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Glossary of COM 135 EXAM 1

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Created by lilblondie5454

Empowerment
to have the resources, information, and attitudes that allow you to tke action to achieve a desired goal
a public speaker is a source of info and
ideas for an audience
job of speaker
encode the ideas and images in his or her mind innto a verbal/nonverbal symbole
message
what is said and how it is said
message is transmtted through two channels
visual and auditory
auditory
inflection rate, voice quality
reciever
the individual member who is decoding the message will depend on his or her past experiences, attitudes, beliefs, and values
noise
external, physical sounds that interfere with comminications or internal( physical or psychological)
context
the environment or situation in which the speech occurs.. .time, place, expectations
rhetoric
the use of words or symbols to achieve a goal
declamation
the delievery of an already famous speech
elocution
the expression of emotion through posture, movement, gestures, facial expression, and voice
insensitive communication apprehension
previous experience in public speaking, lower heart rate
inflexible
highest heart rate, fear motivates them to prepare and be at their best
confrontation
very high heart rate at stART, then lowers
speech topic
the key focus of the content of a speech
general purpose
goal of speech, to inform, persuade, or entertain
specific purpose
a statement of the desired audience response, indicating what you want your listeners to remember, feel, or do when you finish speaking
central idea
one sentence summary of the speech contente
main ideas
key points of a speech
invention
the development or discovery of ideas and insights
disposition
the organization and arrangement of ideas and illustrations
ethics
the beliefs, values, and moral principles by which people determine what is right or wrong
free speech
legally protected speech or speech acts
first amendment
the amendment to the constitution thats guarentees free speech.. bill of rights
speech act
behavior, such as flag burning that is viewed by law as nonverbal communication and is subject to the same protections and limitations as verbal speech
ethical speech
speech that is responsible, honest, and tolerant
ethical speaker
has a clear goal, uses sound evidence and reasoning, is sensitive to and tolerant of differences
accomadation
sensitivity to the feelings, needs, interests, and backgrounds of other people
plagiarizre
to present somone elses words or ideas as though they were ones own
plagiaphrasing
failing to give credit for compelling phrases from another source
oral citation
the oral presentaiton of info about a source as the author, titile , and year of publication
chapter 5

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demographics
statistical information about the age, race, gender, sexual orientation, educational level, and religious views of an audience
open ended questions
questions that allow for unrestricted answers by not limiting answer to choices or alternatives
close-ended questions
questions that offer alternatives from which to choose, true/false multiple choise
audience analysis
the process of examining information about tose who are expected to listen to a speech
two ways ot become an audience centered speaker
informally and formally
informally: demographics
formally
1. open-ended questions
2. close-ended questions

common ground
similarities between a speaker and audience members in attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors
relationship
an ongoing connection you have with another person
audience adaptation
the process of ethically using information about an audience in order to adpat ones message so that it is clear and achieves the speaking objective
demographic audience analysis
analyzing an audience by examining demographic inforation so as to develop a clear and effective message
culture
a learned system of knowledge, behavior, attitudes, beleifs, values, and norms that is shared by a group of peple
ethinicity
that portion of a persons cultureal backkground that relates to a national or religious heritage
race
a persons biologicial heritage
ethnocentrism
the assumption that one's own cultural perspectives and methods are superior to those of other culutres
target audience
a specific segment of an audience that you most want to influence
attitude
an indiviudals likes or dislikes
belief
an individuals perception of what is true or false
value
enduring concept of good and bad, right and wrong
situational audience analysyis
an examination of the time and place of a speech, the audience size, and speaking occasion in order to develop a clear and effective messaGE
group membership
religious, political, work, social., service
socioeconomic status
income, occupation, education
audiences can be:
interested/uninterested
favorable, or unfavorable
voluntary or captive

