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Glossary of Block 2

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Where does the trachea extend to?
Down to the sternal angle (bifurcates below this)
2 clinical manifestations of Tetralogy of Fallot
Slight heart murmor, boot-shaped heart in radiological findings
99% of the defect is where?
Distal to subclavian artery
__ __ is where gaseous exchange occurs at alveoli
capillary bed
__ is a membrane on the upper side edge of what used to be the foramen ovalis
Limbus
A defect in atrial septation is known as what?
Classic post-natal patent foramen ovale
A rich supply of the innervation goes to the __ __, which starts the information flow by th emyocardium to the atria on both sides
SA node
A single __ __ artery passes __ to respiratory passage
right bronchial, posterior
About 2/3 of the way down from the hilum to the outer surface of the lung tissue, what occurs?
Cartilage becomes smooth muscle and elastic fibers
After 9-11 months of serious VSD, describe the clinical manifestion?
Pulmonary hypertension arises from an overload in pulmonary circuit damaging intima, which damages intimal growth, which causes hypertension
After initial formation the mesoderm subdivides into 3 masses. Name them.
Paraxial, intermediate, lateral / lateral plate
Along the smooth wall posterior portion of the atrium there is a?
Sinus venarum
Anterior chest wall has doubling of __ __ __.
Internal thoracic veins
Anterior papillary muscles
Largest papillary muscles come from anterior surface of chamber
Anterior thoracic blood supply derives from what?
Internal thoracic artery
Aortic arch has 3 branches, name them.
Left subclavian artery, left common carotid artery, brachiocephalic trunk
Aortic valve has __, __, and __ cusps
right, left, posterior
Arch of aorta has how many important structures, and what are they?
3 structures, brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid artery, left subclavian artery
Are chambers continuous externally, or are there moments of disconcert?
They have groove between the chambers, sulcus
Are lymph nodes localized in any certain region of the lung?
Located along entire respiratory passages
Are the ascending aorta and aortic arch present in the area of superior mediastinum?
Yes
Are the branches of the bronchial arteries large or small?
Small
Are the components of the coronary sinus surrounded by mesocardium?
Mesocardium is only around the 3 great vessels
Are the cusps of the pulmonary trunk and aortic valve similar or disimilar? How-so?
Similar. Both are passive and are affected by blood flow via fluid dynamics
Are the valves ont he same side or different sides of the sternum?
Same side
Are there any other ducts nearby?
Smaller duct exists, smaller right lymphatic duct
Are thoracic nerves segmentally organized?
Yes
Arteries carry blood __
away
As the respiratory passage gets smaller, what happens to the C rings?
They become plates
As the sections ascend, we dont see much of the chamber of the __ ventricle, only the thick muscle wall.
Left
As the sections descend, one can no longer see something, what is it?
Left atrium
As the sections descend, you will have lungs and 4 chambers, but as you get to a certain level what do you cease to see?
Left atrium
As we get to the top of the right atruim it gets __ and begins to transition into __ __ __.
Smaller, superior vena cava
As you ascent higher, does the aorta become more or less well developed?
More well developed
At the completion of what mechanism do the right and left heart tubes fuse at the midline to form one single heart tube?
Lateral body folding
At the end of the cardiac notch in the superior lobe you have the __, which is an extension around the heart
lingual
Atria have __, which are earlike extensions / appendages
auricles
Azygous vein is formed by what 3 things?
Ascending lumbar vein, subcostal vein below 12th rib, minor contribution from inferior vena cava
Below the diaphragm, what does the aorta become?
Abdominal aorta
Between the atria and ventricles lay?
Coronary sulcus
Between the ventricles, the sulcus is known as what?
