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Glossary of Biology 1112 exam 2.

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Created by britneyzurovetz

a system where the output of product of a process influences future output
feedback loops
drive an event to a conclusion
positive feedback tendency
oxytocin and uterine stretch receptors at birth; clotting as a cascade of proteins; cancer cell and human population growth are examples of
positive feedback tendency
regulate the output of a system
negative feedback tendency
body temperature of homeotherms; blood glucose; blood pressure; heart rate; a large # of physiological processes are examples of
negative feedback tendency
anatomical,physiological; biochemical, and/or behavioral adjustments to enhance survival, growth, and reproduction in na environment.
adaptation
natural selection is a cause of
adaptation
one example of adaptations allowing a sedentary individual to be active
aerobic exercise
here the ---- and ---- systems are assisting this aerobic exercise
respiratory, cardiovascular
different animals have different adaptations to capture oxygen
comparative physiology
each system of the human body has an ---- and ----
anatomy and physiology
anatomy-
physiology-
form
function
another name for the astrointestinal or gi tract
digestive system
a classic organ system consisting of a large # of organs and tissues. a food processor within a tube
digestive system
three aspects to food processing:
-digestion
-assimilation
- execretion

a large diverse "army" of cells and proteins that can fight microbes and cancer cells
immune system
bacteria, fungi, prions, rickesettsia, protozoans and virus vermes are ...
selected infection human diseases
three layers of defense against invaders:
-skin
-nonspecific defenses
-specific defenses

(physical and chemical barrier)
skin
key; major histocompatibility complex (mttc)
nonspecific defenses
"the big kahuna",
specific defenses
fight the organism that gets through
specific defenses
several of these are critical to an immune response
white blood cells
large cells found in the blood stream. relates to monocytes. detects the problem. white blood cells
macrophage
punctures a hole in the invader or cell infected by the invader including cancer cells
helper t cell
fast and short term messenger, integration, sensory perception, throughout, memory, and control of bodily functions.
nervous system
brain & spinal chord.
cns (central nervous system)
top of cns
brain
rest is
peripheral
higher level cns. Function: consciousness, memory, and thought
peripheral nervous system
basic unit of nervous system
neuron
moving from axon to dendrite across a synapse via chemical neuro transmitter
impulse direction
spae between dendrite and axon
synapse
space between dendrite & axon
synapse
role of neurotransmitters
to move things
the function of this system is movement at all levels
muscular system
main muscle proteins:
actin and myosin
cause contractions and relaxation muscles
sliding
three general types of muscle tissues:
-skeletal
-cardiac
-smooth

one contracts, the other relaxes (ex. biceps vs. triceps)
antagonistic muscles
endurance-
slow twitch muscles
speed
-fast twitch muscles
estimated number of muscles in the human body
640
largest human muscle
gluteus maximus
smallest human muscle. (helps move ear)
stapedius
major structures are kidneys, ureters, bladder, and euretha of this system
excretory
basic unit of the kidney
nephron
-filtration "plants" of blood
-regulating water/salt balance
-nitrogen (urea) excretion.

multiple functions of the excretory system
number of bones in the human skeleton
206
protection, support, muscle attachment, storehouse of calcium, and phosphorus are functions of
skeletal system
easier to break
osteoporesis
acronym
diner & crimes
diner
-digestive
-integration
-nervous
-endocrine
-respiratory



crimes
-circulatory
-reproductive
-immune
-muscular
-excratory
-skeletal




psychologist abraham maslow prioritized all human needs, which category was the top priority?
biological needs.
biological needs:
oxygen, water, food, reproduction
most urgent biological need
oxygen
oxidation of carbon compounds is the process of
cellular respiration
O2 ---- of air is high and constant
concentration
air (baromatic) pressure =
760 mm Hg
o2 availability-
but pressure can be at-
-no problem
-high altitudes
no oxygen at all
anoxic
lower than normal oxygen
hypoxic
normal oxygen
normoxic
more than usual; considered toxic
hyperoxic
air contains how much more oxygen besides water?
20 times more.

effect on temperature is what kind of relationship between o2 solubility and temp
inverse relationship
the more salt,
the less oxygen
would air or water breathing animals have neater adaptations to capture oxygen?
water breathing
name any water breathing homeotherms
none
why are there not any water breathing homeotherms
not enough oxygen in water.
movement of a substance down a concentration gradient
diffusion
importance in o2 and co2 movements
ficks law of diffusion
large, thin, moist, vascular, renewed media.
characteristics of a good gas exchanger
lungs, gills, skin, mouth, stomach, cloaca
gas exchange sites
air in and out of the lungs
ventilation (breathing)
02+hb > Hbo2, co2 out
external respiration
hbo2 to tissues, releases o2
internal transport
o2+4h > 2h20
cellular respiration
where air comes in
external nares (nostrils)
nasal cavities (sinuses) 2 functions:
-make skull lighter
-influences tone of voice
nasal conchae hold:
muchus
mucous membranes catch:
particles
-air is warmed
-air and muchus trap particles in air we breathe
-air is moistened
-smell sense

are all functions of which system




human ventilation system
throat behind nose
nasopharynx
goes towards ears. allow us to equalize pressure between throat and nose.
eustachian tubes
tissues that swell up and block eustachian tubes
adenoids
separates nasal cavity and mouth cavity
palate (hard and soft)
throat behind mouth. air passes through
oropharynx (throat)
dangly piece of skin in throat
uvala
larynx. 3 functions:
-makes sound
-sneeze and cough
-covers glatus when swallowing (helps prevent food from going into resp tract.

