Glossary of COM 123 Final

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Variety of diversity among audience members; dissimilarity
buzzwords or phrases that are devoid of specific content
assuming that all members of a demographic category are alike in all respects
subjective factors that characterize a particular audience and make its situation distinct
audience culture
personal gain or loss resulting from an action of policy
what an individual regards as interesting or important
personal interests
statements that listeners regard as true
positive or negative judgements that listeners apply to a person , place, object, event, or idea
talking down to an audience; assuming that listeners are not capable of thinking about a subject and reaching their own conclusions
facts that are commonly known among the members of a culture, common knowledge.
cultural facts
brief references to something with which the audience is assumed to be familiar
socially assigned positions such as "parent," "student," "employee," and "citizen"
groups with which listeners identify, regardless of whether they belong to them.
reference groups
a tendency to expose oneself to messages that are important personally and that are consistent with what one already believes
selective exposure
conscious or unconscious choice about whether or not to focus intently on a speech, absorb and process its contents, and take it seriously
selective attention
the interpretation or understanding given to a speech; the meaning it has for a listener
listeners who share the characteristics of people in general
general public
subject-matter areas with distinct norms or assumptions
an imaginary audience made up of all reasonable people
universal audience
saying whatever will please an audience even if it is not what the speaker really believes
the process of looking for and discovering supporting materials for the speech
exploration of a speech topic to determine which subordinate topics must be covered
the beliefs and values that members of a society or cultures generally share
common knowledge
the assumption that a statement or claim is true until shown otherwise
primary sources that can establish a claim directly, without opinion or speculation
numbers recording the extent of something or the frequency with which it occurs
information or an opinion expressed by someone other than the speaker, cited to support some claim
a question with a finite number of choices from which the respondent must pick
closed question
a question that does not restrict the range of possible responses
open-ended question
a question that explores the implications of a previous response
follow up question
using someone else's words or ideas as though they were your own
a file of clippings, quotations, ideas, and other gleanings on a variety of subjects that may be used as supporting materials
speech material file
proof established through interaction between the speaker and the listeners; provides support for a conclusion but not assurance that it is true
rhetorical proof
would be inferred by most people when exercising their critical judgement
a statement that a speaker asks listeners to accept and that the speaker tries to prove
a mental leap from the supporting material to the claim
specific instances used to illustrate a more general claim
typical of the larger category from which a case is selected
an inference that appears to be sound but that, on inspection contains a significant flaw
assuming that what is true of the part is automatically true of the whole
fallacy of composition
a comparison of people, places, things, events, or more abstracts relationship
a direct comparison of objects, people, or events
literal analogy
a comparison of the relationships between objects, people, or events
figurative analogy
something that stands for something else
regarding something that can be observed as a sign of something that cannot
physical observation(as a sign)
a statistical measure that is taken as a sign of an abstraction
statistical index (as a sign)
a sign relationship that results from norm or social convention
institutional regularity (as a sign)
a pattern of inference that suggests that one factor brings about another
causal inference
assuming that one thing causes another when in fact a third factor really is the cause of both
common cause fallacy
assuming that, because one event occurred before another, the first is necessarily the cause of the second
post hoc fallacy
testimony from a person who is generally recognized as an authority on a particular subject
expert testimony
testimony from a person who is not an expert
lay testimony
to offer judgements, without providing any basis for them
the quality of striking a responsive chord with listeners, causing them to identify with what one is saying
a claim that, on its face, is unrelated to the supporting material
non sequitur
only restating the claim in slightly different words, rather than supporting the claim
circular argument
making an inference tha diverts attention from the issue at hand
ignoring the question
having multiple messages
a display of the organational pattern of the speech
a detailed outline, usually written in complete sentences, used to develop a clear organizational structure during preperation of the speech
preperation outline
a brief outline, usually containing only key words, used as a memory aid during delivery
presentation (speaking) outline
designating the supporting materials for a main idea with the subordinate symbol and indentation system in an outline
designating all ideas that are on teh same level of importance with the same symbol series and level of indentation in an outline
the pattern of choices attributed to a person by others to characterize or to distinguish him or her
an individual pattern of stylistic choices that characterizes a particular person
a pattern of stylistic choices that characterizes a group with which a person identifies
making self-reference to the speaker or situatoin
unintentional but possibly meaningful confusion of words and usages
the process of giving meaning to a word
explaining what a term means by identifying specific operations to be performed
operational definition
the referent for a given word
the feelings or emotional responses associated with a given word
a shift in connotation applied to the same denotation or a shift in denotation applied to the same connotation
