Glossary of Biology 112 Test 2
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- When individuals have separate sexes it is called?
- One individual with the both sex organs is called?
- A sporangium goes through ________ to make a __________.
- Sporangium is haploid to diploid?
- Diploid (2n)
- Spores that are produced from the sporangium, are they haploid or diploid??
- haploid (1n)
- A zygote which is __n goes through _____ to become a sporangium
- A type of reproduction where two individuals create a unique individual
- sexual reproduction
- The life cycle of plants is characterized my ______________________.
- The alternation of Generations
- The Haploid (1n) and diploid (2n) generations do what?
- take turns producing each other
- A diploid plant = ?
- A sporophyte (=__n) produces spores (=__n) by ________.
- Spore divide by _______, giving rise to multicellular male and female haploid plants called ______
- Gametophytes produce _______ by ____________
- The gametes are known as what
- sperm and eggs
- What has to occur to get a diploid zygote?
- What is located in the flower of angiosperms?
- the sex organs
- FLOWERS make up 4 basic _______ of modified leaves.
- Flowers make up 4 basic whorls of modified leaves. Name all four.
- What comes together and forms the pistil?
- What makes up the pistil?
- stigma, style, and ovary
- The production of the female gametophyte?
- embryo sac
- The production of the egg is what
- _______ is found inside the ovary.
- This is considered the seed of the plant
- The outermost whorl and it is usually green but can be colored.
- This is a brightly colored whorl that is inside directly inside the sepal.
- THe color of the petal is used for what?
- to lure in the pollinator
- This whorl is found inside the petal ( the male sex orgaN)
- What is the job of the stamen?
- make the male gametophyte (pollen)
- This whorl is found inside the stamen and has a swollen base, thin neck, and sticky tip.
- The ovary of a flower eventually turns into ______
- the fruit
- Pollen is known as the
- This comes together and forms the pistil (stigma, style, and ovary)
- In the carpel, it is made up of a swollen base, thin neck, and sticky tip. The swollen base is the __________.
- In the carpel, it is made up of a swollen base, thin neck, and sticky tip. The thin neck is the ______.
- In the carpel, it is made up of a swollen base, thin neck, and sticky tip. The sticky tip is _______
- The tissue that surrounds the ovule is known as the what
- The integument becomes the ___________
- seed coat
- The sporangium is found inside the _______ of the _______.
- Ovule of the ovary
- The sporangium inside the ovule is haploid or diploid?
- Sporangium inside the ovule has a ________. It is known as the mother cell.
- The Megasporocyte undergoes _______ to produce 4 (1n) megaspores. How many survive?
- The reason the seed remains dormant in the winter is because of what?
- In the megasporocyte, after the 3 megapores die leaving 1 megaspore, the nucleus undergoes ________ and produces a multinucleated ____________ (=embryo sac)
- The female gametophyte is known as the
- embryo sac
- The embryo sac is made of 7 cells. Name them
- 3 antipodals
a central cell (2 nuclei)
and 2 synergids
- the production of the male gametophyte = ?
- pollen grain
- the production of the sperm in the male=?
- What is the male sex organ called? ( it is where the pollen is made)
- What are the 2 parts of the stamen?
- Anther and filament
- IN the stamen the _____ is the saclike container
- IN the stamen the _____ is the slender stalk
- In the ______, sacs of pollen is hosted. What are the sac of pollens named?
- The sporangia inside the anther has ____________. Is it diploid or haploid?
- Microsporocytes under ________ and produce how many microspores? How many die?
- Each microspore of the microsporocyte divides _____ to form pollen. (=male gametophyte)
- The pollen that is formed from the microspore produces how many cells? What are they called?
- 2 cells
tube cell and generative cell
- What forms the pollen tube?
- Tube cell
- What cell divides mitotically to form the 2 sperm?
- generative cell
- The movement of pollen from the anthers to the stigma
- ________ occurs by wind, insects, birds (hummingbird), bats
- What does the pollinator have to land on to pollinate the plant?
- After the pollen reaches the stigma, it ___________ (or rehydrates), produces a _____________ that grows down through the style towards the ovule.
- ______________ usually occurs between different individuals of species for pollination.
- Cross pollination
- The generative cell divides how which produces 2 sperm?