General purposes for speeches
inform, persuade, entertain
inform
share information with listener by defining, describing, or explaining a thing, person place, concept , or function
persuade
to change or reinforce a listerners attitude, belief, value, or behavior
entertain
to help listeners have a good time by getting them to relax, smile, and laugh
specific purpose should
use words that refer to meaureable behavior, be limited to a single idea. reflect needs, interests of audience
one sentence summary of speech, a single idea, audience centered idea, use specific language
central idea
the central idea of a speech plus preview of main ideas
blueprint
organization of the natural divisions in a central idea according to recency, primacy, complexity, or the speakers discretion
topical organization
arrangement of ideas from the most to the leas important
primacy
arrangement of ideas from least to most important
recency
arrangement of ideas from the simple to the more complex
complexity
organization bases by time or sequence
chronicle organization
organization based on location or position
spatial organization
organization that focuses on a situation and is causes or a situtation and its effects
cause and effect organization
organiztion focused on a problem and tjen various solutions or a olution and the problems it would solve
problem an solution organization
supporting material based mainly on opinion or inference, includes many hypothetical illustrations, descriptions, explanations, definitions, and analogies
soft evidence
factualy examples and statistics
hard evidence
a verbal or nonverbal signal that a speaker is moving from one idea to the next
signpost
a statement in the body of a speech that introduces and outlines ideas that will be developed as the speech progresses
internal preview
a restatement in the body of a speech of ideas tht have been developed so far
internal summary
an audiences perception of a speaker as competent, trustworth, knowledgeable, and dynamic
credibility
an illustration or breif story
anecdote
restate main ideas, use memorable way
summarie the speech
use verbal and nonverbal clues to signal the end of the speech, motivate audience to respong
provide closure
the quality of a conclusion that makes a speech sound finished
closure
using geometric shapes to sketch how all the main ideas, and supporting materal of a speech relate to the central idea and to one another
mapping
numbered or lettered headings and subheadings arranged hierachy to indicate the relationshops among parts of a speech
standard outline form
condensed and abbreviated outine from which speaking notes are developed
delievery outline
communication other than written or spoken language that creates maning
nonverbal communication
a communication theory that suggests that if listeners' expectations about how communication should be xpressed are violated, listerners will feel less favorable toward the comminicatore of the message
nonverbal expectancy theory
a theory suggesting that people tend to catch the emotions of others
emotional contagion theory
reading a speech from a written text
manuscript speaking
delieverying a speech without advance preparation
impromptu speaking
delievering a speech word for word from memory without using notes
memorized speech
speaking from a written or memorized speech outline without having memorized the exact wording of the speech
extemporaneious speaking
the degree of perceieved physical or psychological closeness between people
immediacy
behaviors such as making eye contact, appropriate gestures, and adjusting physical distace that enhance the quality of the relationship between the speaker and listeners
immediacy behaviors
a consistent style of pronouncing words that is common to an ethnic group a georgraphic region
dialect
the use of sounds to form words clearly and accurately
pronunciations
how high or low your voice sounds
pitch
the variation in the pitch of the voice
inflection
a microphone that can be clipped to an article of clothing
lavaliere microphone
a microphone suspended from a bar and moved to follow the speaker
boom micro
a micro attached to a lectern, sitting on a desk or standing on the floor
stationary micrp
anything tangible that help communicate an idea to the audience
presentation aid
the use of images as an integrated element in the total communication effort a speaker maked to ahcieve the speaking goal
visual rhetoric
a small object that represents a larger object
model
a pictorial representation of statistical data
graph
a graph which bars of various lengths represent information
bar graph
a displayy that summarizes info. by using words, numbers, or images
chart
images, charts, graphs, and words that are created usng a computer program
computer generated graphics
images or pictures stored in a computer file or in printed form that can be used in a presentation aid
clip art
a speech that teaches others new info. ideas, concepts, principles, or processes in order to enhance their knowledge or udnerstanding about something
speech to inform
the are and sicience of teaching children
pedagogy
the art and science of teaching adults
andragogy

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