Interventricular sulcus
Blood from the left ventricle goes into the __ __, then through the __ __ and into the __ __ __ for systemic circulation
ascending aorta, aortic arch, descending thoracic aorta
Blood is ejected via the __ __ to the ascending __ and __ __ aorta and out of heart systemic circulation
aortic valve, arch, descending thoracic
Bony skeleton served as a conduit for structures from the __ and __ to the __
head, neck, abdomen
Boundary of thorax - anterior
Sternum, costal cartilages attachment of 12 pairs of ribs
Boundary of thorax - inferior thoracic aperture
Diaphragm
Boundary of thorax - posterior
thoracic vertebra
Boundary of thorax - superior thoracic aperture (4 things)
Upper portion of sternum, part of clavicle, 1st rib, thoracic vertebrae I (TVI)
Bronchial arteries come from __ __ __, deep to __ passage
descending thoracic aorta, respiratory
Bronchial vein is the return system for what type of blood?
Venous blood from lung tissue itself
Bronchiole veins do not make it to __ __ because they are thin and fragile
visceral fluid
By what time period has blood flow circulation begun?
21-22 days
Cervical pleura serves as a reminder for what?
That the viscera can extend above the superior thoracic apperture
Chordae tendineae extend from where to terminate where?
Extend from one papillary muscle to two cusps of the tricuspid valve
Clinically, what occurs if this space between the pleura is pierced?
Space can fill with air causing pressure preventing lung from inflating
Combining the brachiocephalic veins forms what?
Superior vena cava
Conduction system of the heart is important to do what 2 things?
sequencing contractions and affecting rate and force of contraction
Deoxygenated blood goes under arch of aorta through what?
Pulmonary artery
Describe blood flow, pressure, cyanosis (or non-cyanosis), and causes of ASD
Flow is shunted left to right, high left atrial pressure, low right atrial pressure, non-cyanotic because blood recycles through pulmonary circuit again, 2 causes - excessive absorption of septum primum or underdeveloped septum secondum
Describe elements of turbelence and efficiency for the cusp.
Acts to minimize turbelence and maximize efficiency
Describe how pressure changes alter the septum primum and ultimately the foramen ovale
Primum is pushed to right by increased pressure in left atrium, and this closes foramen ovale. Septum primum fuses with septum secundum to form interatrial septum
Describe how the interventricular septum grows?
It grows superiorly, inferior is muscular and superior is membranous
Describe how the pressure differential is altered as a result of birth. Mention changes in umbilical flow, pulmonary flow, right atrium pressure, and left atrium pressure
Umbilical flow is shut off at birth, so pressure in right atrium is lowered because umbilical flow has ceased, pulmonary flow opens up, which helps lower pressure in right atrium as well because blood can now flow out of the right atrium more easily. Left atrial pressure increases as a result of both of these
Describe how these layers extend?
They extend to vessels into and out of heart
Describe in general terms how the coronary artery arises from the valve
Blood flows passed aortic valves, walls basically collapse towards sides leaving opening so blood rushes out, blood tries to rush back in when force is dropped, blood fills in middle pouch and closes valve so no backflow occurs.
Describe the azygos system of veins pertaining to venous return.
Two longitudinal channels bringing blood to the vena cava, as well as fragile thinned walls
Describe the body of the manubrium and what it provides attachments for. Also name the joint between the body of the sternum and the xiphoid process
It has a flattened concave structure, provides attachments for ribs 3-7, and its lower portion is the xiphosternal joint
Describe the components (2) of the internal thoracic vein and at what point they arise
Single vein until the 7th intercostal spaces where it becomes 2 veins - musculophrenic veins and superior epigastric veins
Describe the curvature of the body/shaft of the rib, as well as where it ends
Curves laterally and anteriorly ending in costal cartilage
Describe the edges of lung tissue, and why this is the case?
Edges are thin and sharp, lets lungs slide during inspiration
Describe the external intercostal muscles and their function
Most superficial, fibers pass in directions of "hands in pockets". Does upward and forward movement of anterior thoracic wall during inspiration
Describe the final position of the arterial and venous systems after contortions.
