure.
Prevent CV events and nephropathy!
- Hypertensive drug therapy for those with Heart Failure
- Diuretics, ACE, BB. (3 drug comb?)
poor LV function, EF<40, diastolic failure-any CCB
- Hypertensive drug therapy post MI
- SLE- LUPUS
- Chronic inflammatory dx.
Production of autoantibodies.
Immune complexes, directo autoantibody damage.
Bottom line-inflammation, clots.
Inflammation occurs in small blood vessels and connective tissue: skin, joint, kidney, pleura and pericardium.
More females, more blacks.
- Lupus acute exacerbation triggers
- Estrogen or lack of testosterone
- Presentation of Lupus
- Low grade fever, wt loss, swollen glands, fatigue, aching.
Half have internal organ involvment, half don't.
- Diagnose Lupus
- 4 or more of the following:
Blood disorder(decrease bc's)
Renal disorder (proteinuria)
Immunologic d/o (anti-dna,anti-sm,antiphospholipid)
- Lab tests for Lupus
Anti Sm and anti ds dna more specific
anti phospholipid ab if clotting hx.
CVC, chem, UA, 24hr urine
- Complications of Lupus
Cause of death- infections, renal failure, cns involvement, effects of treatment..Atherosclerosis (MI,CVA)
- Treatment of Lupus
Topical steroids for skin
Calcium, vitamin D
Treat disease effects.
- Monitoring Lupus
- CBC/platelets, urinalyis,creatinine, yearly lipid panel, anti ds dna and complement levels
If on hydroxychloroquine-eye exam
If renal-24 hr urine, serum creat, calcium, phos, alk phos, na, k.. q 1-3 months.
- Points to remember about LUPUS
Ana+joint pain not always lupus
Lower doses prednisone for skin and joint
Higher doses prednisone for pleuritis, hematologic, cns, nephritis.
Hydroxychloroquine for everyone who can tolerate.
Protect heart and bones.
- Osteoarthritis- Predisposing Factors
- Trauma (ACL and meniscal tears)
- Etiology of Osteoarthritis
- Disease of the cartilage
Chrondocyte metabolism altered
proteolytic enzymes produced
Joint mechanics altered
Process b/c self perpetuating
- Definition of Osteoarthritis
- A gradual loss of articular cartilage combined with thickening of the subchondral bone; bony outgrowths (osteophytes) at joint margins; and mild chronic nonspecific inflammation
- Clinical features of Osteoarthritis
- Joint pain, stiffness, limitation
Pain increases with joint use and lessens with rest
Pain and stiffness modified by weather changes
Knee instability and buckling
Hip-groin pain that radiates to thigh.
- Physical Exam of Osteoarthritis
- Bony enlargment=DIPs-Herbendens nodes; PIPs-Bouchard's nodes
Tenderness at joint margins
Limitation of motion
Joint malalignment-varus is bowlegged, valgus is knock-knees.
Less common-local inflammation
- Common sites of Osteoarthritis
- Lumbar and cervical spine
first carpometacarpal joint
distal interphalangeal joints
proximal interphalangeal joints
- Non pharmacologic tx of Osteoarthritis
- Self mgmt course
- Drug therapy for osteoarthritis
Nsaids or salicylates
Tramadol (narcotics last resort)
Then, Intraarticular Synvisc,
Refer for Joint Replacement
- Rheumatoid Arthritis
- Chronic, inflammatory, systemic disease.
Increases with age, More common in females,
- Pathology of Rheumatoid Arthritis
- Initiating Event is unknown
Synovial membrane inflammation
Synovial hypertrophy and graulation tissue
Destruction of periarticular bone/cartilage
Joint deformity(not reducable,permanent)
- Diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis
- >4 of 7 Criteria for >6wks:
Arthritis of >3 joint areas
Arthritis of hand joints
Serum rheumatoid factor
xray changes-bony erosions
- RA deformities
- ulnar deviation, chronic MCP changes and intrinsic muscle wasting.
