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Glossary of CMD

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anterior
toward the front
posterior
toward the back
superior
upper
inferior
lower
ventral
away from the back bone or toward the front of the body
dorsal
toward the backbone
rostral
toward the head
caudal
toward the tail
superficial
toward the surface
deep
away from the surface
external
toward the outer surface
internal
toward the inner surface
medial
toward the axis or midline
lateral
away from the axis or midline
proximal
toward the body or root of extremity
distal
away from body or root of extremity
sagital
into right and left halves (vertical) along sagital suture
frontal
into front and back halves (vertical) along coronal suture
transverse
upper and lower halves (horizontal)
5 characteristics of life
irritability, growth, spontaneous movement, metabolism, reproduction
protoplasm
basic material of cell composition
cytoplasm
the mass of protoplasm around the nucleus
interstitial(intercellular) fluids
fluind inside the cell
nucleus
the specialized protoplasm of a cell. a group of nerve cells. containing the cell's hereditary material and controlling its metabolism, growth, and reproduction. Contains DNA in its ground substance
nucleoplasm
the protoplasm of a cell nucleus
DNA
contributes to the formation of chromosomes during cell composition. A chromatin deposit responsible for transmission of genetic traits.
genes
the biological unit of inheritance, which is transmitted by the chromosome
chromosome
A threadlike linear strand of DNA and associated proteins in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells that carries the genes and functions in the transmission of hereditary information.
cell membrane
The semipermeable membrane that encloses the cytoplasm of a cell
Types of tissues
Epithelial, Connective, Vascular, Muscular, Nervous
type of tissue w/o intercellular substance
epithelial
3 types of tissue with intercellular substance
1. Semifluid- connective
2. Solid- Bone, Cartilage
3. Fluid- Blood, Lymph
Tissues with partially elongated cells
nervous tissue
tissues with totally elongated cells
muscular tissue
Epithelial Tissue
Skin and membranes. maybe single or several layers. little to no intercellular substance.
types of epithelial tissue
squamous, cuboidal, columnar
Connective Tissues
Few cells, much ground material
3 types of connective tissue
1. loose
2. Dense
3. Special Connective Tissue
Loose Connective Tissue
adipose and areolar-found in fatty areas. scattered fibers. allows considerable movement between structures. ex/ earlobe
Dense Connective Tissue- 4 types
very fibrous- much collogen. 1. tendons
2. Ligaments
3. Fascia
4. Reticular tissue
Tendons
connects muscle to bone or carilage
ligaments
connects bone to bone
fascia
any fibrous connective tissue that is not tendons or ligaments. sheet of connective tissue. looks like skin but is much tougher. found all over the body.
reticular tissue
net like structure. skin but with mesh net. reticular fiberes form and branching network.
Special Connective Tissue 2 types
structural role in body. Bone and Cartilage
what is cartilage made of
contains cells, ground substance and fibers. chondroblasts
describe compression of carilage
strong
does carilage continue or stop growing
continues
can cartilage become bone
yes
3 types of cartilage
1.Hyaline Cartilage
2. Elastic Cartilage
3. Fibrous Carilage
Hyaline Cartilage
shinny, blue-white, smooth, glasslike.
what does hyaline carilage cover
articular surface of joints and larynx
Can in calcify or ossify
they can become stiff (bone)
Elastic Carilage
yellowish, flexible, when bent will move back, does not calcify
Fibrous Carilage
intervertebral discs
Bone
Cells( osteoblasts) rigid matrix of collogen and ground substance ( mostly calcium salts)
2 types of bone
1.Dense( compact)
2. Spongy (cancellous, porous)
which part of the bone is spongy and which part is dense. are they very different
spongy interior. dense exterior. not much difference.
What is found in the interior of bone
marrow (very cellular)
what types of bone is marrow found in
long bones, like the femur
2 types of marrow
1.Red-maufactures red blood cells.