persuasive definition
a consise statement of a principle, often in the form of a proverb, also called an aphorism
specialized or technical terms within a given field of knowledge
a term that may or may not be widely used in ordinary conversation but that has a specific meaning within a particular field of knowledge
technical term
efficiency in the use of words, avoidance of unnecessary words
word economy
a word pattern that focuses on who did what and prominently features the agent
active voice
a word pattern that focuses on what was done and largely ignores the agent
passive voice
saying or writing the opposite of what is meant
capable of being interpreted with more than one meaning
a word, phrase, or thing that harmoniously acommodates diverse ideas or references within a single positive or negative connotation
condensation symbol
speaking simultaneously with different voices or on differnet levels of denotative meaning but with similar connotations
the sense of movement or pacing within a speech
a pattern in which the audience responds to a speaker's questions or prompts, often with a repetitive refrain
call and response
the pairing of opposites within a speech, often to suggest a choice between them
graphic, easy to picture. a speech is vivid if its language enables listeners to develop mental pictures of what is being said
a cumulation of details that suggest a mental picture of a situation , person, or event
an explicit statement that one thing is like another
naming one thing in terms of another; discussing one thing as though it were another
repetitive consonant sounds
use of sounds that resemble what they describe
discussion of abstract or complex ideas in human terms
reproducing a conversation within a speech
a question for which no answer is expected; it is asked to get listeners thinking so that they quickly recognize the obvious answer
rhetorical question
a memorable phrase that is recalled from a speech and used to identify the speech
sound bite
the presentation of the speech, using the voice and body to create the desired effect
feeling what listeners feel and knowing what they think
loudness of voice
placement of the voice on the musical scale, ranging from high to low
a very narrow, unchanging pitch range
the speed at which a person speaks, measured in words per minute
periods of brief silence within a speech
pauses filled with sound such as "uh" or "uhmm" or "fuckshitdamnsuck"
vocalized pauses
precision and clarity in the production of individual vocal sounds
precision and distinctness in sounding words
sounding of a word in an accepted way
a pronunciation pattern that characterizes a particular geographic area, economic or social class, or cultural factors
pronunciation pattern for a sentence as a whole
movement of hands and arms during the speech as a means of emphasis
the first step of a gesture, involves bringing the hands into a position from which the gesture can be made
anticipation step
the execution of a gesture, raising the hand and moving it in the intended manner
implementation step
returning the hands to a normal relaxed position at the conclusion of a gesture
relaxation step
looking directly at members of the audience
eye contact
a mode of presentation in which the speaker has done little or no specific preperation for the speech
impromptu presentation
the opposite of speaking impromptu; the speaker pays close attention to a prepared text and commits it to memory
memorized presentation
a mode of presentation in which the speaker reads aloud the prepared text of the speech
manuscript presentation
a mode of presentation in which the speech is planned and structured carefully but a specific text is not written in advance nor memorized
extemporaneous presentation
brief periods of practice spread over time
distributed practice
a few lengthy practice sessions shortly before delivering the speech
massed practice
approaches tp preparing a speech in which the overall goal is to share ideas with an audience
informative strategies
creating awareness about a subject that listeners did not know about or think about before
agenda setting
a strategy to clarify a term or concept that is vague or troublesome , or to introduce a new way of viewing the subject
a strategy to relate what happened with little analysis or interpretation
a strategy in which a cumulation of details characterizes, or evokes a mental image of, the subject
a curve that displays the rate at which something learned is forgotten over time
forgetting curve
a response by a speaker that rewards the listener to strengthen the listener's posiitive attitude toward the speech
an audience that is strongly commited in opposition to the views of the speaker
hostile audience
abandoning one belief or value and replacing it with another
within a larger audience, those individuals whom a speaker especially wants to address, usually people whose response will determine whether the speech succeeds
target audience
the incentive to do something that requires effort, such as considering a persuasive message
the refusal to accept the claim in a message no matter how strong its justiciation is
disregarding a message (even if it is generally true) beacuse one disputes that it applies to oneself
keeping two conflicting beliefs seperated so that one need not be conscious of the conflict between them
capable of being understood in more than one way
the opposite effect from that which a speaker intends
boomerang effect
making people aware of values and commitments that they previously took for granted
consciousness raising
a predicition that comes true because of actions that people take upon hearing the prediction
self-fulfilling prophecy
the attack or defense of a challenged statement or claim
statements that are not in the speaker's self-interest
reluctant testimony
statements that are suspect because they are influenced by the self-interest of the source
biased evidence
establishing commons bonds between speaker and audience so that the speaker appears to be at one with listeners
a persuasive message that is organized in terms of steps in the audience's motivation rather than in terms of the specific subject
motivated sequence
fittingness or appropriatness to the occasion
speaking in a court of law, concerned with establishing justice
forensic speaking
speaking in a decision-making assembly, concerned with matters of expediency; addresses the question "what shall we do?"