- Extra articular manifestations of RA
- Rheumatoid nodules
- Lab findings for RA
- elevated ESR and correlates with degree of synovial inflamation.
Rheumatoid factor. Autoantibodies to IgG in most pts.
- Management of RA
- Early diagnosis and aggressive tx.
Education, OT, PT, self help
Nsaids or Celebrex
DMards- hydroxychloroquine, Methotrexate***(category x)(low doses, and increase)
Anti TNF drugs- Remicade, Enbrel, Orencia
IL 1 receptor agonist-Kineret.
- A skeletal disease marked by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration that leads to an increased susceptibility to fracture.
- Etiol. of Osteoporosis
Peak bone mass age 25
Stable until menopause
- Risk factors (nonmodifiable) for Osteoporotic Fractures
- Hx of fracture as adult
History of fx in first degree relative
- Risk factors for osteoporotic fractures (potentially modifiable)
- Low body weight
Early menopause <45 or bilateral oophorectomy
Prolonged premenopausal amenorrhea >1yr
Low lifelong calcium intake
Inadequate physical activity
(ETOH,immobile, steroids,anticonvulsants, excessive thyroid supplement)
- Measurement of Bone Mineral Density
- Essential for diagnosis of low bone mass
Assessment of future fracture risk
Assessment of response to therapy
Central and peripheral skeleton devices
DEXA scan is central device.
- Tscores with Osteoporosis
- Osteopenia-T score between -1 to-2.5
Osteoporosis T score <-2.5
Severe <-2.5 and one or more fragility fractures.
- Who should get BMD testing?
- Women >65 yrs
Postmenopausal women <65 with risk factors
Adults with fragility fracture
Disease or meds associated with decreased bone mass or increase in loss.
Anyone considered for drug therapy or needs monitoring for drug effect.
- Osteoporosis clinical features
- Common fracture sites- hip, spine**, wrist
Vertebral fx may be asymptomatic
Acute verteral fx symptoms-intense localized pain and reduced spine
- Pharmacologic tx of osteoporosis
- Indicated for women with osteoporotic fx. Preventive if Tscore -2.0 or -1.5 with risk factors.
Bisphosphonates (Fosamax, Actonel)(Take on empty stomach, full glass of water, sit up, no eating for 30 min, then can lie down p eating)
Estrogen(prevent. of loss in recent menopausal women)
Calcium 1200mg qd
Vit d 400-800 iu qd
- Prevention/Treatment of Osteoporosis
Avoid smoking and heavy caffeine
Fall risk reduction
Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty
- Fibromyalgia definition
- Widespread pain >3 mths
Above and below waist
Demonstrated tender points
Heightened neuron sensitivity-> exaggerated response to a peripheral stimulus
Pain and Fatigue!!
- Fibromyalgia Triggers
- Genetic predisposition
Other disease (arthritis)
- Fibromyalgia Clinical Features
- Diffuse aching, stiffness, fatigue
Multiple tender points in specific areas(>11 out of 18)
Normal labs (r/o hypothyroid)
- Associated sx of Fibromyalgia
Multiple chemical sensitivities
Impaired memory, concentration
- Tender points of Fibromyalgia
- Predefined points that are considered + when an individual c/o pain upon application of pressure (blanch a nail)
- Tx Fibromyalgia
Meds for sleep:
Elavil and Flexeril**
Start low 10mg several hrs pHS
Build to 40mg of cyclobenzaprine or 70-80mg of amitriptyline.
Ambien (short term only)
Seratonin boosting drugs- Prozac, paxil, zoloft, effexor, celexa, lexapro.
Analgesics- Tylenol, Nsaids, ultram.
- BPH-Benign adenomatous hyperplasia of the periurethral prostate gland.
- Increased DHT (active form of testosterone)
Stimulation of alpha adrenergic endings interfering with the opening of the bladder neck internal sphincter.
- Clinical Presentation of BPH
- Seen in men >50
Obstructive symptoms (weak stream, straining, hesitancy, intermittency, incomplete bladder emptying and terminal dribbling.