Arterial systems end up ventral, venous systems end up dorsal
Describe the finality of the second step of separation of common atrium into right and left atria, including a describe of what it starts to separate, what its formation depends on, and what it forms.
Starts to separate the atrial chambers from ventricular chambers, formation depends on neural crest cells as a signal, forms atrioventricular canals on its left and right as well as helping to form atrioventricular valves
Describe the foramen ovale
Opening formed by a rigid septum secundum and flexible septum primum
Describe the function of the C shaped tracheal cartilaginous rings with openings facing the esophagus
Provide support for trachea while providing room for bolus passing through esophagus without interfering with position of trachea or obstructing it
Describe the internal intercostal muscles (origination, insertion, membranous conclusion, relationship to external intercostals)
They are perpendicular to external intercostals, located in intercostal space from lateral edge of sternum to angle of the rib, with a membrane extending from angle of rib to tubercle
Describe the location of the neurovascular bundle of the thoracic wall as well as its contents
Vein, Artery, Nerve superior to inferior arrangement running in the costal groove
Describe the location of the sinus venosus, and what it does.
Most caudal end, venous inflow from embryo's body occurs here
Describe the location of the truncus arteriosus, and what it does.
Most cranial end, arterial outlow to developing aorta system and aortic arch system
Describe the looping effect of the outer fibers to twist to the apex during heavy exercise
The twisting motion of fibers, you feel the apex hit against posterior portion of sternum within the pericardial sac
Describe the manubrium, including where it is located in relation to the other parts of the sternum, and how many components it has (name them as well)
Upper most portion, four sided with multiple facets - upper facet, lateral facet, sternal angle, and jugular notch
Describe the path and location of the aorta
Begins in thorax continuing to abdominal region
Describe the path of blood from the mom to the aortic arch
Mom --> Umbilical vein --> Ductus venosus --> Inferior venar cava --> Valve of inferior venae cava --> right atrium --> Foramen ovale --> left atrium --> left ventricle --> aortic arch
Describe the path of blood in the right and left "hearts" for a sufferer of TotGA?
RIght heart pumps low oxygenated blood into systemic circulation, left heart only pumps blood into pulmonary circuit
Describe the path of the left vagus nerve?
Over arch of aorta, sends a branch under arch of aorta and posterior to ligamentum arteriosum and runs up to larynx.
Describe the pressure differential before birth regarding the right and left atriums.
High pressure right atrium, low pressure in left atrium
Describe the process of expiration
Decrease thoracic cage volume, which increases pressure inside compared to the outside of the thoracic space; pressure equalized when air is pushed out
Describe the process of inspiration
Increase thoracic cage volume, which reduces pressure inside compared to outside of the thoracic space, allowing air to rush in to equalize the pressure
Describe the relationship between the neural crest cells and endocardial cushion?
Neural crest cells allow it to develop
Describe the relationship between the neural crest cells and truncus arteriosus?
Neural crest cells allow truncus arteriosus to divide into aorta and pulmonary trunk
Describe the structure of passive and active cusp structures during systole.
Passive valves are open, active valves are closed
Describe the venous system around the esophagus in a clinically neutral individual?
Blood flows through hepatic portal vein and veins located on esophagus towards heart
Do any nerves run lateral to aorta?
Two sympathetic chains of ganglia
Do the aortic supply and internal thoracic arterial supply ever connect?
They anastomose within the intercostals spaces
Do the innermost intercostal muscles form a continuous layer?
They do not
Do the left and right branches run with anything else, if so, what?
They run in a single sheath with the internal carotid artery and jugular vein
Do the structures at the root of the lung differ from right to left side?
Yes
Do things pass between mediastinum regions?
Some travel through multiple regions
Does anything else innervate the pericardium besides phrenic nerve?
Vagus and sympathetic nerves regulate conditions
Does anything separate the visceral and parietal pleura?
space with serous fluid for lubrication between two layers
Does blood recycle through the pulmonary circuit in VSD's?
Yes
Does closing the primum and opening the secundum change the route of blood flow?