- The pollen tube passes into the ovule through openings is called?
- As soon as fertilization occurs, the ovule turns into the ______.
- When the pollen tube reaches the ovule, 1 sperm nucleus fuses with ___________. It forms a 2n zygote.
- "fertilizes" egg nucleus
- After the pollen tube reaches the ovule and the 1st sperm forms the 2n zygote, the resulting zygote divides _______ to become a ________.
- The second sperm that goes down the pollen tube fuses with the _________ which will eventually form the ________.
- the 2 nuclei in the central cell
- The endosperm is considered ___n. It serves as the ________ for the developing embryo. Both are considered __________.
- What is unique to angiosperms?
- 3n which means double fertilization
- FOllowing fertilization, the ovule become _______.
- the seed
- The food supply for the seed comes from the _______/
- The embryo of the seed comes from the _______.
- What kind of organs does the development from the embryo to the zygote have?
- rudimentary organs
- Name the 3 rudimentary organs the embryo has.
- epicotyl,hypocotyl-root axis, and cotyledons
- In ________ nutrients of the ENDOSPERM is absorbed into 2 _________ and stored.
- A lima bean is mainly a ___________.
- What determines how a monocot and dicot get their names?
- How many cotyledons are in the seed
- Portion of the embryo ABOVE attachment to cotyledon(s). (often contains young leaves)
- What will form the shoot system of the plant?
- This portion of the embryo forms BELOW the attachment of the cotyledon(s).
- This develops and connects the shoot system to the root system?
- This is often the first region of the seed that emerges from the ground.
- The embryonic root is called
- This helps form the root system
- What makes up the "hypotcotyl-root axis"
- hypocotyl + radicle
- If you are eating corn, you are mainly eating
- A lima bean is
- corn is a
- What is the hook of the embryo called that first emerges from the ground in a dicot?
- hypocotyl hook
- -this has no hypocotyl hook
- a monocot embryo
- A monocot has a single _______.
- A single cotlyledon is called
- What has the function --> to transport nutrients from the endosperm
- What protects the developing shoot system?
Is it in monocots or dicots?
- In monocots, what 2 things make up the future shoot system?
- plumule + epicotyl
- In the monocot, what makes up the future root system
- In the monocot, what is the tissue that protects the radicle?
- Seeds develop within the __________. (which develops from the ovary wall= pericap) & the receptacle (base of the flower)
- The ovary wall is called
- the pericarp
- THe base of the flower is called
- the receptacle
- Explain how a bird would be a dispersal agent for a fruit.
- Fruits are often ate by animals; pass through their digestive system, seeds often NOT digested, deposited some place else (i.e. dispersed)
- What attracts an animal to a fruit?
- the color and taste
- Some fruit have ______ which help disperse the seeds.
- Fruits are classified into 3 large groups. Name them. (It is based on how the fruit develops)
- simple, aggregate and multiple
- This type of fruit develops from a SINGLE ovary of ONE flower
- simple fruit
- - This fruit can be dry or fleshy
(i.e. pod of bean, nut, tomato, grape, orange, lemon, and other citrus fruits)
- simple fruit
- This fruit develops from SINGLE flower that has NUMEROUS ovaries. (ex. strawberry and rasberry)
- aggregate fruits
- a Simple fruit _______ come from just one ovule
- Most strawberries develop from the _______ of the flower
- This fruit forms from a CLUSTER of FLOWERS grouped close together
- multiple fruit
- What fruit is the most common fruit?
- simple fruit
- in multiple fruit, Individual fruits merge together to form one ________
- Multiple fruits come from many _______ of many flowers
- IN a multiple fruit (like a mulberry fruit) multiple _______ grow together.
Individual _______merge and for one.
- What happens when it lands in a favorable spot for growth (eg moisture nutrients)
- the seed germinates
- What may go through dormancy which means it is metabolically inactive (like winter time)
- The seed being germinated
- ____________ insures that the plant germinates @ the best time for survival. (Hormonally controlled)
- Name the 4 steps for germination of a seed
- The part of germination where the seed absorbs water and makes the seed larger
- The part of germination wherethe gibberellins (GA) are released.