Frequency, nocturia, frequency
- Complications of BPH
Urinary incontinence, infection, retention ->UTI
- Diagnosis of BPH
- Sensation of not emptying bladder p urination.
Occurrence of the need to urinate within 2 hrs of last void.
Episodes of having to start/stop during urination.
Difficulty postponing urination.
Weak urinary system.
Occurrence of needing to push and strain during urination.
Number of times got up from bed to urinate at night.
- Physical exam of BPH
- Distended bladder
DRE(do PSA before DRE)
Gland is enlarged, firm, smooth, symmetrical with oblierated median sulcus.
- Diagnostics for BPH
- UA to r/o UTI and hematuria
Creatinine to assess renal function.
PSA 0-4 normal
- Management for BPH
- Limit fluids p dinner
Cut back on caffeine and etoh
Surgery for men with recurrent UTIs, gross hematuria, bladder or renal insufficiency
- Meds for BPH
- Always do DRE and PSA before meds
Terazosin 2-10mg qd.(alpha blocker)
Avodart (androgen hormone
Cardura-heart and bph. 1-16mg qd. long acting alpha blocker.
Take med at qhs.
Proscar is effective in decreasing prostatic size, increasing peak flow rate and reducing sx.
- Prostate Cancer
- Malignant neoplasm of prostate gland.
High fat diet?
- S/S Prostate CA
- Many asymptomatic
Mimic BPH with frequency, dribbling, nocturia.
Occasionally bone pain from mets
uremia due to urethral obstruct.
- Prostate CA assessment findings
- May present with lymphadenopathy
May have distended bladder
DRE- prostate feels harder than normal and normal boundaries of gland may be obscured. Nodules may be present.
- Diagnosing Prostate CA
- Transperineal or transrectal needle biopsy.
PSA levels >10
Transrectal US to guide biopsy and aid in ID of nodules
- Acute Bacterial Prostatitis
- Ecoli or other gram- baceria are most common.
Young men-more prone to non bacterial prostatitis where causative agent includes mycoplasma, gaidnerella&chlamydia.
- Presentation of Prostatitis
- Fever, chills, malaise}
Low back pain}never do DRE
Dysuria, urgency, nocturia frequency, suprapubic discomfort
Perineal pain increased with defecation and sex
- Prostatitis PE, Diagnostics and TX
- Fever, Prostate is firm or boggy, warm and tender
UA with bacteria,WBCs
Bactrim DS 1po BID 2-4weeks or Cipro 250-500mg BID 2-4weeks
BR, Sitz bat tid for 30min
FU in 48-72
Avoid sex until resolution
- Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis
- One of the most common causes of recurrent UTIs in men: client is asymptomatic and urine is sterile between episodes.
Occurs esp. in older men.
- Presentation of Chronic Bacterial prostatitis
- Milder than acute...
Urinary frequency, dysuria
Vague lower abd pain, lumbar and perineal pain
Fever and urethral d/c uncommon
May have swelling and tender scrotum
prostate may be tender, irregularly indurated or boggy
- Tx Chronic bacterial prostatitis
- Bactrim 1po BIDx4wks, Cipro
Analgesics and stool softener
Refer to urologist if >50yrs old...usually associated with BPH
- Non bacterial prostatits
- Most common type of prostatitis
Mild perineal pain, dysuria, frequency and urgency.
No s/s of systemic illness. Penil d/c common
WBC's but no bacteria in urine and expressed prostate secretions cultures.
- Epididymitis-acute intrascrotal infection
- infection from bladder, urine, prostate or urethra. Men <35 usually chlamydia.
Men >35 usually bladder bacteriuria.
- Presentation of Epididymitis
- Usually unilateral
Painful scrotal swelling, may radiate up spermatic cord into lower abd.
Phren's sign (passive elevation of testis may relieve pain)
UTI, prostatitis sx
Fever, chills, malaise
- Diagnostics for epididymitis
- STD tests
- Tx of epididymitis
- Rocephin 250 mg IM plus Doxy 100mg BIDx10days if <35
Bactrim DS 1BID x10d or Cipro 250 BIDx10days if >35.