No, blood still flows from right to left atria
Does symmetry exist between right and left lungs?
No
Does the angle of the rib have the (broadest / sharpest) angle, (tightest / widest) curvature?
Sharpest, tightest
Does the coronary sulcus not encircle the heart anywhere?
At the area where the pulmonary trunk leaves on the anterior surface
Does the cusp when closed cut off blood flow?
No
Does the heart take up its final position in the thorax by the end of head-to-fail folding?
Yes
Does the heart's position move?
Due to attachments it does move
Does the left ventricle have a moderator band, septal papillary muscle, or trabeculae carnae?
No moderator band or septal papillary muscles but has trabeculae carnae
Does the sinus venosus fuse with the 4 heart segments?
No, it has right and left horns
Does the transverse pericardial sinus provide anything hematically?
It provides easy access for blood flow to and from heart
Draw a cross section of the heart, using the typical foot to head view, and include the right and left ventricles, right and left atria, visceral serous pericardium, fibrous pericardium, parietal serous pericardium, and esophagus. Label Right, Left, Ante
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Draw a picture of the 3 endodermic divisions post gastrulation, and note ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm, as well as the subdivisions of mesoderm paraxial intermediate and lateral's outer somatic and inner splanchnic
Draw a picture of the heart, from the front. Include the following: Right atrium, right ventricle, left ventricle, left atrium, pulmonary trunk, aortic arch, superior and inferior vena cava, xiphosternal joint, and sternal angle
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During folding in the cervical region, the heart tube gains connection with what system?
Autonomic nervous system
Each papillary muscle gives off 2 sets of __ __ which attach to each of the two cusps.
Chordae tendinae
Early embryonic heart folds __ and under overlying __.
inward, ectoderm
Endocardium is continuous into the __ __
blood vessels
Epicardium is?
Transparent layer fused with myocardium (considered part of heart)
Esophagus is attached to what?
Posterior side of trachea
False ribs handle what?
Bucket handle action
Fetal circulation relies heavily on what 6 things?
1 umbilical vein, 2 umbilical arteries, ductus venosus, foramen ovale, and ductus arteriosus
Follow the path of blood flow on the right side of the heart.
To right atrium from SVC, IVC, coronary sinus. Blood ejected through tricuspid valve, contraction of ventricle squeezes blood up through conus arteriosus out to pulmonary trunk, pulmonary trunk into right and left pulmonary arteries
Follow the path of blue blood (low oxygenation) from the head and neck to the right atrium
Right ventricle --> pulmonary artery --> ductus arteriosus --> aorta
For relative locations of chambers, what lies anteriorly?
Sternocostal surface / right ventricles
For relative locations of chambers, what lies at the base?
Posterior view is marked by entrance of pulmonary vein, split of pulmonary trunk, left atrium
For relative locations of chambers, what lies at the tip?
Apex, narrowest part of cone shape
For relative locations of chambers, what lies inferiorly?
Diaphragmatic - left ventricle and some right ventricle
For relative locations of chambers, what lies left?
Left ventricle and some left atrium (posterior surface)
For relative locations of chambers, what lies right?
Primarily right atrium
For the entire nine months of development, is it important for atrial septation to complete or not complete in order to prevent serious circulatory problems from occuring
Atrial septation cannot be completed or a serious circulatory problem will occur
Fossa ovalis is the remains of the __ __.
Foramen ovalis
From the front, the right ventricle is?
The chamber that occupies a large part of the trunk seen from the front
From what do the upper 1 or 2 posterior intercostal spaces receive blood supply?
Costocervical trunk branching from the subclavian artery
General definition of the 4 chambers include what 2 things and what 2 things?
2 ventricles, 2 atria
What is the ligamentum arteriosum used as a landmark for?
Vagus nerve
High atrial pressure in fetus is due to 2 things. Name them
Bolus of umbilical flow into atrium and pulmonary resistance because pulmonary circulation is shut down
How do the common atrium and ventricles divide?
