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Glossary of COMM 1010 midterm

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Created by britneyzurovetz

is the process whereby people create, maintain, repair, and transform social reality.
Communication
the process of actively engaging in dialogue with others who share a common purpose or goal
Community engagement
the verbal or nonverbal form of the idea, thought, or feeling that one person (the source) wishes to communicate to another person or group of people (the receivers)
Message
shared understanding of the message constructed in the minds of communicators
Meaning
similar to a dictionary definition or understanding of meaning based on the shared general understanding of the word. For example, when you hear the word “dog,” a content level of meaning would be a specific four-legged animal we often call man’s be
The content level of meaning is the literal message—
interpersonal, small group, intercultural, organizational, public, mass and computer-mediated communication
7 Contexts of communication:
action, interaction, transactional, constructivist
4 Models of communication
one directional, where one individual sends the message while the other individual receives the message
Action
builds on the action model and adds the additional dimension of a response from the other individual in the communication encounter, includes feedback
Interaction
simultaneously send and receive messages with an unlimited number of messages moving between sender and receiver at any time. There can even be multiple players (multiple senders and receivers).
Transactional:
receiver creates her own reality in her mind The sender’s words are symbols that must be interpreted, and the receiver constructs his own meaning based on his field of experience.
Constructivist:
a code consisting of symbols, letters, or words with arbitrary meanings that are governed by rules and used to communicate
Language
abstract, arbitrary, and ambiguous representation of other things
Symbol
no 2 people will imagine the same thing
Arbitrary
faith freedom and love
Abstract
words meanings change thong and gay ex.
Ambiguous
a theory that our thought processes, which are limited by our language, determine our perception of reality and, therefore, that language shapes social reality
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
explains how specific words and combinations of words are regulated and provide guidelines for how words are grouped together and used. (explain language functions)
Regulative rules
explains the denotative meanings of a word and provides guidelines for what counts as what. (explains what words mean given a particular social and cultural context).
Constitutive rules
Nonverbal and verbal codes
work together
--- behaviors may function to repeat, to emphasize, to compliment, to contradict, to substitute or to regulate a --- message
nonverbal
verbal
kinesics, proxemics, paralanguage, chronemics and haptics
Types of nonverbal behaviors:
study of body movement, gestures, postures and facial expressions
Kinesics
how humans use space and time
Proxemics
nonword sounds and pitch, volume
Paralanguage
study of time and how people use time and organize in various settings
Chronemics
how we use touch in communication
Haptics
both nonverbal and verbal communication methods are ---, are guided by rules, and reflect culture. --- is perceived to be more believable
symbolic
nonverbal
Listening for pleasure, listening to discriminate//learn information, listening critically when we evaluate and judge, listening empathetically.
Types of listening
hearing, attending, understanding, responding and remembering.
Steps of listening
external obstacles ( noise, complex messages) internal obstacles ( preoccupation, pre-judgment lack of motivation)
Obstacles to listening
three or more individuals working toward a common goal while using shared rules and norms for communicating
Small group communication
explicit and implicit rules implemented, perpetuated, and understood by all group members
Shared rules
individuals within a group are mutually dependent on each other, they influence and are influenced by one another
Interdependence
Forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning
5 Phases of group development
individuals view conflict as a means to better decisions and work collaboratively together to solve the conflict
Constructive conflict
first step is to recognize and define the problem next step is problem analysis, when the group gathers facts surrounding the problem third step is to generate criteria to assess solutions.
Problem solving process
concerned with specific course of action that should be taken place related to a specific topic or issue, so groups discuss what should be done to address a specific problem or issue
Question of policy
concerned with understanding whats true and can be proven based on observation or behavior
Question of fact
concerned with understanding what is good or just, and they are influenced by group members values and judgments about a given topic or issue
Question of value
A structured form of brainstorming that ranks alternative ideas.
Nominal group technique
compares the pros and cons of a specific proposal can be helpful to determine the best solution
T-chart
reward power, coercive power (demoting or taking away), legitimate power(boss), referent power (charisma) , and expert power (if person needs job)
Bases of power
assumes that leaders are born, not made. Individuals who approach leadership from this perspective believe that some individuals are just leaders because they have natural effective communication traits, such as a charismatic speaking style.
Trait
looks at the communication behaviors that influence the organization or work group. This approach takes into account whether the behaviors fit the organizational climate.
Functional
provide basic expectations of behaviors of group members under specific circumstances. Most norms found within groups are considered implicit
Norms
a pattern of behavior expected of a group member. Roles are not constant; as a group progresses through phases, expectations of roles can change.
Roles
provides four code types for different personality traits and characteristics. Extravert or introvert, sensing or intuitive, thinking or feeling, judging or perceiving.
Myers Briggs Personality Indicator
intragroup conflict, (family,team) interpersonal conflict (husband and wife), and intergroup conflict (2 nations, manager and employee, 2 political parties)
Levels of conflict
Avoidance, competition, compromise, accommodation, and collaboration
Thomas-Kilmann conflict model:
audiences judgment on whether a speaker is believable
Source credibility:
tone of voice -38%, words-7%, body language-55%
Delivery
determine your main points, organize topical, chronological, spacial(geog), problem solution, causal
Organization
support points with examples, statistics, quotations and analogies
Support
The socially constructed behavior, beliefs, attitudes, and values of a particular community or population.
Culture
group of individuals who belong to a nondominant cultural group, which has unique experiences that foster distinctive patterns of communication
Co-Cultures
occurs when a marginalized group attempts to fit in with a dominant culture
Assimilation
occurs when a marginalized group manages to keep co-cultural identity, while establishing a positive relationship with the dominant culture
Assimilation:
relates exclusively with its own group, while minimizing the relationship with the dominant culture
Seperation
tangible objects and physical substances that have been altered by human intervention, reflect a cultures values. Icons, personal possessions.
Material components
beliefs, values, and norms held by a culture.
Non-material components
Holding ones culture above other cultures
Ethnocentrism
increases exposure to other cultures
Intercultural communication:
a culture should be judged by its context rather than measured against another culture
Cultural relativism
making generalizations about a person based on a group affiliation
Stereotyping:
individualist vs collectivist, low context vs high context,power distance, femininity vs masculinity, dealing with uncertainty, aggression and emotion, and time orientation
Cultural Value Differences
motivation, knowledge, attitudes and behaviors.
Intercultural communication competence

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