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Glossary of Biology 112 Test 2

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When individuals have separate sexes it is called?
Dioecious
One individual with the both sex organs is called?
Monoecious
A sporangium goes through ________ to make a __________.
Meiosis
Spore
Sporangium is haploid to diploid?
Diploid (2n)
Spores that are produced from the sporangium, are they haploid or diploid??
haploid (1n)
A zygote which is __n goes through _____ to become a sporangium
2n
mitosis
A type of reproduction where two individuals create a unique individual
sexual reproduction
The life cycle of plants is characterized my ______________________.
The alternation of Generations
The Haploid (1n) and diploid (2n) generations do what?
take turns producing each other
A diploid plant = ?
sporophyte
A sporophyte (=__n) produces spores (=__n) by ________.
2n
1n
meiosis

Spore divide by _______, giving rise to multicellular male and female haploid plants called ______
mitosis
gametophyte
Gametophytes produce _______ by ____________
gametes
mitosis
The gametes are known as what
sperm and eggs
What has to occur to get a diploid zygote?
fertilization
What is located in the flower of angiosperms?
the sex organs
FLOWERS make up 4 basic _______ of modified leaves.
whorls
Flowers make up 4 basic whorls of modified leaves. Name all four.
1.sepals
2.petals
3.stamens
4.carpels


What comes together and forms the pistil?
carpel
What makes up the pistil?
stigma, style, and ovary
The production of the female gametophyte?
embryo sac
The production of the egg is what
gamete
_______ is found inside the ovary.
Ovule
This is considered the seed of the plant
ovule
The outermost whorl and it is usually green but can be colored.
sepal
This is a brightly colored whorl that is inside directly inside the sepal.
PEtal
THe color of the petal is used for what?
to lure in the pollinator
This whorl is found inside the petal ( the male sex orgaN)
stamen
What is the job of the stamen?
make the male gametophyte (pollen)
This whorl is found inside the stamen and has a swollen base, thin neck, and sticky tip.
Carpel
The ovary of a flower eventually turns into ______
the fruit
Pollen is known as the
sperm
This comes together and forms the pistil (stigma, style, and ovary)
Carpel
In the carpel, it is made up of a swollen base, thin neck, and sticky tip. The swollen base is the __________.
Ovary
In the carpel, it is made up of a swollen base, thin neck, and sticky tip. The thin neck is the ______.
style
In the carpel, it is made up of a swollen base, thin neck, and sticky tip. The sticky tip is _______
stigma
The tissue that surrounds the ovule is known as the what
integument
The integument becomes the ___________
seed coat
The sporangium is found inside the _______ of the _______.
Ovule of the ovary
The sporangium inside the ovule is haploid or diploid?
Diploid
Sporangium inside the ovule has a ________. It is known as the mother cell.
Megasporocyte
The Megasporocyte undergoes _______ to produce 4 (1n) megaspores. How many survive?
meiosis
1
The reason the seed remains dormant in the winter is because of what?
hormones
In the megasporocyte, after the 3 megapores die leaving 1 megaspore, the nucleus undergoes ________ and produces a multinucleated ____________ (=embryo sac)
mitosis
female gametophyte
The female gametophyte is known as the
embryo sac
The embryo sac is made of 7 cells. Name them
3 antipodals
a central cell (2 nuclei)
and 2 synergids

the production of the male gametophyte = ?
pollen grain
the production of the sperm in the male=?
gamete
What is the male sex organ called? ( it is where the pollen is made)
Stamen
What are the 2 parts of the stamen?
Anther and filament
IN the stamen the _____ is the saclike container
anther
IN the stamen the _____ is the slender stalk
filament
In the ______, sacs of pollen is hosted. What are the sac of pollens named?
Anther
Sporangia
The sporangia inside the anther has ____________. Is it diploid or haploid?
Microsporocytes
Diploid (2n)
Microsporocytes under ________ and produce how many microspores? How many die?
meiosis
4
None die

Each microspore of the microsporocyte divides _____ to form pollen. (=male gametophyte)
mitotically
The pollen that is formed from the microspore produces how many cells? What are they called?
2 cells
tube cell and generative cell
What forms the pollen tube?
Tube cell
What cell divides mitotically to form the 2 sperm?
generative cell
The movement of pollen from the anthers to the stigma
Pollination
________ occurs by wind, insects, birds (hummingbird), bats
Pollination
What does the pollinator have to land on to pollinate the plant?
stigma
After the pollen reaches the stigma, it ___________ (or rehydrates), produces a _____________ that grows down through the style towards the ovule.
germinates
pollen tube
______________ usually occurs between different individuals of species for pollination.
Cross pollination
The generative cell divides how which produces 2 sperm?
mitotically
The pollen tube passes into the ovule through openings is called?
Micropyle
As soon as fertilization occurs, the ovule turns into the ______.
seed
When the pollen tube reaches the ovule, 1 sperm nucleus fuses with ___________. It forms a 2n zygote.
"fertilizes" egg nucleus
After the pollen tube reaches the ovule and the 1st sperm forms the 2n zygote, the resulting zygote divides _______ to become a ________.
mitotically
embryo
The second sperm that goes down the pollen tube fuses with the _________ which will eventually form the ________.
the 2 nuclei in the central cell
endosperm (cell=3n)
The endosperm is considered ___n. It serves as the ________ for the developing embryo. Both are considered __________.
3n
food supply
double fertilization