By movements of mesoderm mostly in weeks 5-6
How do the false ribs function as bucket handle action?
Most of the action is increasing lateral dimensions, with some minor elevation of ribs
How do the muscle fibers of transversus thoracis run?
Multiple directions attaching to the xiphoid process and costal cartilages of several ribs with finger like projections from a hand
How do the true ribs function as pump handle action?
Small action at joint, large action laterally.
How does a VSD impact the left ventricle?
Membranous part is right up against aortic vestibule with its outflow of the aorta. IAbuts against the valve cusp down the left side
How does a VSD impact the right side?
Close to septal papillary and chords
How does blood shunt in a VSD?
Blood shunts left to right
How does the aorta pass in relation to the trachea, and why?
Aorta is forced over to left side of body because trachea is located on midline
How does the foramen primum close?
The septum primum eventually fuses to the endocardial cushion
How does the foramen secundum open?
Apoptosis in septum primum allows it to open
How does the heart supply itself?
Via myocardial vasculature, with venous return into coronary sinus which lies in coronary sulcusNWhat
How does the pericardiacophrnic ligament attach?
Inferior portion of pericardium to diaphragm superior fascia and central tendon of diaphragm
How does the phrenic nerve relate to the diaphragm?
Draped laterally on both sides down to diaphragm
How does the phrenic nerve, draping laterally on both sides down the diaphragm innervate the pericardium?
Sends off sensory twigs to pericardium
How does the right atrial chamber of the embryo attain almost 100% volume of blood?
From materal circulation through umbilical vein
How does the septum secundum grow?
It grows downward to the right of the septum primum such that the lower margin of the septum secundum overlaps the upper margin of the septum primum
How is it possible someone below 50% blockage can still die soonafter a stress test?
Plaque can bubble off of a vessel and travel down stream to a smaller space and cause a blockage
How is the fossa ovalis itself oriented in regard to the interatrial wall?
It is in the right atrium opposed on the interatrial wall to what was the septum primum
How is the upper part of the body profused versus the lower part of the body?
Upper part - hyperprofusion. Lower part - hypoprofusion
How many arches develop, and which are important?
6 develop, and 3rd, 4th, and 6th are important, 1,2,5 are not
How many atriums are there at this point?
1 common atrium at this point
How many brachiocephalic veins are there, and what are they comprised of?
Each (Lookup how many!) brachiocephalic vein is comprised of the joined internal jugular and subclavian veins
How many branches does the vagus nerve have, and what is its roman number?
X, left and right branches
How many bronchopulmonary segments are there on the right versus the left?
10 on right, 8 on left
How many cusps do the left atrioventricular / bicuspid / mitral valves possess?
2 cusp valve anterior and posterior
How many different sections does the heart have initially?
2 separate segments
How many lymphatic plexi are there around the lung, and what are they called?
Superior and deep lymphatic plexi
How many pairs of ribs are there?
12 pairs total
How many parts are there of the aorta? Name them.
3 parts. Ascending (from the heart), arch, descending
How many parts are there of the phrenic nerve? What does it innervate? Where does it run?
Left and right pairs, innervates diaphragm, runs into middle mediastinum, attaches to pericardium and continues to diaphragm.
How many pulmonary veins are there, and how many pulmonary arteries?
2 veins, 1 artery
How many regions comprise the inferior mediastinum, and what are they?
3 regions, middle mediastinum, anterior mediastinum, posterior mediastinum
How many sets of papillary muscles are in bicuspid / mitral valves, and which side is larger?
2 sets, anterior is larger than posterior
How many types of coarctation of aorta are there, and describe each
Preductal coarctation is natal type, occurs before ductus arteriosus, therefore ductus remains open and allows for blood flow to the systemic circulation. Postductal coarctation occurs distal to dusctus arteriosus, ductus becomes ligamentary, blood floows through subclavian --> internal thoracic artery --> intercostal arteries
How many ventricles are at this point?
