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What AR prescribes the policies and responsibilities of command, which include military discipline and conduct, as well as the EO Program?
AR 600-20
What are the three formal channels of communication in the Army?
The Chain of Command, the NCO Support Channel, and Staff and Technical Channels
Describe the structure of the NCO Support Channel.
It begins with the commander’s CSM and ends with the section, squad/team leader
Who is the only person who performs as both a member of the Chain of Command and the NCO Support Channel?
The section, squad/team leader
Who represents the connection between the Chain of Command and the NCO Support Channel?
The senior NCO
Who is the only civilian authorized to exercise command in the military?
The President of the United States
What are the key elements of command?
Authority and Responsibility
Rank in the Army is divided into what classes and grades?
General Officer, Field Officer, Company Officer, Warrant Officer, Cadets, Candidates, Senior NCOs, Junior NCOs and Privates
What is the difference between MANAGEMENT and LEADERSHIP?
Management has an INDIRECT influence on subordinates, whereas Leadership has a DIRECT influence on subordinates
Commander in Chief
President George W. Bush
Secretary of Defense
Honorable Donald Rumsfeld
Secretary of the Army
Honorable Francis J. Harvey
Chairman, Joint Chief of Staffs
General Myers
Army Chief of Staff
General Shoomaker
Medical Command Commander
LTC Kiley
Troop Commander, TAMC
LTC Pierce
Commander, Alpha Co. & Medical Hold Co.
CPT Harris
Commander, Bravo Co.
CPT Burks
Sergeant Major of the Army
SMA Preston
Medical Command, CSM
CSM Eddy
TAMC, CSM
CSM Jenkins
Troop Command, CSM, TAMC
CSM Veerland
1SG, Alpha Co.
1SG Williams
1SG, Bravo Co.
1SG Oilar
1SG, Medical Hold Co.
1SG Montoya
The birth of our Nation began with the signing of an important document. What was this document and what was the date?
The Declaration of Independence
July 4, 1776
What date is considered the beginning of the U. S. Army?
June 14, 1775
Who was the first Commander in Chief of the Continental Army?
George Washington
Whose last words were, “I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country?”
CPT Nathan Hale
The Revolutionary War officially ended on what date?
September 3, 1783
The United States was initially governed by what document and was later replaced with what document?
The Articles of Confederation, which was later replaced by the Constitution
In 1803, the Nation more than doubled in size when it acquired a huge expanse of territory from France. What was this acquisition called?
The Louisiana Purchase
What treaty ended the War of 1812?
The Treaty of Ghent
What event sparked the Mexican War?
The admission of Texas to the Union
What treaty ended the Mexican War?
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
On September 22, 1862, President Lincoln issued an order freeing slaves in all areas still under Confederation control. What was this order called?
The Emancipation Proclamation
When and by what means was the Medal of Honor established?
Congress authorized the Medal of Honor on July 12, 1862
Who was the first recipient of the Medal of Honor?
PVT Jacob Parrott
When did the United States officially enter WWI?
FM 7-21.13 states April 2, 1917
What event sparked the United States official entry into WWII?
The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the Philipines
Who was the Chief of Staff of the Army when the United States entered WWII?
GEN George Marshall
What famous general led the fight in the Pacific theatre during WWII?
GEN MacArthur
What famous generals led the fight in the European theatre during WWII?
GEN Eisenhower and LTG Patton
June 6, 1944 marked the beginning of the invasion in Europe when GEN Eisenhower’s armies landed in France. What was this day called?
D-Day
The war in Europe ended on May 8, 1945. What was this day called?
V-E Day
(Victory in Europe)
When and where was the first atomic bomb dropped on Japan?
August 6, 1945;
Hiroshima
When and where was the second atomic bomb dropped on Japan?
August 9, 1945;
Nagasaki
The war in Japan ended on September 2, 1945. What was this day called?
V-J Day
(Victory in Japan)
What war, formally referred to as a “conflict,” has sometimes been referred to as “the forgotten war?”
The Korean Conflict
Who was the President during the Korean Conflict?
President Truman
When did the Korean Conflict end?
July 27, 1953
When did the Vietnam War officially end for the United States?