What is unique to angiosperms?
3n which means double fertilization
FOllowing fertilization, the ovule become _______.
the seed
The food supply for the seed comes from the _______/
endosperm
The embryo of the seed comes from the _______.
zygote
What kind of organs does the development from the embryo to the zygote have?
rudimentary organs
Name the 3 rudimentary organs the embryo has.
epicotyl,hypocotyl-root axis, and cotyledons
In ________ nutrients of the ENDOSPERM is absorbed into 2 _________ and stored.
dicots
cotyledons
A lima bean is mainly a ___________.
Cotyledon
What determines how a monocot and dicot get their names?
How many cotyledons are in the seed

2- dicot
1-monocot


Portion of the embryo ABOVE attachment to cotyledon(s). (often contains young leaves)
Epicotyl
What will form the shoot system of the plant?
epicotyl
This portion of the embryo forms BELOW the attachment of the cotyledon(s).
Hypocotyl
This develops and connects the shoot system to the root system?
Hypocotyl
This is often the first region of the seed that emerges from the ground.
Hypocotyl
The embryonic root is called
radicle
This helps form the root system
radicle
What makes up the "hypotcotyl-root axis"
hypocotyl + radicle
If you are eating corn, you are mainly eating
endosperm
A lima bean is
dicot
corn is a
monocot
What is the hook of the embryo called that first emerges from the ground in a dicot?
hypocotyl hook
-this has no hypocotyl hook
a monocot embryo
A monocot has a single _______.
cotyledon
A single cotlyledon is called
scutellum
What has the function --> to transport nutrients from the endosperm
scutellum
What protects the developing shoot system?

Is it in monocots or dicots?

coleoptile
in monocots
In monocots, what 2 things make up the future shoot system?
plumule + epicotyl
In the monocot, what makes up the future root system
radicle
In the monocot, what is the tissue that protects the radicle?
coleorhiza
Seeds develop within the __________. (which develops from the ovary wall= pericap) & the receptacle (base of the flower)
fruit
The ovary wall is called
the pericarp
THe base of the flower is called
the receptacle
Explain how a bird would be a dispersal agent for a fruit.
Fruits are often ate by animals; pass through their digestive system, seeds often NOT digested, deposited some place else (i.e. dispersed)
What attracts an animal to a fruit?
the color and taste
Some fruit have ______ which help disperse the seeds.
wings
Fruits are classified into 3 large groups. Name them. (It is based on how the fruit develops)
simple, aggregate and multiple
This type of fruit develops from a SINGLE ovary of ONE flower
simple fruit
- This fruit can be dry or fleshy

(i.e. pod of bean, nut, tomato, grape, orange, lemon, and other citrus fruits)

simple fruit
This fruit develops from SINGLE flower that has NUMEROUS ovaries. (ex. strawberry and rasberry)
aggregate fruits
a Simple fruit _______ come from just one ovule
doesnt
Most strawberries develop from the _______ of the flower
receptacle
This fruit forms from a CLUSTER of FLOWERS grouped close together
(pineapple)
multiple fruit
What fruit is the most common fruit?
simple fruit
in multiple fruit, Individual fruits merge together to form one ________
fruit
Multiple fruits come from many _______ of many flowers
ovaries
IN a multiple fruit (like a mulberry fruit) multiple _______ grow together.

Individual _______merge and for one.

fruit
fruit
What happens when it lands in a favorable spot for growth (eg moisture nutrients)
the seed germinates
What may go through dormancy which means it is metabolically inactive (like winter time)
The seed being germinated
____________ insures that the plant germinates @ the best time for survival. (Hormonally controlled)
Dormancy
Name the 4 steps for germination of a seed
Imbibition
Hormone Production
Enzyme Production
Growth