1 common ventricle
If a shunt is from the left atrium to the right atrium, the defect is (cyanotic / non-cyanotic).
Non-cyanotic
If a shunt is from the right atrium to the left atrium, then the defect is (cyanotic / non-cyanotic)
Cyanotic
If gurgling is heart, what does this insenuate?
Valvular problem
If left bundle is cut, what will happen?
Left ventricle will not contract (bad news)
If someone suffers from esophageal verices, what occurs?
BLockages in liver tdue to cancer, cirrhosis occludes blood flow to hepatic portal vein somewhat
If the ductus arteriosus doesn't close you have what?
Persistent ductus arteriosus or PDA
If the septum primum or secundum fail to form, what does the fetus develop?
Classic secundum type atrial septal defect (ASD)
if there is a large opening to the fossa ovale, what does it cause?
Very large mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood
If there is an opening to the fossa ovale, what does it create?
Heart murmur
In an X-ray, what can be seen?
Enlargement of arteries in costal groove
In ASD, is the septum secondum abnormal?
No, it is normal
In fully ejecting blood out of the ventricles, the myocardium contracts. What do the inner fibers do versus the outer fibers to accomplish this?
Inner fibers squeeze ventricle, outer fibers ring inner fibers to fully reduce blood flow
In lung tissue, the primary bronchi become what?
Secondary lobar bronchi
In older adults, glandular thymus tissue gives way to __ __.
fatty tissue
In the 3rd week something forms which gives off the cells which form the notochord. Name this formation, and describe what the notochord then forms.
Primitive streak, notochord initiates formation of the nervous system by stimulatin overlying ectoderm to differentiate into neuroectoderm
In the adult heart how to the venous and arterial portions angle?
The venous systems of the adult heart are dorsal, and the arterial systems of the adult heart are ventral
In the embryo, the heart and its precursors are very far in which direction of the embryo?
cranial
In the flat trilaminar embryo, the earliest development of the heart is cranial to all of the developing nervous system, even to the __ / __ __ of the __ __.
forebrain, cranial end, neural tube
In the left lung how does the position of the pulmonary artery to primary bronchus different than in right lung?
Pulmonary artery is superior to primary bronchus
In the left lung, name the 4 grooves
Aorta and arch, left brachiocephalic vein, area for trachea and esophagus, cardiac impression
In the mid axillary line, the lung ends at which intercostal space?
8th
In the midclavicular line, the lung goes to which intercostal space?
6th
In the posterior region, the lung ends at which intercostal space?
10th
In the right ventricle, equate the force of contraction to the distance and resistance of blood.
Force of contraction = distance and resistance to get blood through
In the venous system, the left bronchial vein goes to what?
Accessory hemiazygous vein
In the venous system, the right bronchial vein runs to what?
Azygous vein
In upper crosses of the heart, the left atrium is located?
Posteriorly
In upper crosses of the heart, the left ventricle is?
Noticeably thicker walled with only a small projection on the anterior surface
In upper crosses of the heart, the right atrium is located hwere?
Farthest to the right side of the subject or a structure associated with it
In upper crosses of the heart, the right ventricle is?
The most anterior structure
Inferior mediastinum is located where?
Below imaginary line between sternal angle and T4 vertebrae, superior to diaphragm
Inferior vena cava and the opening of the coronary sinus share what?
Single cusp to its valve
Inspiration and expiration are facilitated by what?
Changes in dimension of the thoracic cage
Inspiration and expiration involve changes in several things, name them. (5 things)
Anterior, posterior, cranial / caudal dimensions, gas pressure
Interestingly, the heart doesn't stay flat. Describe what it does from the arterial end and venous end.
It begins to twist, turn, and rotate. Arterial end rotates downward and to the left. Venous end rotates upward and to the right
Is aortic blood flow directed more towards the right from the ascending aorta to the arch to the descending aorta or to the left?
