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Glossary of COM 480 Exam 1

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Created by cstoeckley

six types of distortion in public relations
hype, minimizing, overgeneralization, categorization, labeling, image transfer
downplaying expectations for a program or project that may not be especially successful in its outcome
lowballing
used by governmental and corporate public relations practitioners to make their programs look good; actually consists of the one-sided use of facts or data to create a desired impression
spin
the use of hyperbole or magnification, blowing out of proportion of the attributes of a person, event, or product
hype
playing down the seriousness of a failure or the negative aspects of a product or other problems experienced by a client
minimizing
drawing sweeping conclusions based on one isolated case or example
overgeneralization
involves the portrayal of a person, event, or product as "good" or "bad" with no middle ground
categorization
when an individual or program is considered either a "winner" or "loser"
labeling
involves the deliberate shifting of image from one person, event, or product to another, but dissimilar, person, event, or product
image transfer
three main categories of research
client, opportunities/problem, audience
a situational assessment of the significance to the client or organization of each potential public
prioritizing
Four Key Questions to consider in targeting and prioritizing publics
1.) Who is this public? (in terms of demographics, psychographics, etc.)
2.) Who is it important to us?
3.) How active or involved is this public, relative to our interests?
4.) Which publics are most important to us, in priority rank order?


six sources of non-quantitative research
client records, published materials, interviews, feedback from client customers, talking with organized groups with an interest in the client, focus groups
three most commonly used quantitative methods
sample surveys, experiments, and content analysis
sample survey
the most frequently used quantitative research method; can be conducted by mail, telephone, in person
examples of sample surveys
mail questionnaires, telephone interviews, personal interviews
the least expensive survey method
mail questionnaires because of lower staffing requirements
major problem with mail questionnaires
low response rate
most popular means of conducting surveys
telephone interviews
the first choice in conduct of sample surveys
telephone interviewing
an expensive and time consuming survey method, yet, the most accurate survey method; many people reluctant to agree to these because of the time and inconvenience involved
personal interviews
content analysis
systematic procedure used in analyzing themes or trends in the message content of selected media; can be used to learn how the media are treating clients
Quantitative research should be conducted only by _____________ ______ with good reputations in their field
professional firms
Four Steps in Programming
1.) Stating a theme and the message to be communicated to the audiences
2.) Planning the action or special events sponsored by the client
3.) Planning the use of the media, either uncontrolled or controlled
4.) Effectively communicating the program


2 Steps in Effective Communication:
Two-Way Communication and Opinion Leaders
opinion leaders
identified by cataloging the leadership of all important groups in a given community or institution; can either be elected officials or simply respected individuals within groups or communities; practitioners should create a list of opinion-leader contacts
2 Categories of Internal Communications
Member and Employee
SWOT Analysis
Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats
Output Objectives
lower in the hierarchy, "put out" objective distribution of controlled and uncontrolled media
3 types of impact objectives
Informational, Attitudinal, and Behavioral
Integrated Marketing incorporates CC and DD... these are...
customer-centric and data driven
customer-centric
finding out as much information as possible about target audiences because you will ultimately try to determine how to reach them
integrated marketing communications...
seeks to reach highly targeted audience through carefully done data-driven work to achieve objectives through using a selected series of online and offline channels
IMC tends to lean more strongly towards these two impact objectives
Attitudinal and Behavioral
employee relations
deals with employees, personell; communication is more sophisticated
member relations
individual chooses to be a member; more so relations to keep members informed
4 Key Principles in Effective Internal Comm.
-Management of org. must have complete understanding and be fully supportive of what is going on
-good communication skills must be practiced
-sound meeting management skills
-responsibility principle


four factors in good communication skills
listening, speaking, questioning, and ideas
loaned exec.
a company loans you out to another org. for a certain time period
communications audit
done if you see blockage/flow problems within an org., looks at published communications to see where a problem is coming from
3 Main Community Publics
Media, Leaders, Organizations
questions asked by client research
-level of credibility?
-past complaints?
-past/present community relations?
-strengths/weaknesses?


It is important to identify these three important pople in a campaign
Movers/Shakers/Influencers
activity related to community relations needs to be ________
TRANSPARENT
cross-pollenization of community leaders
what board directors are part of other than your client?
Client Research DOUBLE R
Role and Reputation
POPMoney Case
CashEdge with Zer0 to 5ive provide a new service that allows users to transfer money P2P through their banks
CAT Case
CAT and Lamarsh and Associates implement major benefit changes during a time of record profits
Millenium Park Case
Millenium Park and Ruder Finn fight negative publicity that said funds were being misused by building community support in positive publicity with special events, sneak peaks at the park, and press conferences to keep public informed
Got 2B Safe Case
Put on by Honeywell Hometown Solutions, Peppercorn, and National Center for Missing and Exploited Children to promote an in-school program teachers could educate students with, including an award system for the best method of teaching the program
Red Dress Heart Truth Campaign
Ogilvy PR with the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute to raise awareness about Heart Disease in women

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