1973
The official signing of the Paris Peace Accords
When and what event sparked women achieving full military status?
In 1943, the creation of the Women’s Army Corps
What event symbolized the end of the Civil War?
The Dismantling of the Berlin Wall
What event sparked the Persian Gulf War?
Saddam Hussein’s armies overran Kuwait
What was the name for the actual military operation during the Persian Gulf War?
Operation Desert Storm
Who was the commanding general of the US led forces in Operation Desert Storm?
GEN Schwarzkopf
What event sparked the “War on Terrorism?”
Terrorists of the al-Qaeda network attacked the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on September 11
What Muslim leader was believed to be the mastermind behind the September 11 attacks?
Osama bin Laden
In what location of the world did the “war on terrorism” have its first tangible strike?
Afghanistan
What was the operation into Afghanistan called?
Operation Enduring Freedom
What operation of the US Army and allied units began assaults on Taliban and al-Qaeda forces holed up in the mountains and caves of southwestern Afghanistan?
Operation Anaconda
After intense diplomatic efforts failed the United States deployed its Armed Forces to the Gulf and prepared for what operation?
Operation Iraqi Freedom
What do the letters “WMD” stand for?
Weapons of Mass Destruction
What document is considered the supreme law of the land?
The Constitution
When was the Constitution adopted?
September 17, 1787
How many amendments are there to the Constitution?
27
What are the first ten amendments of the Constitution called?
The Bill of Rights
The Constitution divides our government into three separate branches. What are they?
Legislative, Judicial and Executive branches
The Department of Defense was formerly known as what?
The National Military Establishment
Who is the head of the Department of Defense?
The Secretary of Defense
What are the words on the official seal of the Army?
“This We’ll Defend”
On what date was the Army Flag dedicated?
June 14, 1956
What do the letters “DA” stand for?
Department of the Army
What was the name of the daily newspaper for the US Armed Forces in WWII?
The Stars and Stripes
In what war was the helicopter first used?
Korean Conflict
In which US war did the greatest number of American casualties occur?
Civil War
Name the longest war in US history.
The Vietnam War
When did “The Star Spangled Banner” officially become the National Anthem by law?
March 3, 1931
Who was the only female recipient of the Medal of Honor?
Dr. Mary Walker
What words are inscribed on the empty crypt of the Vietnam Unknown at the Tomb of the Unknowns in Arlington National Cemetery?
“Honoring and Keeping Faith with America’s Missing Servicemen”
Who was the youngest soldier ever to enlist in the Army?
SGT Bryce
What Field Manual covers Guard Duty?
FM 22-6
What are the two types of guard duty?
Interior guard
Exterior guard
The interior guard force of an installation is composed of two elements that can be classified according to their purpose. What are these two elements?
Main guard: a combination of patrols and fixed guard posts
Special guard: guards detailed when it is impractical to use members of the main guard to guard property or an area
A guard on post is governed by two types of orders. What are they?
General orders
Special orders
What are the three General Orders?
1. I will guard everything within the limits of my post and quit my post only when properly relieved.
2. I will obey my special orders and perform all my duties in a military manner.
3. I will report violations of my special orders, emergencies, and anything not covered in my instructions to the Commander of the Relief.
Who is responsible for insuring that all guards understand their special instructions (orders) prior to being posted?
The Commander of the Relief
Only authorized persons can give guards orders or instructions. Who is considered and “authorized person?”
Post Commanding Officer, Field Officer of the Day, Staff Duty Officer, Commander of the Guard, Sergeant of the Guard, or the Commander of the Relief
What is meant by “countersign?”
The combination of a secret challenge and its reply or password
How are the challenge and password given?
In a low tone to prevent them from being overheard by others
What is a “parole word?”
A secret word imparted only to those persons entitled to inspect the guard and to commanders and members of the guard
Who is responsible for establishing special orders for guard posts?
The Post Commander
Special orders differ for various posts depending upon the nature of the area being guarded and are based on what two considerations?
Realism and clarity
What are the two main qualifications for performing guard duty?