Avoid sex until abx complete
Ice early heat late
F/U in 48 hrs.
- Testicular Torsion
- Twisting of the spermatic cord which results in compromised testicular blood flow.
Surgery within 24 hours or risk sterility/necrosis.
- Testicular Torsion Presentation
- Some have acute pain and swelling
Sudden onset of pain that radiates to groin.
Lower abd pain which leads to erroneous dx of appendicitis or gastroenteritis.
No fever, urethral d/c or dysuria.
PE- Testis may be high in scrotum, tender and not posterolateral. Cremasteric reflex absent in torsion, present in epididymitis.
- Collection of peritoneal fluid trapped in processus vaginalus. May form secondary to testicular pathology such as testicular tumors.
- Hydrocele presentation
- Flat scrotum in a.m. with increase in fluid during the day.
Rarely resolve and potential for herniation of the intestine.
- Hydrocele physical exam
- transilluminate scrotum-Light will appear as red glow with serous fluid, but not with blood or tissue.
- Dilated plexus of scrotal veins situated above the testis in the scrotum.
Bag of worms
sperm count drop
Vessels very dilated.
Causes-tumors, intraabd. pathology
Refer for surgery if voluminous and rapidly expanding.
- Undescended testes
mechanical factor from birth
Lack of hormones
Risk of malignancy, infertility, stress, trauma
- Protrusion of an abdominal viscus or part of a viscus through abd wall.
Incarcerated-Cannot reduce and the contents of the hernial sac cannot be returned to the peritoneal cavity.
Strangulated- Blood supply to viscera lying within the hernial sac is obliterated or cut off.
- Clinical picture of hernia
- Mild pain, dull ache in groin
Bulge localized in the groin or extended into the scrotum.
Strangulated hernia: Colicky, abd. pain, N/V, abd distention and hyperperistalsis.
- Treatment of UTI
- Bactrim DS 800mg q12
Cipro 250 bidx5-7d
Never give fluoroquinolones to seizure pts!
- Three Major Pathways of Voiding
- Sympathetic-bladder neck tighten, and bladder relaxation
Pudendal nerve-voluntary control of the urethral sphincter muscle which allows voluntar contraction or relation of the muscle.
- Sympathetic voiding pathway
- Carry relax and store message
Contributes to urine storage and promotes continence.
- Parasympathetic voiding pathway
- Cholinergic drugs-Detrol
Carry contract message
- Pudendal nerve voiding pathway
- Factors that contribute to urethral resistance/continence
- Urehtral length (greater in males)
Urethral curvatures (2 in men, none in women)
- Effects of aging on continence
- Increased production of urine in nighttime hrs.
Reduced bladder capacity
Reduced strength of bladder contractions
Increased irritability of detrusor muscle
Delayed recognition of bladder filling
BPH in men
Loss of estrogen in women causes bladder irritability and reduced urethral resistance
- Effects of meds on urinary tract function
- Sympathomimetic/Adrenergic-increased urethral resistance, relaxation of bladder wall.
alpha adrenergic blocking-Reduced urethral resistance (men) Hytrin,Minipress,Cardura
Cholinergics-Increased bladder contractility (urecholine)
Anticholinergic- Reduced bladder contractility (*Enablex-Vesicare, Detrol)
- Stress Incontinence
- Leakage of urine associated with increase in abd pressure due to sphincter dysfunction:permits leakage of urine in absence of a bladder contraction
- Stress Incontinence Diagnosis and TX
- Qtip test, urethral pressure profile, Abd leak point pressure
Treat-Pelvic exercises, Electric stim, Sympathomimetics, pessaries*(holds bladder off of vaginal wall)
- Overactive Bladder (Urge Incontinence)
- Not well understood-damage to cerebrocortical centers that regulate bladder function.
Perceives fullness and urgency despite low volumes. Bladder may contract and empty when it should be filling. Sense of urgency at low volumes.
