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Glossary of COMM 114 Test

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Perception
The process of becoming aware of objects and events from the senses.
Active perception
Your mind selects, organizes, and interprets that which you sense.
Subjective perception
-Your uniquely constructed meaning attributed to sensed stimuli.
-Your attached meaning to what your mind selects.
Selection
\"Tune out\" certain stimuli.
Selective exposure
You expose yourself to info that reinforces, rather than contradicts, your beliefs or opinions.
Selective attention
Even when you do expose yourself to info and ideas, you focus on certain cues and ignore others.
Selective perception
Tendency to see, hear, and believe only what you want to see, hear, and believe.
Selective retention
Tendency to remember better the things that reinforce your beliefs rather than those that oppose them.
Organization
The grouping of stimuli into meaningful units or wholes.
Figure
-Focal point of your attention.
-Your comprehension.
Ground
Background against which your focused attention occurs.
Closure
Tendency to fill in missing info in order to complete an otherwise incomplete figure or statement.
Proximity
Objects physically close to each other will be perceived as a unit or group.
Similarity
Elements are grouped together because they resemble each other in size, color, shape, or other attributes.
Interpretation
-Assignment of meaning to stimuli.
-Where the differences appear and can play out.
Interpretive perception
A blend of internal states and external stimuli.
Perceptual constancy
-Idea that your past experiences lead you to see the world in a way that is difficult for you to change.
-Role an individual plays in a group.
Culture
System of shared beliefs, values, customs, behaviors, and artifacts that the members of a society use.
Marshall Singer (1982)
Perceptions are largely learned; what people see, hear, is conditioned by their culture.
Co-culture
Group whose beliefs or behaviors distinguish it from the larger culture of which it is part.
Identity management (Goffman)
The control (or lack of control) of the communication of information through a performance.
Language
A collection of symbols, letters, or words with arbitrary meaning that are governed by rules and used to communicate.
Semantics rules
-The study of the way humans use language to evoke meaning in others.
-Focuses on individual words and their meaning.
-Interested in how language and its meaning change over time.

Syntax rules
-The way in which words are arranged to form phrases and sentences.
-Changes the meaning of the same set of words.
Pragmatics rules
The study of language as it is used in a social context, including its effect on the communicators.
Phatic communication
-Communication that is used to est. a mood of sociability rather than to communicate info or ideas.
-Helps us interpret meaning in specific contexts.
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
Our perception of reality is determined by our thought processes and our thought processes are limited by our language and, therefore, that LANGUAGE SHAPES OUR REALITY.
Colloquialisms
Words and phrases used informally.
Cliche
An expression that has lost originality and force through overuse.
Euphemism
-A more polite, pleasant expression used in place of a socially unacceptable form.
-Enters the language to \"camouflage the naked truth\".
-Considered more polite.

Doublespeak
Any language that is purposefully constructed to disguise its actual meaning.
Slang
-A specialized language of a group of people who share a common interest or belong to a similar co-culture.
-Helps a co-culture est. its membership and its boundaries.
-Purpose is to keep insiders in and outsiders out.

Profanity
Language that is disrespectful of things sacred.
Jargon
The technical language developed by a professional group, such as physicians, educators, electricians, economists, or computer operators.
Regionalism
Words and phrases specific to a particular region or part of the country.
Dating
Specifying when you made an observation, which is necessary because everything changes over time.
Frozen evaluation
An assessment of a concept that does not change over time.
Indexing
-Identifying the uniqueness of objects, events, and people.
-Recognizing the differences among the various members of a group.
Observation
What is sensed.
Inferences
Conclusions drawn from observations.
Cultural competence
Responding respectfully and effectively to all people.
Nonverbal communication
The process of using wordless messages to generate meaning.
Repeating
-Occurs when the same message is sent verbally and non-verbally.
-Nonverbal cue reiterates verbal cue.
Emphasizing
The use of nonverbal cues to strengthen your message.
Complementing
-Different from repetition in that it goes beyond duplication of the message in two channels.
-Nonverbal and verbal add meaning to one another.
-Expand meaning of the message.

Substituting
Occurs when nonverbal codes are used instead of verbal codes.
Regulating
Occurs when nonverbal codes are used to monitor and control interactions with others.
Misunderstandings
-Codes can communicate many meanings.
-Different codes may mean the same thing.
Nonverbal codes
Codes of communication consisting of symbols that are not words, including non-word vocalizations.
Kinsesics
-Study of bodily movements and facial expressions.
-Need to observe, analyze, and interpret.
Emblems
Nonverbal movements that substitute for words and phrases.
Illustrators
Nonverbal movements that accompany or reinforce verbal messages.
Affect displays
Nonverbal movements of the face and body to show emotion.
Regulators
Control flow or pace of communication.
Adaptors
Nonverbal movements that serve a physical or psychological purpose.
\"Matching hypothesis\"
Women and men seek others who are of similar attractiveness.
Proxemics
Study of space and distance.
Territoriality
Need to est. and maintain certain spaces as your own.
Edward T. Hall
-First to define the four distances people use regularly.
-Intimate, personal, social, and public.
Monochronic
-Time is a commodity.
-Time can be lost, gained, spent, and wasted.
-Time is linear, adherence to schedules.