1. Guards must have completed range firing or training with the weapon they use on guard duty.
2. Guards must know the three general orders.
Who supervises the enlisted members of the guard, assigns them to reliefs, and is responsible to the commander of the guard or assumes the responsibilities of the commander of the guard if one has not been detailed?
The Sergeant of the Guard
Who is responsible for the instruction, discipline, and performance of the guard as well as security of weapons and ammunition?
The Commander of the Guard – may be an officer or senior NCO
Who is responsible for assigning posts to guard members and ensuring that guards are posted on time?
The Commander of the Relief
Who inspects the guard?
The Officer of the Day or the COG/SOG when an OD is not appointed
What is the maximum range and minimum effective range of the M9 pistol?
Maximum range – 1,800 meters
Maximum effective range – 50 meters
What Field Manual covers “Combat Training with Pistols, M9?
FM 3-23.35
What is the weight of the M9 pistol?
2.1 lbs w/ empty magazine
2.6 lbs w/ full magazine
Describe the steps for CLEARING the M9 pistol.
1. Place the decocking/safety lever in the SAFE position. 2. Hold the pistol in the raised pistol position. 3. Depress the magazine release button and remove the magazine from the pistol. 4. Pull the slide to the rear and remove any chambered round. 5. Push the slide stop up, locking the slide to rear. 6. Look into the chamber and ensure that it is empty.
Describe the procedure for performing a FUNCTION check on the M9 pistol.
1. Clear the pistol in accordance with the unloading procedures. 2. Depress the slide stop, letting the slide go forward. 3. Insert an empty magazine into the pistol. 4. Retract the slide fully and release it. The slide should lock to the rear. 5. Depress the magazine release button and remove the magazine. 6. Ensure the decocking/safety lever is in the SAFE position. 7. Depress the slide stop. 8. Squeeze and release the trigger. 9. Place the decocking/safety lever in the fire POSITION. 10. Squeeze the trigger to check double action. 11. Squeeze the trigger again. 12. Squeeze the trigger to check the single action.
Describe IMMEDIATE ACTION for the M9 pistol.
1. Ensure the decocking/safety lever is in the FIRE position. 2. Squeeze the trigger again. 3. If the pistol does not fire, ensure that the magazine is fully seated, retract the slide to the rear, and release. 4. Squeeze the trigger. 5. If the pistol again does not fire, the magazine and retract the slide to eject the chambered cartridge. Insert a new magazine, retract the slide, and release to chamber another cartridge. 6. Squeeze the trigger. 7. If the pistol still does not fire, perform remedial action.
Describe REMEDIAL ACTION for the M9 pistol.
1. Clear the pistol. 2. Inspect the pistol for the cause of the stoppage. 3. Correct the cause of the stoppage, load the pistol, and fire. 4. If the pistol again fails to fire, disassemble it for closer inspection, cleaning, and lubrication.
Describe the proper procedure for mechanically zeroing the M16A2 rifle?
Adjust the front sight post up/down until the base if flush with the front sight post housing; Adjust the elevation knob counterclockwise until the rear sight assembly rests flush with the carrying handle and the 8/3 marking is aligned with the index line on the left side of the carrying handle; Position the apertures so the unmarked aperture is up and the 0-200 meter aperture is down; Rotate the windage knob to align the index mark on the 0-200 meter aperture with the long center index line on the rear sight assembly
Describe the proper procedure for CLEARING the M16 weapon?
Point the muzzle in a designated SAFE DIRECTION. Place selector lever on SAFE. Remove the magazine. Pull charging handle rearward. Visually inspect the receiver and chamber to ensure these areas contain no ammo. Allow the bolt to go forward by pressing the upper portion of the bolt catch. Place the selector on SEMI and squeeze the trigger. Pull the charging handle fully rearward and release it, slowing the boot to return to the full forward position. Place the selector lever on SAFE. Close the ejection port cover.
Explain the proper procedure for performing a function check on a M16 weapon.
Place the selector lever on SAFE. Pull the trigger to the rear, the hammer should not fall. Place the selector lever on SEMI. Pull the trigger to the rear and hold. While holding the trigger, pull the charging handle to the rear and release. Release the trigger and pull it to the rear again. Place the selector lever on BURST. Pull the charging handle to the rear and release. Pull the trigger to the rear and hold. While holding the trigger to the rear, pull the charging handle to the rear three times and release. Release the trigger and pull it to the rear again.