The part of germination where the seed absorbs water and makes the seed larger
imbibition
The part of germination wherethe gibberellins (GA) are released.
Hormone Production
Hormone production signals ________________
aleurone
The part of germination where the aleurone produces digestive enzymes (=amylase)
enzyme production
Digestive enzymes are also known as
amylase
The part of germination where the digestive enzymes break down the endosperm (starch); sugars used for the growth of the embryo
Growth
Used for energy, shrivels up as the nutrients are used up
Cotyledons
In a dicot seed development, there are 3 parts. Name them. (same as the embryo)
Radicle, Hypocotyl, and Epicotyl
Monocots (e.g. corn, grasses, lilies) use a different method for breaking ground when they germinate.First the _________ pushes upward through the soil.
The ________ grows staight up through the ______ coleoptile.
The _______grows down and forms the roo

Coleoptile
shoot tip
tubular
radicle


Many plants clone themselves through
asexual repro
Another word for asexual reproduction is
vegetative propagation
When a plant part separates from the overall plant and develops into a whole new plant it is considered
asexual repro or vegetative propagation
If it is genetically identical to the parent it is a _________
clone
The detached fragments of some plants develop into offspring is known as
fragmentation
__________is used for energy, shrivels up as nutrients are used up
cotyledons
Name the 3 parts of the dicot seed development
radicle
hypocotyl
epicotyl

Monocots ( i.e. corn, grasses, lilies) use a different method than a dicot for breaking ground when they germinate.

___________ pushes upward through the soil.

_____ grows straight up through the _________ coleoptile



coleoptile
shoot tip
tubular

In a monocot seed development, the __________ grows down an d forms the root system
radicle
A Kalanchoe (maternity plant) is an example of a plant that conducts
asexual reproduction (veg. propagation)
A chinese privet is an invasive plant that spreads bc it has
adeventitious shoots
A variation of _________ occurs in some dicot roots.
The root system of a __________ parent gives rise to ______________ shoots. (which makes separate and NEW individuals)
fragmentation
single
adventitious

Name 2 advantages of sexual reproduction
-sex generates variation in population
-variation is asset in environment where evolving pathogens and other variables affect survival and repro. success
Name 2 advantages of asexual reproduction
-plant well suited to particular environment so it can clone rapidly
-offspring often not as fragile as seedlings from sexual repro.
________help regulate what our body (cells, tissue, etc) does
hormones
________are "key-like" so when they get with ______ ("lock-like") they work
hormones
target cells
Hormones are found in all _______ organisms
multicellular
Hormones have __________ that are produced in one part of the body and transported to other parts
chemical signals
The chemical signals that hormones put off are bind to specific receptors. They trigger responses to _________and ______
target cells and tissues
To have a substantial change in an organism, how much hormones do you need
just a little bit
The change/response between the plant is governed by the _____ of two or more hormones
interactions
Name the 5 major classes of plant hormones
auxins
cytokinins
gibberellins
abscisic acid
ethlyene gas



Plant hormones control _______ and _______ by affecting ________, ________, and _______ of cells
growth
development
division
elongation
differentiation



Hormones have MULTIPLE effects on the plant. What does the effects depend on? (It affects what the hormones do)
depends on its site (shoot vs root) of action
-its concentration
-its developmental stage( e.g. seed vs seedling, mature plant of plant)





What is the most common auxin?
Indoleacetic Acid (IAA)
What hormone stimulates stem elongation?
Auxins
What INHIBITS lateral branching of the shoot system (results in “apical dominance”)
Auxins
________’s main branches inhibit lateral branching
Auxins

If you cut off the tip of a plant, you lower the ______. Then, you will start to see _______ branching.


Auxins
Lateral




_________ is produced in the apex (apical meristem) and in young leaves.
Auxin
______________ stimulates the branching of the ROOT system. (but inhibits branching of the shoot system)

Auxins




A plants response when it needs to move to more sunlight and moves is called___________. It is due to what hormone?
Phototropism
Auxins




A plant’s response when the roots grow down due to gravity is called ______. It is due to what hormone?
Gravitropism
Auxins




Auxins stimulate the secondary growth of the __________________. It also stimulates the plant to wake up in the spring.
Vascular Cambium
Too Much ______ can kill the plant.
-It is used in some herbicides (2,4-D, Agent Orange)




Auxins
What stimulates flowering (causes the flower to grow) which leads to the development of the fruit?
Gibberellins
What hormone is added to dwarf plants to make them grow? (It makes them grow fast)
Gibberellins
Where is the gibberellins produced from? (3)
Apical buds, roots, young leaves(embryo)
What hormone is put in orchards to reduce diseases like fungi?
Gibberellins
__________ stimulates cytokinesis (=cell division)
Cytokinins
This stimulates the branching of the ROOT system.
Cytokinins
Auxins are antagonists to _______________.
Cytokinins
What promotes SEED and bud germination, stem elongation, leaf growth, and pollen development?
Gibberellins
_______________ and ____________ maintain a balance between the shoot system and the root system. ( They compliment each other)
AUXINS AND CYTOKININS
What is produced by actively growing tissues ( ROOTS, embryos, and fruits)
Cytokinins
Name the three growth hormones.
Cytokinins
Auxins
Gibberellins