- Hormone Production
- Hormone production signals ________________
- The part of germination where the aleurone produces digestive enzymes (=amylase)
- enzyme production
- Digestive enzymes are also known as
- The part of germination where the digestive enzymes break down the endosperm (starch); sugars used for the growth of the embryo
- Used for energy, shrivels up as the nutrients are used up
- In a dicot seed development, there are 3 parts. Name them. (same as the embryo)
- Radicle, Hypocotyl, and Epicotyl
- Monocots (e.g. corn, grasses, lilies) use a different method for breaking ground when they germinate.First the _________ pushes upward through the soil.
The ________ grows staight up through the ______ coleoptile.
The _______grows down and forms the roo
- Many plants clone themselves through
- asexual repro
- Another word for asexual reproduction is
- vegetative propagation
- When a plant part separates from the overall plant and develops into a whole new plant it is considered
- asexual repro or vegetative propagation
- If it is genetically identical to the parent it is a _________
- The detached fragments of some plants develop into offspring is known as
- __________is used for energy, shrivels up as nutrients are used up
- Name the 3 parts of the dicot seed development
- Monocots ( i.e. corn, grasses, lilies) use a different method than a dicot for breaking ground when they germinate.
___________ pushes upward through the soil.
_____ grows straight up through the _________ coleoptile
- In a monocot seed development, the __________ grows down an d forms the root system
- A Kalanchoe (maternity plant) is an example of a plant that conducts
- asexual reproduction (veg. propagation)
- A chinese privet is an invasive plant that spreads bc it has
- adeventitious shoots
- A variation of _________ occurs in some dicot roots.
The root system of a __________ parent gives rise to ______________ shoots. (which makes separate and NEW individuals)
- Name 2 advantages of sexual reproduction
- -sex generates variation in population
-variation is asset in environment where evolving pathogens and other variables affect survival and repro. success
- Name 2 advantages of asexual reproduction
- -plant well suited to particular environment so it can clone rapidly
-offspring often not as fragile as seedlings from sexual repro.
- ________help regulate what our body (cells, tissue, etc) does
- ________are "key-like" so when they get with ______ ("lock-like") they work
- Hormones are found in all _______ organisms
- Hormones have __________ that are produced in one part of the body and transported to other parts
- chemical signals
- The chemical signals that hormones put off are bind to specific receptors. They trigger responses to _________and ______
- target cells and tissues
- To have a substantial change in an organism, how much hormones do you need
- just a little bit
- The change/response between the plant is governed by the _____ of two or more hormones
- Name the 5 major classes of plant hormones
- Plant hormones control _______ and _______ by affecting ________, ________, and _______ of cells
- Hormones have MULTIPLE effects on the plant. What does the effects depend on? (It affects what the hormones do)
- depends on its site (shoot vs root) of action
-its developmental stage( e.g. seed vs seedling, mature plant of plant)
- What is the most common auxin?
- Indoleacetic Acid (IAA)
- What hormone stimulates stem elongation?
- What INHIBITS lateral branching of the shoot system (results in “apical dominance”)
- ________’s main branches inhibit lateral branching
If you cut off the tip of a plant, you lower the ______. Then, you will start to see _______ branching.
- _________ is produced in the apex (apical meristem) and in young leaves.
- ______________ stimulates the branching of the ROOT system. (but inhibits branching of the shoot system)
- A plants response when it needs to move to more sunlight and moves is called___________. It is due to what hormone?
- A plant’s response when the roots grow down due to gravity is called ______. It is due to what hormone?
- Auxins stimulate the secondary growth of the __________________. It also stimulates the plant to wake up in the spring.
- Vascular Cambium
- Too Much ______ can kill the plant.
-It is used in some herbicides (2,4-D, Agent Orange)
- What stimulates flowering (causes the flower to grow) which leads to the development of the fruit?
- What hormone is added to dwarf plants to make them grow? (It makes them grow fast)
- Where is the gibberellins produced from? (3)
- Apical buds, roots, young leaves(embryo)
- What hormone is put in orchards to reduce diseases like fungi?
- __________ stimulates cytokinesis (=cell division)
- This stimulates the branching of the ROOT system.
- Auxins are antagonists to _______________.
- What promotes SEED and bud germination, stem elongation, leaf growth, and pollen development?
- _______________ and ____________ maintain a balance between the shoot system and the root system. ( They compliment each other)
- AUXINS AND CYTOKININS
- What is produced by actively growing tissues ( ROOTS, embryos, and fruits)
- Name the three growth hormones.