What firing positions are used on a KD alternate course?
Prone supported position, Prone unsupported
What Army publication covers rifle marksmanship for the M-16 series rifle?
FM 3-22.9
According to FM 3-22.9, what are the five phases of Basic Rifle Marksmanship?
Phase I – Preliminary Rifle Instruction
Phase II – Downrange Feedback
Phase III – Field Fire
Phase IV – Advanced Rifle Marksmanship
Phase V – Advanced Optics, Lasers, and Iron Sights
What are the primary differences of the M16A2/A3?
M16A2 fires in SEMI and 3-round BURST modes
M16A3 fires in SEMI and AUTO modes
What are the weights of the M16A2/A3 weapons?
w/o magazine and sling – 7.78
w/ sling and loaded: 20 round magazine – 8.48
w/ sling and loaded: 30 round magazine – 8.79
What is the length of the M16A2/A3 weapons?
Overall rifle length: 39(5/8)”
What are the max effective rates of fire of the M16A2/A3?
Semiautomatic: 45 rounds/min
Burst: 90 rounds/min
Automatic: 150-200 rounds/min (A3)
Sustained: 12-15 rounds/min
What are the ranges of the M16A2/A3?
Maximum range: 3600 meters
Maximum effective range:
Point target: 550 meters
Area target: 800 meters
What are the operational characteristics of the M16A2/A3?
Barrel rifling – right hand: 1/7
Muzzle velocity (fps): 3100
Cyclic rate of fire: 700-900 rounds/min
Which sight aperture is used when battlesight zeroing all M16 series weapons?
The small aperture
Each “click” of elevation on the elevation knob of the M16A2/A3 weapons changes the point of impact how much at 100 meters?
1-3/8”
What is meant by the “stoppage” of a weapon?
The failure of an automatic or semiautomatic firearm to complete the cycle of operation
What word is commonly used to remember the procedure for applying immediate action?
SPORTS
(S)lap upward on the magazine
(P)ull the charging handle to the rear
(O)bserve the chamber
(R)elease the charging handle
(T)ap the forward assist
(S)queeze the trigger
What is meant by “remedial action?”
The continuing effort to determine the cause of a stoppage or malfunction and to try to clear the stoppage once it has been identified
What is considered a “malfunction?”
A procedural or mechanical failure of the rifle, magazine, or ammunition
What are the primary categories of malfunctions?
1. Failure to feed, chamber, or lock.
2. Failure to fire cartridge.
3. Failure to extract.
4. Failure to eject.
What are the four basic fundamentals of rifle marksmanship?
1. Steady position
2. Aiming
3. Breath control
4. Trigger Squeeze
Describe the two types of breath control techniques and when each is used.
1. Used during zeroing, squeeze the trigger during the natural respiratory pause that occurs when most of the air has been exhaled from the lungs and before inhaling.
2. Employed during rapid fire, the soldier stops his breath when he is about to squeeze the trigger and resumes breathing after the shot has been fired.
During preliminary marksmanship instruction only two basic firing positions are taught. What are they?
The foxhole supported and the prone unsupported positions
In order of preference, what courses can be used for record qualifications?
1. Standard Record Fire range
2. Known Distance Alternate Course
3. 25-meter Alternate Course
4. 15-meter Alternate Course
What are the qualification standards for a Record Fire range?
Expert: 36-40
Sharpshooter: 30-35
Marksman: 23-29
Unqualified: 22-below
What firing positions and targets are used on a KD alternate course?
Prone supported position: 300 yards, E-type silhouette, 20 rounds, 60 sec
Prone unsupported: 200 yards, E-type silhouette, 10 rounds, 60 sec
Prone unsupported: 100 yards, F-types silhouette, 10 rounds, 60 sec
What are the qualification standards for the Known Distance Alternate Course or the scaled 25-meter Alternate Course?
Expert: 38-40
Sharpshooter: 33-37
Marksman: 26-32
Unqualified: 25-below
Proper maintenance of the M16A2 rifle includes what five steps?