Motor urgency with unstable detrusor muscles that contracts with no warning in response to triggers such as filling volues, increased abd pressure.
- Etiol of overactive bladder
- Conditions affecting the brain or spinal cord can cause loss of ability to inhibit bladder contractions. Lesions in the pons decreases their ability to store urine.
- S/S of overactive bladder
Frequency (>8voids in 24 hr)
Low voided volumes
Leakage in response to common stimuli
Key in lock syndrome
*Detrusor instability diagnosis can be made with cystometrogram that documents unstable detrusor contractions
- Tx of overactive bladder
- Elimination of bladder irritants/infections
Envt. modifications, bladder retraining
- Functional Incontinence
- Incontinence in individuals with normal voiding patterns and normal bladder function;usually related to cognitive status, motivation or mobility issues.
- Functional Incontinence Causes
- Unclear, r/t cognitive status or mobility
Most common in long term care centers
- S/S of functional incontinence
- Large volume urinary leakage at regular intervals
Individual may or may not be aware
No specific diagnostic study
- Functional incontinence Tx
- Dependent on clinical presentation
Prompted or timed voiding
Containment or absorptive products
- Reflex Incontinence
- Total loss of voluntary bladder control in individuals with spinal cord lesions above the sacral cord level.
the bladder empties by means of the reflex arc. 'Detrusor hyperreflexia'.
- Causes of Reflex Incontinence
- Suprasacral spinal cord lesion
Bladder filling triggers the reflex arc between the bladder and spinal cord that results in bladder contraction
Sphincter may or may not open to permit unobstructed voiding.
- Etiol of Reflex Incontinence
- Spinal cord injury above s2
Myelomeningocele above s2
Clinical signs-No awareness of bladder filling, no ability to inhibit or initate voiding.
- Reflex incontinece diagnostics and treatment
- Neurologic Lesion
Sphincterectomy or intraurethral stent plus condom drainage for males.
- >35 y/o yearly
- Cyclic pain common
Noncyclic pain-custal ectasia, fibroadenoma, CA, costochondritis
Eval-hx, physical, mammogram, US
- Fibrocystic changes in breast
- common.Fluctuates with cycle. Benign.
Treat with oral contraceptives
- Discharge of nipple
- Pathologic if:
Unilateral, spontaneous. Bloody, colored.
- Intraductal papillomas
- tumor in lactiferous ducts. Excise surgically or will b/c malignant.
- Breast CA
- Normally painless.
Increase with age
1st child p 30yrs old
Post menopausal obesity
Chest wall radiation as a child
- Breast CA clinical...
- Scaliness of nipple
Swelling, dimpling, orange peel
- Cervical CA
- Most common gyn CA
Age of first sex before 18
Greater than 3 lifetime partners
No barrier contraception
DES exposure inutero
HIV or immunocompromised
HPV, TX for abnormal Pap smear and or hx of chlamydia.
- Pap smears, who and how often
- Extremely Low risk-Virginal or >65yo. with consecutive negative findings.Qat age 60 or later
Low risk- Negative paps yearly x3:q3or3years.
DES daughter-ist pap age 14 or menarche or sexual activity.
Vaginal and cervical paps q6-12mths until age 30, then yearly.
cervical or uterine malignancy:q3mthsx2yrs,q6mthsx3yrs, then yearly.
premalignant cervical lesion:q6mthsx2-3yrs.
Benign cervix and uterus:no pap
- Usually causative agent to cervical CA.
- Uterine Myomas
- Leimyoma arises from smooth muscle-a proliferation of tissue that continues even after original stimulus is lost
- Uterine Myomas S/S
- Pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea*, dyspareunia, fullness
Decreased bladder capacity
Abnormal uterine bleeding
- Uterine Myoma/Fibroid Diagnosis and treatment
- Bimanual exam-check height of fundus
Remove when size of 4mth fetus.
Treatment depends on desire for fertility.
More comon in middle years.
Location r/t symptoms more than size.
- Primary dysmenorrhea
- Severe cramps
- Secondary dysmenorrhea
- Treat uderlying problem
Treat with same as primary dysmenorrhea.