2. Yellow- adipose tissue (fat)
periosteum
The dense fibrous membrane covering the surface of bones except at the joints and serving as an attachment for muscles and tendons
vascular tissue
blood and lymph
do muscles contract or lengthen
contract
3 types of muscles
1.striated muscles
2. smooth muscles
3. cardiac muscles(we won't study)
Striated muscles
skeletal muscles
are striated muscles voluntary or involuntary
voluntary
what shape are straited muscles
cylindrical. skinny and long
what are the dimensions of striated muscles
1-120 mm length. .01-.1 mm diameter
how many nuclei are found in muscles cells
multinucleated
what are myofibrils
Any of the threadlike fibrils that make up the contractile part of a striated muscle fiber.
sacroplasm
specialized protoplasm in which myofibrils are embedded. The cytoplasm of a striated muscle fiber.
sarcolemma
delicate, elastic, transparent and homogenous membrane whihc invests every striated muscle fiber
what type of protein is found in muscle cells
myoglobin
myoglobin
a protein which increases diffusion of oxygen into muscle fibers and contributes to their color.
what surrounds the cell outside the cell membrane
endomysium
endomysium
fibrous tissue which binds muscle fibers and separates them from adjacent muscle fibers.
fasciculi
muscle fibers grouped together
smooth muscles
involuntary, single nucleated-
condyle
A rounded projection at the end of a bone, most often for articulation with another bone. a rounded or knucklelike eminence which articulates with another bone
crest
a prominent,narrow ridge
head
an enlargement at one end of the bone, beyond its neck (constricted portion)
process
a bony prominence
spine
a sharp projection
trochanter
a very large bony projection
tubercle
a small rounded projection
tuberosity
a large rounded projection
fissure
a cleft of deep groove
foramen
an opening or perforation in a bone ( or carilage)
fossa
pit or hollow
fovea
a small pitlike depression
groove
a furrow, narrow trench
meatus
a tube or passageway
neck
a constriction near one end(the head) of a bone.
sinus
a cavity within a bone
sulcus
a groove or a furrow
furrow
A rut, groove, or narrow depression.
in which cavity of the body do you find the structure for breathing?
thoracic cavity
list the breakdown of the thoracic cavity 6
nasal cavity, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi
which three parts make up the vocal tract
nasal, oral, pharyngeal cavities
what are the two jobs of the vocal tract
1. part of the sound(speech) production mechanism.
2. carries air for the purpose of breathing. filters, moistens, and warms the air on the way to the lungs.
What does the trachea connect
larynx to the bronchi
what are the dimensions of hte trachea
12 cm long and 2 cm diameter.
what is the trachea constructed from.
incomplete carilaginous rings (open dorsally.
what connects the tracheal rings
fibrous membrane(ligaments) and smooth muscle, forming a flexible tube
what lines the trachea
cilia, goblet cells
what is the purpose of cilia
to keep some foreign matter out.
what is the purpose of goblet cells
secrete mucus, which can trap particulates and add to the moisture in the air.
what does the trachea do at the lower end
splits at the carina into two bronchi
how are bronchi alike and differnt to trachea
1. trachea like-still has incomplete rings.
2. smaller than trachea
what does the bronchi split into
5 bronchioles. (no rings)
what does the bronchioles split into
alveoli (24 branchings between bronchioles and alveoli.) called bronchial tree.
what is the size of the bronchus compared to the trachea
1/2 the diameter of the trachea.
how do the two bronchi compare to each other
the right one is slightly larger than the left, as weel as shorter and straighter.
how do the lungs compare to each other
the right lung is larger than the left.
how many branches do each bronchus split into
1. right bronchus splits into three secondary bronchi.
2. left bronchus splits into 2 secondary bronchi.
what are vertebrae separated by
intervetebral discs or cartilage.
is the vertebral column flexible?
yes, because the discs can be compressed, allowing osme movement.
what are the purposes of the vertebral column 3.
1. provieds part of the framework
2. attachemnt points for many muscles.
3. protects the spinal cord.
how many vertebrae?
33. ( some variation in number of sacral or coccygeal vertebra)
list the 5 groups of vertebrae and the number of each
1. Cervical Vertebrae (7)-Neck
2. Thoracic Vertebrae (12)- chest. ribs are attached to these.
3. Lumbar Vertebrae (5)- between ribs and pelvis
4. Sacral Vertebrae (5) fused together, forming Sacrum. posterior part of pelvis.
5. Coccygeal vertebrae (4) fused into one piece. tail-like. some say vestigial.
what is found between adjacent vertebrae
intervertebral disc (fibrous cartilage)
what connects vertebrae
strong ligaments, allowing limited motion.
what happens if the vertebrae get out of alignment
the spinal cord or spinal nerves may be compressed.