1. Clear
2. Dissassemble
3. Inspect
4. Clean & lubricate
5. Reassemble
The first consideration when handling any weapon is to do what?
CLEAR IT!
What does “CLP” stand for and how does it work?
Cleaner, Lubricant, and Preservative; It contains solvents to dissolve firing residue and carbon; It lays down a layer of Teflon as it dries to provide lubrication; It prevents rust from forming
What FM covers “First Aid”?
FM 4-25.11
What are considered the four adverse conditions affecting human life?
Lack of oxygen, Bleeding, Shock, Infection
What three tasks are considered the basics of first aid?
Check for BREATHING, Check for BLEEDING, Check for SHOCK
What are the eight steps in properly evaluating a casualty?
Responsiveness, Breathing, Pulse, Bleeding, Shock, Fractures, Burns, Head Injury
What is CPR?
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
What are the two vital body functions?
Respiration and Blood Circulation
Name four common points for checking pulse?
Side of the neck, Groin, Wrist, Ankle
What are the three basic measures of first aid?
Open the airway and restore breathing; Stop the bleeding and protect the wound; Check for shock and administer first aid measures
What is the single most common airway obstruction?
The tongue
What are the two prescribed methods for opening an airway?
Jaw thrust and head tilt/chin lift
While maintaining an open airway the rescuer should check for breathing by observing the casualty’s chest and performing what four actions within 3 – 5 seconds?
LOOK for the chest to rise and fall, Listen for air escaping during exhalation, FEEL for the flow of air on your cheek, PERFORM rescue breathing
What are the two prescribed methods of rescue breathing?
Mouth-to mouth or mouth-to-nose
What is the preferred method of rescue breathing?
Mouth-to-mouth
What are the two prescribed methods for opening an airway obstruction of a conscious casualty?
Abdominal thrust or chest thrust
Name five prescribed methods for controlling bleeding?
Field dressing, Manual pressure, Pressure dressing, Digital pressure, Tourniquet
How should the tails be tied on a field dressing?
In a non-slip knot over the outer edge of the dressing
When applying manual pressure, what additional measure can be taken to reduce bleeding?
Elevate the injured limb slightly above the level of the heart
When should a pressure dressing be applied to a wound?
If bleeding continues after the application of a field dressing, manual pressure, and elevation.
How should the ends of an improvised dressing be tied on a pressure dressing?
In a non-slip know directly over the wound site
How many different pressure points are there to control bleeding?
11
What should you do after applying a tourniquet to a casualty?
Mark the casualty’s head with a “T” to indicate that a tourniquet has been applied
What are the nine signs/symptoms of shock?
Clammy skin, Paleness, Restlessness/Nervousness, Thirst, Bleeding, Confusion, Faster than normal breathing, Blotchy or bluish skin, Nausea/Vomiting
What are the seven steps in treating/preventing shock?
Move casualty to cover, Position casualty on back, Elevate casualty’s feet, Loosen constricting clothing, Prevent chilling or overheating, Calm the casualty, Seek medical aid
In the case of an abdominal injury, how should the legs be positioned?
Place the knees in an upright position
What is the best way to “calm” a casualty?
By being authoritative and by showing self-confidence
What action should you take if you must leave the casualty or if the casualty becomes unconscious?
Turn the head to the side to prevent choking in case they vomit
Head injuries can be classified into two types. What are they and what is the difference?
Open – a wound that is visible, or a break in the skin; Closed – a wound that may be visible
What are some of the signs/symptoms of a severe head injury?
Nausea/vomiting, Slurred speech, Recent unconsciousness, Drowsiness, Paralysis, Convulsions/twitches, Confusion/ loss of memory, Dizziness, Blurred vision, Bruising around eyes, Complaint of headache, Deformity of the head, Staggering while walking, Bleeding or other fluid discharge from the scalp, ears, or nose
Wounds to the skin are often categorized using terms such as abrasions, contusions, lacerations, and avulsions. What do these terms mean?
Abrasion – scrape of the skin; Contusion – injury without a break in the skin; Laceration – cuts or breaks in the skin; Avulsion – a rip in the skin
What are the two kinds of fractures?