How many species of gibberellins are there?
70
If auxins are greater than cytokinins, there will be more what and what?
Elongation of stems
More root growth




If cytokinins are greater than auxins, there are more _____________ than ________.
Lateral branching than elongation (SHOOT GROWTH)
Cytokinins are antagonists to ___________
Auxins
What hormone keeps the plant asleep?
Abscisic Acid (ABA)
What hormone closes the stomata when there is a drought?
Absicisic Acid (ABA)
What hormone stops primary and secondary growth?
Absicisic Acid (aba)
Which hormone promotes fruit RIPENING. (It softens or blackens it)
Ethylene gas
INHIBITS growth and development of roots, leaves and flowers CAUSES LOSS OF CHLOROPHYLL
Ethylene Gas
What layer does the leaf drop off of when dealing with ethylene gas?
Abscission layer
Name the hormones that that inhibit growth
Ethylene Gas and ABA
Absicisic Acid’s antagonist
Ethylene gas
Name the 4 things that produce ABA
Leaves
Buds
Stems
Green fruit






Inhibits stem elongation and prevents maturation of young leaves. It starts the process of leaves falling off of the tree.
Ethylene Gas
Another word for aging
Senescence
Name the 3 places that ethylene gas is produced
Tissues of ripening fruit
Nodes of stem
Aging leaves and fruit





Which hormone allows the roots grow around rocks or anything in the way
Ethylene Gas
plants need nutrients for ____________, ______________, and _________________.
growth
maintenance
reproduction

If the plant has yellowing leaves (=chlorosis) it is due to a deficiency of _______.
Magnesium
What is an ingredient in chlorophyll
magnesium
the yellowing of leaves is called
chlorosis
Nutrients are divided into two major groups. name them
macronutrients
micronutrients




What nutrient is needed in the amount of >0.1% dry wt
Macronutrients

IT IS NEEDED IN RELATIVELY LARGE AMOUNTS

What are the 9 macronutrients
Carbon
Hydrogen
Oxygen
Nitrogen
Potassium
Calcium
Magnesium
Phosphorus
Sulfur











What is the most abundant elements in a plant
carbon
hydrogen
oxygen

Where is C,H,O found in plants
in carbs, including cellulose in cell walls
Name the carbons sources and how it gets in to plnt
CO2 is in the air and comes through the stomata
How does H and O get into plants
from h20 through the soil
what % of herbaceous plants are composed of h2o. and what percentage of that transpires
80-85
90
What is a component of amino acids, coenzymes, nucleic acids, an chlorophyll
nitrogen
How is N2 absorbed
from the soil as a mineral
What is very important in providing nitrogen to the plants
soil bacteria
Name the 4 groups of bacteria that is important to plants
Nitrogen-fixing plants
ammonifying plants
nitrifying plants
denitrifying plants


Which bacteria converts atmospheric nitrogen (N2) to ammonia (NH3)
nitrogen-fixing bacteria
Which bacteria converts organic mattter into ammonium (NH4+)
Ammonifying bacteria
what bacteria can convert ammonium to nitrates (NO3)
nitrifying bacteria
What bacteria can convert nitrates to N2
Denitrifying bacteria
nodules with nitrogen-fixing bacteria is called
rhizobium

It is in LEGUMES

what is members of the pea family : peanuts, soybeans, clovers, beans
legumes
This have nitrogen-fixing bacteria in nodules of roots that allow plants to use the atmospheric nitrogen to make ammonium ions WHICH IS USED TO MAKE AMINO ACIDS
Legumes
in the mutualistic relationship of he legume and the bacteria.. the legume gets what? the bacteria gets what?
legume --> "fixed nitrogen"
bacteria--> gets carbs and other organic molecules
If the plants dont utilize all ammonium made from the bacteria.. it gets put in the what
soil to be used by other plants
What macronutrient makes stiff cell walls?

FOUND IN SOIL

Calcium
What macronutrient is a osmoregulator? It helps maintains turgor pressure, shape of cell, prevents wilting

FOUND IN SOIL

Potassium
What macronutrient is important in opening and closing stomata
potassium
What macronutrient is needed to make nucleic acids (RNA, DNA, etc)
Phosphorus
a plant wont have enough _______ if it doesnt have enough sulfur
Protein
Name the 8 micronutrients
Iron
Chlorine
Copper
Zinc
Manganese
Molybdenum
boron
nickel






This makes up less than 0.1% of dry weight but is VERY essential to stay healthy
Micronutrients
Most micronutrients function as _____________ reactions (i.e. help enzymes function)
Cofactors of enzymatic
Hydroponic cultures have identified how many essential micro and macro nutrients
17

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