Oral contraceptives, long acting progestins, GNRH agonists
- Multiorganism infection of the pelvic organs.
Results in sterility.
pain with mvmt of cervix.
Residul infection in uterus
Increases with each STD
- Risk factors for PID
- Multiple partners
Hx of previous infection
- Diagnosing PID
- Based on presentation
Some have fever, cultures, US useful when pelvic exam difficult.(may demonstrate free fluid)
- Treating PID
- **high dose,inj. in office
Cefoxitin 2gm IM with Probenecid 1g po
Ceftriaxone 250mg IM and Doxycycline 100mg po x10-14d.
Azithromycin 1gm plus dosy 100mgpo x10-14d
Reassess in 48hours, if no improvement-admit.
Dosing changes b/c of strains*
- Ovarian cysts
- Single sided pain or discomfort
Absence of menses
Ruptured-Severe stabbing pain, starts out on one side, then begins to dull and b/c burning sensation as fluid from cyst disperses throughout perioneum.
- Diagnosis and Tx of Ovarian cysts
- Clinical exam, US, CT
Palpate ovary on post menopausal woman usually cancer.
- Ectopic pregnancy
- Torsion of ovary
Bleeding in adnexa or infection
Appendicitis or PID differential
Send to OBGYN
- Dysfuctional uterine bleeding
- Intermenstrual bleeding with no clinical cause.
R/O pregnancy, consider cancer, meds, surgery, hypothyroidism.
Always consider endometrical or cervical cancer if postmenopausal.
- Ovarian Cancer
- over age 40. Vague nonspecific discomfort. If palpate ovary in post menopause-suspect CA.
- Causes of vaginitis
Bacterial, Candidiasis, Trichomoniasis, Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, Herpes, HPV
NonInfectious: Atrophic vaginitis, foreign bodies
- Causes of candidiasis (vaginal)
- Candidia albicans usually
- Diagnostic Findings of Cadidiasis (vaginal)
- Itching, Burning, Discharge
Discharge-white, curdy, cottage cheese
Odor-absent, KOH may mislead
Microscopic-Mycelia, budding yeast, pseydohyphae with KOH prep
- Treatment of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis
- Start with OTC if not severe
- Caused by a parasite (protozoan)
Most are asymptomatic
Concomitant infections common.
**Strawberry punctate marks on cervix.
White thin luminous discharge
- Treat Trichomoniasis
- Metronidazole 2gmpo single dose
Metronidazole 500mg po BIDx7d
No etoh while on drug
Treat partner concurrently.
Screen and treat in pregnancy.
- Bacterial Vaginosis
- Most prevalent vaginal infection
underdiagnosed (50% asymptomatic)
- Causes/Predisposing Factors for Bacterial Vaginosis
- Causes-Unknown, alteration in vaginal flora, Lactobacilli.
Predisposing factors-Presence of concomitant STDs
Multiple or new sex partners
Earlier coital experience
Looks like trich
- Treating Bacterial Vaginosis
- Metronidazole 500mgx7days.
May recur due to persistence of pathogens, failure of lactobacili to recolonize, persistence of unidentified host factor, reinfection from partner, continued douching
- Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
- Goal is to alleviate symptoms
Ovulation induction for fertility
Oral contraceptives for menstrual irregularity, hirsutism.
Metformin for type II DM
- How OCP's work
- Prevent ovulation- inadequate FSH-LH to alow for ovulatory cycle which mimics pregnancy effects on pituitary gland resulting in non stimulation of the ovaries.
thin out phase endometrial layer to inhibit implantation
Capacitation of sperm inhibited
Thickened cervical mucous to trap sperm
- Older OCP's
- Lo Ovral, Nordette, Orthonovum, Lo estrim FE=have more estrogen and progesterone, risk for DVT, strokes
- Newer OCP's
- Yasmin (Drospirenone)
- No androgens
Contraindicated in renal, hepatic or adrenal insufficiency; any meds that may increase K level; Wt loss; Acts like mild diuretic
- Desogestrel (Mircette)
- Risk of thromboembolic disease
Contraindicated in DVT, stroke, CAD, DM with neuro changes or DM>20yrs, Pregnancy, lactation<6wks; Liver probs; Migraines, >35/smoker;Htn;prolonged immobilization
- Depo-Provera side effects
Insert dep into deltoid, no massage.
prlonged return to fertility after ending use 3-18mths.