Closed – a broken bone that does not break the skin; Open – a broken bone that breaks the skin
Before administering the proper first aid for burn injuries you must be able to recognize the type of burn to be treated. What are the four types of burns?
Thermal, Electrical, Chemical, Laser
What are the first five aid measures for treating burns?
Eliminate the source of the burn, Expose the burn, Apply a field dressing to the burn, Take precautions, Seek medical attention
What are the three types of heat injuries?
Heat cramps, Heat exhaustion, Heatstroke
What are the signs/symptoms of heat cramps?
Cramping in the extremities, Abdominal cramps, Heavy sweating, Thirst
What are the first aid measures for heat cramps?
Move casualty to a cool or shady area, Have casualty slowly drink at least one canteen full of cool water, Monitor the casualty and give more water as tolerated
What are the signs/symptoms of heat exhaustion?
Excessive sweating with pale, moist, cool skin; Dizziness; Cramping; Urge to defecate; Rapid breathing; Confusion; Headache; Weakness; Loss of appetite; Nausea; Chills; Tingling of hands or feet
What are the first aid measures for heat exhaustion?
Move the casualty to a cool/shady area and loosen/remove clothing; Pour water on casualty and fan to permit coolant effect; Have casualty slowly drink at least one full canteen of water; Casualty should not be permitted to participate in strenuous activity (if possible); Seek medical assistance
What are the signs/symptoms of heatstroke?
Casualty’s skin is red, hot and dry; Confusion; Seizures; Stomach pains or cramps; Loss of consciousness; Weakness; Dizziness; Headaches; Nausea; Respiration and pulse may be rapid and weak
What are the first aid measures for heatstroke?
Move the casualty to a cool/shady area and loosen/remove clothing; Pour water on casualty and fan to permit coolant effect; Elevate the casualty’s legs; Have casualty slowly drink at least one full canteen of water; Seek medical assistance
Name some of the contributing factors to cold weather injuries.
Weather, Relatively stationary activities, Physical fatigue, Depression, Excessive use of alcohol/drugs
Discuss some of the signs/symptoms of cold weather injuries.
Numbness or tingling; discoloration of the skin; swelling; blisters
What are the general first aid measures for cold weather injuries?
Superficial – rewarm affected area of the body; Deep cold – requires prompt first aid and remove casualty from the environment
Name the six cold weather injuries
Chilblain, Immersion syndrome, Frostbite, Snow blindness, Dehydration, Hypothermia
What are the specific first aid measures for chilblain?
Area usually respond to locally applied rewarming; Do not rub or massage area; Seek medical aid
What are the signs/symptoms normally associated with immersion foot/trench foot?
Affected foot is cold and painless, pulse is weak and numbness mat be present; Second – parts may feel hot, burning and shooting pains; Later stages – Skin is pale with bluish cast and pulse decreases; Other symptoms are blistering, swelling, redness, heat, hemorrhaging and gangrene
What are the specific first aid measures for immersion foot/trench foot?
Gradual rewarming by exposure to warm air; Do not massage or moisten skin; Protect affected parts from trauma; Dry feet thoroughly, avoid walking; Seek medical aid
What are the signs/symptoms normally associated with frostbite?
Loss of sensation or numb feeling in any part of the body; Sudden blanching followed by momentary tingling sensation; Redness of skin or Grayish color of skin; Blisters; Swelling or tender areas; Loss of previous sensation of pain in affected area; Pale, yellowish, waxy-looking skin; Frozen tissue that feels solid to the touch
What are the specific first aid measures for frostbite?
Warm the area at the first sign of frostbite, using firm steady pressure of hand; Face, ears, nose – cover area with hands; Hands – Open field jacket and place casualty’s hands against his body; Feet – Remove socks and boots and place exposed feet under clothing or against another soldier’s body; DO NOT thaw; Loosen or remove constricting clothing; Increase insulation
What are the signs/symptoms of snow blindness?
Sensation of grit in the eyes with pain in and over the eyes; Watering, redness, headache, and increased pain with exposure to light
What are the specific first aid measures for snow blindness?
