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Glossary of CH 12. VOCABULARY

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Created by diamondzgirl99

Motivation
A need or desire that energizes and directs behavior.
Instinct
A complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned.
Drive-Reduction Theory
The idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need.
Homeostasis
A tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry.
Incentive
A positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior.
Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow\'s pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs than psychological needs become active.
Glucose
The form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger.
Set Point
The point at which an individual\'s weight thermostat is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight.
Basal Metabolic Rate
The body\'s resting rate of energy expenditure.
Anorexia Nervosa
An eating disorder in which a normal person diets and becomes siginificantly underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve.
Bulimia Nervosa
An eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise.
Sexual Response Cycle
The four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson- excitement,plateau, orgasm, and resolution.
Refractory Period
A resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm.
Sexual Disorder
A problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning.
Sexual Orientation
An enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one\'s \'own sex or other sex.
Flow
A completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time resulting from optimal engagement of one\'s skills.
Industrial Organization Psychology
The application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces.
Personnel Psychology
A subfield of I/O psychology that focuses on employment recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development.
Organizational Psychology
A subfield of I/O psychology that examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change.
Task Leadership
Goal oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals.
Social Leadership
Group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support.
Theory X
Assumes that workers are basically lazy, error prone, and extrinsically motivated by money and thus, should be directed from above.
Theory Y
assumes that, given challenge and freedom, workers are motivated to achieve self-esteem and to demonstrate their competence and creativity.

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