Reduced calcium in bones.
- Ortho Evra Patch
- Once a week. ethinyl estradiol and norelgestromin.
Stays on during activities.
Patch x3weeks, one week without.
Never apply to breast.
- Anecdotals about Birth Control Pills
- Nordette-More potent progestin, cyclic wt gain but good for dysmenorrhea.
LoEstrin-More androgenic, increase in waist size
Desogen-Loss of libido
Orthotricyclen-Mood swings, emotional
DMPA-mood changes, depression
Ortho Evra-Effectiveness concerns, rash
Nuva Ring-Increased vaginal lubrication
- May last 5-15yrs.
Transitional period between reproductive and nonreproductive physiologic processes.
Increase or decrease in menstrual cycle length.
- Complete cessation of menstruation for one year!
Avg age is 51.3
- Organ systems affected by Menopause
- CNS-Hot flashes, psychological
CV-Increased risk for MI,Stroke
Skin-Diminished skin thickness and increased wrinkling
GU-Vaginal itching, bleeding, and dyspareunia;vulvar pruritus and pain;dysuria;urgency/stress incontinence;Urinary frequency
Skeletal-Osteoporosis/increased risk for fractures
- Hot flash concerns of women
Certain foods, hot drinks, etoh, hot weather, synthetic clothes, stress.
Treat-Estrogen and/or Progestin
Clonidine-alpha adrenergic receptor agonist
Estrogens are most comprehensive therapy. Start with low dose, for shortest amt of duration.
Local (cream, etc)Estrogen for urogenital symptoms. use patch for direct delivery of drug.
- Postive treatment with HRT
- Prevents osteoporosis
Relieves hot flashes
Relieves vaginal dryness and discomfort
Progestin component protects endometrium.
Estrogen ONLY for women who have had a hysterectomy!!
Estrogen and progest. for women who have a uterus.
vitamin E, soy, Black cohash are alternative therapies.
- Health concerns of perimenopausal women
- Urogenital atrophy (vulva flattened and thin, vaginal shortening and narrowing, Vaginal walls b/c thin &lose elasticity, Decrease in lubrication, Urethral opening shifts to nearer the introitus, Urethral wall and bladder thin, vaginal ph more alkaline)
All this increases infections, burning/irritation, trauma, dyspareunia, UTI, stress incontinence.
Increased risk for ovarian, endometrial, breast, and cervical CA
Treat with estrogen cream, lubricans, sitz bath, pelvic exercises, continue sexual activity!
- Osteoporosis with Menopause
- osteoblastic activity not ale to keep up with osteoclasts!
Prevent-Exercise, Ca++,Vit D, avoid smoking and glucocorticoids.,HRT
Estrogen therapy is best.
Combine with biphosphonates, calcitonin, parathyroid hormone, ca and vit d rich diet.
- Drugs for osteoporosis
- Boniva-1 q mth
Actonel- 1qwk. GI sx.
All rebuild bone with biphosphates, increase osteoblasts
- Absolute contraindications for estrogen use
- Undiagnosed vaginal bleeding
Acute liver dx
Known or suspected pregnancy
Endometrial adenocarcinoma or other estrogen dependent tumors
- Risks of estrogen replacement
- Endometrial or breast cancer
- Eval Prior to HRT
- Pap smear
- Common HRTs
- Conjugated equine estrogen-Premarin
Estrace, Estinyl, Estratab, Ogen
Others-Estring,Orthodienestrol cream, vagifem vaginal tablet.
SE's of Estrogen:
Nausea, HA, breakthru bleeding, HTN, breast tenderness, depression.
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