Cover the eyes with a dark cloth; Seek medical aid
What are the signs/symptoms of dehydration?
Mouth, tongue and throat become parched and swallowing becomes difficult; Feels tired and weak; Focusing eyes may become difficult; Nausea; Dizziness; Fainting; May experience muscle cramps
What are the specific first aid measures for cold weather dehydration?
Keep warm; Casualty needs fluid replacement, rest, and prompt medical aid
What are the signs/symptoms of hypothermia?
Shivering, Faint pulse, Drowsy or mentally slow, Slurred speech, Eyes in glassy state, Slow and shallow breathing; Body temperature below 85
What are the first aid measures for hypothermia?
Mild Hypothermia: Rewarm body evenly and without delay; Keep dry, protect from elements; Gradually give warm liquids; Be prepared to start basic life support; Seek medical treatment
Severe Hypothermia: Stabilize the temperature; Attempt to avoid further heat loss; Gently handle casualty; Evacuate to nearest treatment facility; Prompt medical attention is necessary
Describe the first aid measures for a snakebite?
Move casualty away from snake; Remove jewelry; Reassure casualty and keep quiet; Apply a constricting band 1-2 fingerbreaths from bite; Immobilize the affected part in a position below the heart; Kill the snake; Seek medical attention
What are the first aid measures for animal bites?
Thoroughly cleanse the wound; Flush it well with water; Cover it with a sterile dressing; Immobilize the injured arm or leg; Seek medical attention
What is a “Mark I NAAK”?
Nerve Agent Antidote Kit, Mark I
What is meant by the “Mark II” configuration of the NAAK?
The two autoinjectors are issued without the plastic slip to hold them together
What are NAPP tablets?
Nerve Agent Pyridostigmine Pretreatment tablets
What are the nine MILD symptoms of nerve agent poisoning?
Unexplained runny nose; Unexplained sudden headache; Sudden drooling; Difficulty seeing; Tightness in the chest or difficulty in breathing; Localized sweating and muscular twitching in the area of the contaminated skin; Stomach cramps; Nausea; Tachycardia followed by brachycardia
What are the eleven SEVERE symptoms of nerve agent poisoning?
Strange or confused behavior; Wheezing, difficulty in breathing, and coughing; Severely pinpointed pupils; red eyes with tearing; Vomiting; Severe muscular twitching and general weakness; Involuntary urination and defecation; Convulsions; Unconsciousness; Respiratory failure; Bradycardia
What is the new nerve agent antidote injection device that has been fielded to replace the Mark I?
Antidote Treatment, Nerve Agent, Autoinjector
What is the biggest visible difference between the NAAK and the ATNAA?
NAAK has two injectors; ATNAA has both packaged into a single container
What does CANA stand for?
Convulsant Antidote for Nerve Agents
Where is the injection site for the NAAK, ATNAA, or CANA?
The outer thigh muscle
How many sets of the nerve agent antidote are you authorized to administer to yourself?
One
What is the maximum number of NAAK or ATNAA injections a soldier should receive through a combination of self-aid and buddy-aid?
Three
When should CANA be administered? Why?
As buddy-aid, one CANA injection should be administered following the third set of autoinjections in order to prevent convulsions
What are the first aid measures for treating blister agent poisoning?
Use uncontaminated water to flush the eyes. Use the M291 decontamination kit to decontaminate the skin. If blisters form, cover them loosely with a field dressing and secure.
What are the first aid measures for blood agent poisoning?
Mask immediately! There are no first aid measures. SEEK ATTENTION IMMEDIATELY!
What are the first aid measures for radiological casualties?
Decontamination
Transportation of the sick and wounded is normally the responsibility of whom?
Medical personnel who have been provided special training and equipment
What five factors depends on the distance that a casualty can be carried?
Nature of the casualty’s injuries; Strength and endurance of the bearer; Weight of the casualty; Obstacles encountered during transport; Type of terrain
Name some of the one-man carries.
Fireman’s carry; Supporting carry; Saddleback carry’ Pistol-belt carry; Neck drag; LBE carry; Alternative fireman’s carry; Arms carry; Pack-strap carry; Pistol-belt carry; Cradle drop drag
Name the five different two-man carries.
