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Glossary of Biology 1113 exam 3

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Created by britneyzurovetz

name the key cellular process in which one cell divides into two identical cells
mitosis
what four-letter acronym helps us to remember the stages of mitosis
pmat
give the complete names represented by each of the four letters in pmat
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telephase
what stage does replication occur
interphase
what major chromosomal process must occur before cell replication can occur?
chromosomes replicate (duplication)
what nuclear structures become visible during prophase? why?
chromosomes, they condense
in humans, how many potential chrosmosomes (chromatids) are present during prophase?
92 (46*2)
what structure holds the replicated chromosomes together?
kinetochore
during which phase of mitosis do the replicated chromosomes pairs (sister chromatids) line up at the equator of the cell?
metaphase
what structure attaches to and moves the chromosomes
spindle fibers making up the mitotic spindle
the ends of the spindle fibers are attached to what organelle?
centrioles
which stage of mitosis begins when the kinetochores split?
anaphase
name the last stage of mitosis
telephase
what are two major characteristics of telephase?
-cells split in 2
-nuclear membrane reforms
what is the outcome of mitosis?
one cell into two
in humans, how many chromosomes sets are found in each daughter cell?
2 sets
how many individual chromosomes are there in each set of human cells?
46
because of mitosis, all nucleated cells of our bodies contain copies of chromosomes that we inherited from...
mommy and daddy
cells that have two of each type of chromosome are termed?
2n or diploid
cells that have only one of each kind of chromosomes are termed?
1n or diploid
name of cells that have only one set of chromosomes?
gametes
genetic process that produces 1n gametes? (2 names)
meiosis or reduction division
each normal gamete has how many sets of chromosomes?
one set
for each cell that begins the process of meiosis, how many cells are produced?
four
each normal human gamete has how many chromosomes?
46
of the 46 chromosomes that a normal human gamete has, how many copies of the original chromosomes are inherited from the mother? from the father
23 from each
term defined as the separation of a pair of chromosomes during cell replication
segregation (law of)
name given to replicated chromosome #4 derived from daddy and replicated chromosome #4 from mommy when positioned side by side during meiosis.
homologous chromosomes in SYNAPSIS
genetic "law": the way that one pair of homologous chromosomes lines up during metaphase 1, does not influence the way the other 22 pairs (humans) of homologous chromosomes line up.
law of independent assortment
owing to this process, each human has the ability to produce >8million chromosomally different gametes
law of independent assortment
process observed during meiosis where maternally and paternally derived chromosomes exchange parts of themselves
crossing over
during what stage of meiosis does the process of crossing over occur?
prophase 1/metaphase 1
the somatic cells (body cells) of a normal human contain how many chromosomes?
46
how many of EACH kind of chromosomes do we have?
2
who is considered to be the father of genetics?
gregor mendel
where and approximtely when did gregor mendel live?
in austria and 1822-1884
in families consisting of five children, what percentage will have all girls?
.5^(5)

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