Right
Is ASD major, and what are its clinical manifestations?
Not major crticial event, slight heart murmur, surgery necessary if ASD is extremely large
Is lung tissue active or passive?
Passive tissue
Is the amount of fat deep to the visceral pericardium static or does it differ much from person to person?
Variable condition
Is the AV visible to the naked eye?
No
Is the pericardium analogous to anything?
Analogous to two layers of pleural sac with an additional layer
Is the pulmonary artery anterior or posterior to the primary bronchus?
Anterior
Is the right ventricle thicker or thinner than the left ventricle?
Thinner
Is the SA node visible?
No, so you use vessels to trace to it
Is the thoracic duct large?
Largest in body
Is the vagus nerve sympathetic or parasympathetic?
parasympathetic
is TotGA a death sentence?
Usually within the first year
Is venous return of the heart more or less variable than arterial vasculature?
More variable
Is VSD common?
It is the most common heart defect
Is VSD cyanotic?
Non-cyanotic in early stages
It is important to understand the relationship between __ muscles, __ tendinae, and cusps
papillary, chordae
Locationally, where does the septum secundum form in relation to the septum primum?
It forms to the right of the septum primum
Lowest splanchnic nerve is formed by what? Terminate where?
Fibers of ganglia 12, terminates into renal plexus
Lungs are inside what?
Pleural sacs
Lungs slide into spaces called what?
recesses
Majority of venous return from heart muscle is by way of?
Coronary sinus
Myocardium is the __ for the heart. It gives it its __.
skeleton, structure
Myocardium is?
Seen through transparent visceral pericardium, heart muscle fibers
Name 3 main findings of Tetralogy of Fallot
Pulmonary stenosis, ventricular septal defect, hypertrophied right ventricle
Name 2 larger lymphatic channels of the lungs.
Thoracic duct on left side, right lymphatic duct on right side
Name 2 recesses that the lungs slide into?
Mediastinal and costociaphragmatic recess
Name 3 functions of the sternum
Strength, protection, rib attachment
Name 3 lymph nodes of the lungs?
Pulmonary, tracheobronchial, and tracheal lymph nodes
Name 3 parts of the sternum
Manubrium, body, xiphoid process
Name 5 points concerning innervation of the heart, including activity, physicality, origins, insertions, and alterations
Regulates pumping activity, spider like membranous fibers with plexus from vagus nerve, sympathetic fibers from chain ganglia, nerves run around coronary arteries, alter rate and force of heart by traveling into heart tissue with blood vessels
Name 6 derivatives of the mesoderm
Muscular systems, most bones, ligaments, tendons, faschia, cardiovascular system
Name and describe the 2 recesses derived from the parietal pleura.
Costodiaphragmatic recess formed by junction of costal pleura and diaphragmatic pleura (larger), costomediastinal recess is smaller and forms at midline region.
Name the 2 places where neural crest cells are critical in heart development?
Truncus arteriosus, endocardial cushion
Name the 3 coronary sinuses.
Anterior interventricular sulcus, posterior interventricular sulcus, and small cardiac vein
Name the 3 things which are cyanotic
Tetralogy, transposition, persistent truncus arteriosus
Name the 4 lymph nodes in the thoracic wall?
Parasternal, diaphragm, mammary, and axillary
Name the 5 basic segments
Truncus arteriosus, bulbus cordis, embryonic ventricle, embryonic atrium, sinus venosus
Name the 5 grooves of the right lung?
Superior venae cava, azygous vein and arch, esophagus, trachea area and esophagus area, cardiac impression
Name the 7 structures at the root of the lung?
Bronchus, pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein, bronchiole artery, bronchiole vein, lymphatics, nerve fibers
Name the four regions of the parietal pleura.
Cervical, costal, diaphragmatic, mediastinal pleura
Name the structures that pass through the diaphragm (3).
Inferior vena cava, esophagus, aorta
Name the two segments of the heart tube?
Right and left heart tubes

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