Two-man support carry; Two-man fore-and-aft carry; Two-hand seat carry; Two-man arms carry; Four-hand seat carry
What organization provides mapping, charting, and all geodesy support to the armed forces and all other national security operations?
The NGA
What does NGA stand for?
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
What are some of the different TYPES of maps produced by the NGA?
Planimetric; Topographic; Photomap; Joint Operations Graphics; Photomosaic; Terrain Model; Military City; Special
The east-west rings around the earth and parallel to the equator are known as what?
Parallels of Latitude or simply Parallels
What are the north-south rings around the earth called?
Meridians of Longitude or simply Meridians
On what two grid systems are the military grid reference systems based on?
Universal Transverse Mercator and Universal Polar Stereographic
What are the two most commonly used base lines?
Magnetic north and Grid north
Which of the two approved techniques for holding the compass result in a greater degree of accuracy?
Compass-to-cheek
One key to success in tactical missions is the ability to move undetected to the objective. What are the four steps to land navigation?
Know where you are; Plan the route; Stay on the route; Recognize the objective
What FM covers “Map Reading and Land Navigation?”
FM 3-25.26
What is a map?
A graphic representation of a portion of the earth’s surface drawn to scale, as seen from above.
Military maps are categorized by what two things?
Scale and type
What is meant by the “scale” of a map?
Scale is expressed as a representative fraction and gives a ratio of map distance to ground distance
DMA maps are classified by scale into what three categories?
Small scale (1:1,000,000 and smaller); medium scale (larger than small scale maps but smaller than 1:75,000); large scale (1:75,000 and larger)
What is meant by the “military grid reference system?”
It is a network of squares formed by north-south, east-west lines superimposed on a geographic projection
What is the principle for reading grid coordinates on military maps?
RIGHT and UP
The graphic scale is divided into two parts. What are they?
Primary scale and the extension scale
What is a pace count?
A “pace” is equal to one natural step – the number of paces it takes you to walk 100 meters
What six conditions must be considered when adjusting pace count?
Slopes, winds, surfaces, elements, clothing, and visibility
How many base lines are there on a military map and what are they?
True North; Magnetic North; and Grid North
Define the term “azimuth?”
A horizontal angle measured clockwise from a north base line
What is a “back azimuth” and how is it obtained?
It is the opposite direction of an azimuth; If azimuth is <180, add 180; If azimuth is >180, subtract 180
What is meant by “declination?”
The angular difference between any two north’s
What is the “declination diagram” and where is it located?
This diagram shows the relationship between true north, magnetic north and grid north; it is located in the lower margin on most large scale maps
What is meant by “intersection?”
A method used to determine the location of an unknown point by successively occupying at least two known positions on the ground and then map sighting on the unknown location
What is meant by “resection?”
A method used to locate one’s position on a map by determining the grid azimuth to at least two well-defined locations that can be pinpointed on the map
What is an “overlay?”
A clear sheet of plastic or semi-transparent paper on which information is plotted to the same scale as the map it is to be used on
What device is considered the most common and simplest instrument for measuring direction?
The lensatic compass
What are the four types of compasses described in
FM 3-25.26?
Lensatic compass, artillery compass, wrist/pocket compass, and protractor
What are the three major parts of the lensatic compass?
Cover, base, and lens
What are the two approved techniques for holding the compass when sighting?
Centerhold and compass-to-cheek
Name three field expedient methods for determining the four cardinal directions.
Shadow-tip method, watch method, and star method
What is “elevation?”
The vertical distance above or below sea level
What is “relief?”
The representation of the shapes of hills, valleys, streams, or other terrain features on the earth’s surface
What are the five methods of depicting relief?
Layer tinting, form lines, shaded relief, hachures, and contour lines
What are “contour lines?”
Imaginary lines on the ground that connect points of equal elevation
What are the three types of contour lines?
Index, Intermediate, and Supplementary
What are the five MAJOR terrain features?
Hill, Valley, Ridge, Saddle, Depression
What are the three MINOR terrain features?
Draw, Spur, Cliff
What are the two SUPPLEMENTARY terrain features?
Cut and Fill

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