- How many species of gibberellins are there?
- If auxins are greater than cytokinins, there will be more what and what?
- Elongation of stems
More root growth
- If cytokinins are greater than auxins, there are more _____________ than ________.
- Lateral branching than elongation (SHOOT GROWTH)
- Cytokinins are antagonists to ___________
- What hormone keeps the plant asleep?
- Abscisic Acid (ABA)
- What hormone closes the stomata when there is a drought?
- Absicisic Acid (ABA)
- What hormone stops primary and secondary growth?
- Absicisic Acid (aba)
- Which hormone promotes fruit RIPENING. (It softens or blackens it)
- Ethylene gas
- INHIBITS growth and development of roots, leaves and flowers CAUSES LOSS OF CHLOROPHYLL
- Ethylene Gas
- What layer does the leaf drop off of when dealing with ethylene gas?
- Abscission layer
- Name the hormones that that inhibit growth
- Ethylene Gas and ABA
- Absicisic Acid’s antagonist
- Ethylene gas
- Name the 4 things that produce ABA
- Inhibits stem elongation and prevents maturation of young leaves. It starts the process of leaves falling off of the tree.
- Ethylene Gas
- Another word for aging
- Name the 3 places that ethylene gas is produced
- Tissues of ripening fruit
Nodes of stem
Aging leaves and fruit
- Which hormone allows the roots grow around rocks or anything in the way
- Ethylene Gas
- plants need nutrients for ____________, ______________, and _________________.
- If the plant has yellowing leaves (=chlorosis) it is due to a deficiency of _______.
- What is an ingredient in chlorophyll
- the yellowing of leaves is called
- Nutrients are divided into two major groups. name them
- What nutrient is needed in the amount of >0.1% dry wt
IT IS NEEDED IN RELATIVELY LARGE AMOUNTS
- What are the 9 macronutrients
- What is the most abundant elements in a plant
- Where is C,H,O found in plants
- in carbs, including cellulose in cell walls
- Name the carbons sources and how it gets in to plnt
- CO2 is in the air and comes through the stomata
- How does H and O get into plants
- from h20 through the soil
- what % of herbaceous plants are composed of h2o. and what percentage of that transpires
- What is a component of amino acids, coenzymes, nucleic acids, an chlorophyll
- How is N2 absorbed
- from the soil as a mineral
- What is very important in providing nitrogen to the plants
- soil bacteria
- Name the 4 groups of bacteria that is important to plants
- Nitrogen-fixing plants
- Which bacteria converts atmospheric nitrogen (N2) to ammonia (NH3)
- nitrogen-fixing bacteria
- Which bacteria converts organic mattter into ammonium (NH4+)
- Ammonifying bacteria
- what bacteria can convert ammonium to nitrates (NO3)
- nitrifying bacteria
- What bacteria can convert nitrates to N2
- Denitrifying bacteria
- nodules with nitrogen-fixing bacteria is called
It is in LEGUMES
- what is members of the pea family : peanuts, soybeans, clovers, beans
- This have nitrogen-fixing bacteria in nodules of roots that allow plants to use the atmospheric nitrogen to make ammonium ions WHICH IS USED TO MAKE AMINO ACIDS
- in the mutualistic relationship of he legume and the bacteria.. the legume gets what? the bacteria gets what?
- legume --> "fixed nitrogen"
bacteria--> gets carbs and other organic molecules
- If the plants dont utilize all ammonium made from the bacteria.. it gets put in the what
- soil to be used by other plants
- What macronutrient makes stiff cell walls?
FOUND IN SOIL
- What macronutrient is a osmoregulator? It helps maintains turgor pressure, shape of cell, prevents wilting
FOUND IN SOIL
- What macronutrient is important in opening and closing stomata
- What macronutrient is needed to make nucleic acids (RNA, DNA, etc)
- a plant wont have enough _______ if it doesnt have enough sulfur
- Name the 8 micronutrients
- This makes up less than 0.1% of dry weight but is VERY essential to stay healthy
- Most micronutrients function as _____________ reactions (i.e. help enzymes function)
- Cofactors of enzymatic
- Hydroponic cultures have identified how many essential micro and macro nutrients
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