Polychronic
-Time is more holistic.
-Schedules are less important, events may not start on time.
Haptics
Use of touch.
Chronemics
Time.
Objectics
Clothing and artifacts.
Paralinguistics
Vocal cues.
Listening Process
-Active process of receiving, constructing meaning from, and responding to spoken and/or nonverbal messages.
-Mental act where you need to retain information and respond accordingly.
1. Receive sound waves.
2. Process them.


Automatic attention
-Instinctive focus.
-Automatic such as when a gun goes off or there is a loud noise or I call your name.
Working memory
-Part of consciousness that helps us assign meaning and interpret stimuli.
-Looks for connections between new information and long-term memory.
Short-term memory
Temporary storage for information.
Long-term memory
Permanent storage for information.
Hearing
The act of receiving sound.
Listening
The active process of receiving, constructing meaning from, and responding to spoken and/or nonverbal messages.
Schema
Organizational \"filing systems\" for thoughts held in long-term memory. How we access information.
Active listening
-Involved listening with a purpose.
-Using all available senses.
-Paraphrasing what is heard both mentally and verbally.
-Checking your understanding to ensure accuracy.
-Providing feedback.



Feedback
-Responses to the speaker\'s message.
-Can be positive or negative.
Empathetic listening
-Form of active listening, you attempt to understand where the other person is coming from.
-Being \"fully engaged in the moment\", and have the ability to perceive another person\'s worldview as if it were your own.
Critical listening
You challenge the speaker\'s message by evaluating its accuracy, meaningfulness, and utility.
Listening for enjoyment
Involves seeking out situations involving relaxing, fun, or emotionally stimulating information.
Physical distractions
All the stimuli in the environment that keep you from focusing on the message.
Mental distractions
The wandering of the mind when it is supposed to be focusing on something.
Factual distractions
Focusing so intently on the details that you miss the main point.
Semantic distractions
Over-responding to an emotional-laden word or concept.
Status
Devoting attention based on the social standing, rank, or perceived value of another.
Stereotypes
Treating individuals as if they are the same as others in a given category.
Sights and sounds
Letting appearances or voice qualities affect your listening.
Egocentrism
Excessive self-focus, or seeing yourself as the central concern in every conversation.
Defensiveness
Acting threatened and feeling like you must defend what you have said or done.
Experiential superiority
Looking down on others as if their experiences with life is not as good as yours.
Personal bias
Letting your own predispositions, or strongly held beliefs, interfere with your ability to interpret information correctly.
Pseudolistening
Pretending to listen but letting your mind or attention wander to something else.
Critical thinking
Involves analyzing the speaker, the situation, and the speaker\'s ideas to make critical judgments about the message being presented.
Genderlect theory
Masculine and feminine communication styles are examples of two different cultural dialects.
Conflict
-Constructive and creative.
-Can also be dysfunctional.
Interpersonal Relationships
-Two or more people.
-Interdependent.
-Interacted for some time.
-Consistent patterns.


Interdependent
Mutually dependent of one another.
Complementary
-Each person supplies something the other person lacks.
-\"You complete me\".
Symmetrical
Have highly similar characteristics.
Uncertainty Reduction Theory
Communicate in order to learn more about people and reduce our uncertainty.
Social Exchange Theory
-Weigh the rewards and costs to determine choices about the relationships.
-Pros/cons to figure out how to proceed.
Social Penetration Theory
-Process of increasing disclosure and intimacy in a relationship.
-As we get to know someone we learn more about them.
-Ex. Onion--has layers.

Self-Disclosure
Process of making intentional revelations about yourself that others would be unlikely to know.
Open Area
Known to self and known to others.
Blind Area
Not known to self but known to others.
Hidden Area
Known to self but not known to others.
Unknown Area
Not known to self and not known to others.
Role-Limited Interaction
-We meet people based on roles.
-Encounter people in chat rooms, sports, school.
-Limit our disclosures.

Friendly Relations
We check each other out to see if we want to further the relationship.
Moving Toward Friendship
-Meet each other outside of school.
-Self-disclosure more.
-Many friendships stay at this stage.

Nascent Friendship
-We call each other friends and think of each other as friends.
-Share feelings and value, concerns, and interests.
-Work out private rules for interactions.

Stabilized Friendship
-There is continuity.
-Don\'t need to make plans to ensure you will see one another.
-Have a mutually high level of trust.

Waning Friendship
-Sometimes happens because one person moves.
-Fade slowly rather than abruptly.
-Friends may run natural course and become boring.
-Violations of trust may also affect relationships.
-Communication may become more controlling and strategic.
-Both friends must be willing to rebuild trust and intimacy.




Social value
How we look to others.
Responsiveness
We select individuals who like us.
Knapp and Vangelisti (2000)
Helps organize and explain relational changes.
Experimenting
Interests/hobbies.
Intensifying
-Share personal information.
-Awareness the relationship is developing.
Integrating
-Begin doing things that are similar.
-Merge social circle.
-May have common property.

Bonding
Deepest level of commitment.
Active verbal responses
-Come-back/defending.
-Mimicking.
Acquiescent respnses
Apologize/let me consider this...
Invulnerable responses
Whatever/so/sticks and stones/I don\'t care/crying/laughing/silence treatment.

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