Ribs(costae)-how are they numbere
12 pairs, numbered top to bottom
how many in males vs females
same number
what is the anterior end of the rib made of
carilage
how does each rib attach dorsally
to the thoracic vertebra (body and transverse process)
what do the upper 9 or 10 ribs connect to
to the sternum with cartilage at ventral midline.
what do the lower 2-4 ribs attach to anteriorly
they dont attach. they float.
purpose of lower 2-4 ribs
to protect kidneys. not involved in breathing
describe sternum
oblong plate of bone in anterior chest.
3 parts of the sternum
1. manubrium
2. body(corpus)
3. xiphoid (ensiform) process.
purpose of the pelvic girdle
forms inferior boundary of abdomen. several muscles of respiration are attached. mostly involved with forced expiration.
3 parts to the pelvic girdle
each paired and fused to the others
1. ilium
2. ischium
3. pubis
ilium
broad upper portion, join with sacrum (part of vertebral column)
ischium
posterior and inferior
pubis
anterior and inferior, central joint is pubic symphysis.
describe pectoral girdle
shoulder, superior boundary of thorax. mostly involved with inspiration
clavical
colar bone. above the first rib. attached to sternum and runs lateralward.
scapula
shoulder blade. broad, flat, roughly triangular. attached to clavicle and to humerus (upper arm). many back muscles attach to scapula.
inhalation or inspiration
increase the thoracic cavity, causing drop in air pressure, causing air to enter lungs.
diaphragm
most important for powering speech. unpaired, has bilateral nerve supply
what does the diaphram looklike
umbrealla shaped, with central tendon.
process of diaphram
contraction lowers the diaphragm, pressing on the viscera, hence enlarging the longitudinal dimension.
what does the diaphragm separate
thoraic cavity from the abdominal cavity (contains viscera)
pectoralis minor-
elevates the upper ribs if the trapezius has stabilized the scapula.
intercostals
may help depress ribs, if lower ribs already depressed. the intercostals act in expiration in a similar way to their role in inspiration. if the lower ribs are stabilized, then the contractoin of intercostals(which always brings pairs of ribs togehter) will bring the rest of the rib cage down.
internal vs. external intercostals
separate muscles, but they may or may not act together. we will treat them as one (functionally) muscle. at right angles to each other.
sternocleidomastoid
lifts sternum and clavicle somewhat. stabilizes upper rib cage.
serratus posterior superior
lift upper ribs. may increase the transerse dimension of the thorax.
serratus anterior superior
lift ribs. stabilize rib cage.
scalenes(anterior, middle, and posterior)
may lift, at least stabilize, the upper ribs.
latissimus dorsi
unlikely to aid in rib elevation
costal elevators
may aid in rib elevation( very small and weak)
subcostals
are unlikely to aid in inspiration
trapezius
very important, but indirect. stabilizes the scapula, which then allows pectoralis minor to act in inspiration.
all muscle activity for inspiration must..
increase at least one dimension of the thorax, longitudinal, transverse, anterior-posterior
what helps with exhalation
1. gravity as long as youare sitting or standing.
2. torque ont he ribs and elasticity or lungs and viscera help regardless of postion, passive forces
normal exhalation
passive forces
speech, higheffort exhalation
active forces
l. Rectus Abdominus
2. External Obliques
3. Internal "
4. Transversus Abdominus
press on viscera, which in turn causes the diaphragm to move upward. this may slightly depress the ribs.
serratus posterior inferior
pull down lower ribs
quadratus lumborum
may depress the lower ribs
transversus thoracis
if involved at all in breathing they are probably exhalatory
you can speak with only passive forcess...
but not with fine intensity and pitch control nor for as long as with muscle involvement.
antagonistic use of inspiratory musculature
you must check the rate of exhalation in controlled exhalation
Lung volumes and capacities 7.