deliberative speaking
a group presentation in which a subject is organized topically and each speaker addresses a limited portion of the subject
the tendency for groups to approve more extreme solutions than would an individual because no one is personally responsible for the group's decision
the presiding officer of a meeting
rules for the conduct of public meetings
parliamentary procedure
a statement proposing what an assembly should do
a question that presupposed a value judgement adverse to the speaker
loaded question
identifying two unacceptable options and assuming that htey are only alternatives
false dilemma
speaking at ceremonial occasions; it reaffirms a community's common bonds and values, strengthening ties between individuals and the group
ceremonial speaking
conscious awarness, salience
articulating the unexpressed feelings of the listeners, who then conclude that the speaker's message rings true with them
a speech honoring a person
a special form of the testimonial speech, honoring someone who has died
a brief testimonial speech, usually delieverd in the presense of the person honred and accompained by raising a glass in the persons hand
a speech of tribue that both honors and pokes fun at a person
a speech marking the issuance of an award
presentation speech
a speech presented when one receives an award or a nomination for office
speech of acceptance
a speech that is intended to motivate a group and inspire enthusiasm for a task
pep talk
a speech presented following a ceremonial meal, usually humorous in tone but which a serious message
after-dinner speech
When the speech reviews the thesis in conclusion ?
Part of intro can be combined with significant statement
Section that clarifies your thesis.
to Persuade, Entertain etc
Purposes of speaking
To Read from a Script
Main Script
First to analyze modes of Persuasion.
Praising well is important affects your ...
Art of Framing an argument ?
Elements of a case
An Audience comprised of individuals that attend an event because of a personal interest in the speech or speaker.
Voluntary Audience
Quantifiable Characteristics or factors of a particular audience
Using Audience info in unethical way by using demographic information about the audience to make overt and exploitative appeals to them based on that information
The use of the voice and the body to supplement the communication of one's :
The Ability to form and defend independent judgements rather than accepting or rejecting messages without thought based on bias or ignorance
Critical Thinking
US Government began operating under Constitution after it was ratified in :
A collection of the 10 original amendments to the Constitution designed to temper the power of federal government.
The Bill of Rights
The Document stating that "Congress shall make no law " respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof ; abridging the freedom of speech. or of the press etc
The First Amendment
The Slogan of Free Speech Movement" A free university in a free society " came from the protests that occurred in the 1960's at
University of California at Berkley
1.In 1989, The U.S. Supreme Court declared that flag burning constituted a:
speech act
1.Your COM 123 performance lab members were a :
Captive Audience
1.An outline that is fully developed and written out.
1.The Greek word for communication apprehension or fear of public speaking:
1.Speaking competently and conversationally with limited preparation and limited notes is referred to as the _____________ presentation mode.
1.A pattern of organization used when examining the similarities and differences of two concepts in a speech.
Compare/ Contrast
1.Cindy began her speech by saying, “Today, it is 400% more expensive to go to college in the United States than it was just 30 years ago.”
statistic/Fact as an Attention Getting Deviating Fact
1.A person’s predisposition or learned evaluation, which causes someone to like or dislike a topic and can influence behavior.
1.A persuasive organizational pattern presents the following steps: Attention, Need, Satisfaction, Visualization, and Actions is the:
Motivated Sequence
1.Speeches designed on basis of shared values to offer praise, commemoration, entertainment, or honor.
Special Occasion
The fittings or appropriateness of an occasion
1.A brief testimonial speech, accompanied by raising a glass in the person’s honor.
A Toast
1.Personal experience, interviews or surveys and questionnaires that you may conduct in order to research your topic:
Primary Research
1.An informative speech is one that explains, enlightens, and ____________.
which of the 5 of the Rhetorical Cannons describes the generation of ideas?
1.The process of generating MANY ideas without censoring or editing within a limited amount of time.
A graphical technique for visualizing connections between several ideas or pieces of information.
mind mapping
1.A succinct statement of the central idea or claim made by speech.
sing the passage of time with main points in order from past to present or present to past as a structure of speech organization:
1.The speech where the aim is to have the audience learn how to do something or how something works or operates.
emory devices used to help people remember important information by taking the first letter of a process or the main points and creating a word (ex: K.I.S.S.).
Mnemonic acronyms
1.Providing statements that connection or bridge the main points in the speech:
1.The two elements that should be written out word for word in a presentation outline:
Introduction and Conclusion
1.Mary began her speech by saying, “Imagine a world with no electricity.”
Rhetorical question
1.A symbolic process in which communicators try to convince other people to change their attitudes or behaviors regarding an issue through the transmission of a message in an atmosphere of free choice.
1.A rhetorical term referring to an act or habit of misusing words ridiculously, especially confusing words that are similar in sound.

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