1. tidal volume
2. inspiratory reserve volume
3. expiratory reserve volume (resting volume)
4. residual volume
5. inspiratory capacity
6. vital capacity
7. total lung capacity
inspiratory reserve+ tidal volume+ expiratory reserve=
vital capcity
vital capacity+ residual volume=
total capacity
process for inspiration
1. enlarge thoracic volume with inspiratory muscles.
2. because the thoracic pleura are attached to the thoracic wall, this will enlare the interpleural volume.
3. because interpleural volume has increased, interpleural pressure has decrease.
4. the lungs may expand, refilling interpleural space to reduce its volume and restore its resting pressure.
5. because the lungs have expanded, air pressure in the lungs is reduced.
lysosome
digestive organs of the cell
mitochondria
threadlike granules which provide energy in the form of ATP
cell
body's fundamental unit of structure and function
nucleolus
located within the nucleus. contains ribosomes whihc are essential for protein synthesis
protein synthesis
the process by which individual amino acids are connected to each other in a specific order dictated by the nucleotide sequence in DNA, which also involves the processes of transcription and translation
Example: Protein synthesis is process by which the genetic code puts together proteins in the cell.
cytology
the study of cells
golgi appartatus
appears to temporarily store secretory substances
tissue
a colony of cells similar in structure and function
centrosome
derived from words meaning central+ body
vacuole
a small cavity in the protoplasm of the cell
endoplasmic reticulum
forms an intracellular transport network
function of epithelial tissue
protection, secretion, absorption, glandular, sensory
function of connective tissue
support, protection, connection, insulation, food storage
function of muscular tissue
movement, maintain posture
function of nervous tissue
reception, conduction, communication, coordination, integration
function of vasucalar tissue
transport and deliver oxygen, nutrients, and hormones to cells. remove waste products and toxins from the body. control temperature.
derived from words meaning around + heart
pericardial
derived from words meaning around+ stretched
peritoneal
lines the abdominal cavity
peritoneal
lines the two lung cavities
pleural
lines the vacity containing the heart
pericardial
connective tissue: tightly packed fibers
dense, cartilage, bone
scattered fibers (connective tissue)
loose
connective tissue with semifluid intercellular substance
loose, dense
intercellular substance firm but flexible (connective tissue)
cartilage
intercellular deposits of inorganic salts
bone
cells are called osteocytes and osteoblasts
bone
cells are called chondroblasts
cartilage
derived from word meaning fatty
adipose
derived from a word meaning space
areolar
found in subcutaneous fascia
adipose
meshlike
areolar
has large, spherical cells
adipose
forms "bed" for epithelial tissue
areolar
attach bone to bone
ligaments
attach muslce to bone
tendons
attach mucles to other muscles
tendons
separate and cover muscle fibers to form functional units
fascia
attach cartilage to cartilage
ligaments
attach muslce to cartilage
tendons
attach bone to cartilage
ligaments
feltlike
reticular
support esssential elements of organs
reticular
cartilage that probably does not calcify
elastic
may calcify or ossify with age
hyaline
dense network of collagenous fiber anc cartilage cells
fibrous
like milk glass, but yellowish with age
hyaline
covers articular surfaces of joints
hyaline
forms intervertebral discs
fibrous
found in epiglottis and ear canals
elastic
forms framework of lower respiratory tract
hyaline
found in small carilages of larynx
elastic
cartilage is more predominant in youngsters or adults why?
youngsters, it forms the growing skeleton
consist of intersecting trabeculae
spongy
pierced by haversian canals
compact
large quantity of inorganic salts deposited in matrix
both
appear solid to unaided eye
compact
appear porous to unaided eye
spongy
contains marrow
spongy
derived from the word meaning to hang upon
appendicular
derived from a word meaning central line
axial
pelvic girdle
appendicular
rib cage
axial
hyoid bone
axial
leg
appendicular
shoulder girlde
appendicular
skull
axial
mandible, lower jaw
axial
arm
appendicular
vertebral column
axial
more impoartnt in spech and hearing science
axial
soft tissue that fills cavity of bone
marrow
perichondrium
tough, fibrous membrane investing cartilage
canaliculi
small canals
matrix
noncellular components of conncective tissue
collagenous
yields gelatin when boiled in water
interstitial growth
expansion due to cell multiplication
cortex
outer shell

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