alternate name of the larynx
adams apple
allows food to go into the esophogus where food gets caught when choking
epiglottis
"cafe coronary"
heimlich technique
supported by horseshoe shaped cartilage rings air comes through.
trachea
two tubes off trachea
bronchi
smooth muscles and respiratory problems. asthma...wheezing.
bronchioles
goes up into throat. gunk in throat. loogie.
"ciliary escalator" (smoking)
site of gas exchange. oxygen diffused into capillarie
alveoli
keeps small aveolies from dissolving. into one big one
surfactant
erythrocytes. biconcave disks. spit out all organelles-bags of hemogloben
red blood cells (RBCs)
uniform size: tiny biconcave disks
characteristics
how many RBCs are there.
26 million
what is the most numerous cell in the body
red blood cell
tremendous surface for gas exchange:
equivalent to the area of 1/4 of a football field.
RBCs contain the pigment
hemoglobin
hb acts like a --- with o2
sponge
and it combines how with oxygen
reversibly
this happens in lungs
oxyhemoglobin
hb ---- with co
contrasts
co has what kind of reaction with hemoglobin
irreversible
all mater consists of atoms
atomic theory
matter has little
mass
atomic theory is to ---
as evolution is to ---
chemistry
biology
atomic theory is really important is a quote by who?
richard feynman
who was the 1st to realize that atoms were small, numerous and practically indestructible?
john dalton
who was the 1st to provide evidence that atoms really existed
ernest rutherford
when were atoms first seen?
1981
what were atoms first seen with?
scanning probe microscope
the nucleus contains
protons and neutrons
atomic number is the
number of protons
atomic weight is the
weight of protons and neutrons
outside in orbitals are
electrons
electrons have what kind of charge?
negative charge
protons give ---
electrons give---
identinty
personality
who created the periodic table of elements and when?
demitri mendeleev in 1869
how are elememts arranged?
by protons
horizontal rows:
atomic number
vertical rows:
similar chemical properties
horizontal rows are also called
periods
vertical rows are also called
groups
this atomic lego set contains about how many naturally occurring elements
92
major chemicals in living systems
macro and micro
organisms are just self replicating...
carbon units
the friendly but unfaithful element
carbon
life is a carbon phenomenon meaning it relates to
physical-chemical properties
c is the
"citizen king"
c-h ---- bond is a major source of energy
covalent
carbon factoids:
-15th most common element on earth
-the "backbone" of many molecules including all biological macromolecules
-2/3 dry weight
-average 300 grams day carbon intake


chains
hold things
rings:
serve as an infrastructure to hook things on
many functional groups attach to carbon, meaning that it gives molecules
diverse physical and chemical properties
carboniferous age
when plants died that became fossil fuels/ coal
massive burial of plants converted to carbon to coal
today is a --- effect of the carboniferous
reverse
what has become an environmental issue?
coal combustion
atoms that have lost of gained an electron
inorganic ions
writers emphasize
chemists emphasize
-words over letters
-molecules over atoms
the cradle of life
water
factoids of water
-only common liquid on earth
factoids:
-only common liquid on the earth
-covers about 3/4 of the earth
-about 70% of cell weight

how much fresh water is on earth
3%
has no net charge
polar molecule
key properties of water and their importance:
-high specific heat
-high heat of vaporization
-universal solvent
-unusual density


as long as there is water and density,
there will be life
water is
stable
water as a crystalline lattice:
6 sided tetrahedral structure
repiratory gases:
oxygen
carbon dioxide
oxidize food to release energy
oxygen
when formed, hydrogen is released
atp
plants give
oxygen
history of atmospheric oxygen:
biotic origin
-misnamed bue-green algae or pond scum
-a phylum of archaebacteria that are at least 2.8 billion years old.
-among most independent of all known organisms

cyanobacteria
first organism responsible:
archaebacteria
today how much volume percent is oxygen is in earths atmosphere
20%
can oxygen be toxic?
yes if too much is present
what is the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide
.03 percent volume
volcanic activity, decomposition of vegetation, cow flatulence, respiration, burning of fossil fuelse, oil, gas, coal, decomposition of tundra are sources of
carbon dioxide
a good effect of carbon dioxide is
a good source of carbon for photosynthesis
a bad effect of carbon dioxide is
"green house gas" and a major contribution to global warming.
contemporary situation for carbon
"cap and trade" and they make people pay for emissions
carbon containing biomolecules containing many atoms
biological macromolecules
two aspects of biological macromolecules
-elaborately organized
-only 4 general types
what are the 4 types of biological macromolecules?
-nucleic acids
-rna
-dna
-carbohydrates


ch2o in a -:-:- ration?
1:2:1
functions of biological macromolecules
-source of energy
-supplies atoms for synthesis of other biochemicals
simple sugars
monosaccharides
two monosaccharides put hooked together often considered transport carbohydrates
disaccharides
disaccharide sucrose: glucose and fructose "hooked up"
table sugar
no milk after weaning. glucose +galactose
lactose intolerance.
cows without lactose
pastoralists
for people who are lactose intolerant. take product so they can digest lactose
phenotypic "cure"
a long molecule built from similar sub units. "similar things hooked together"
polymer
how plants store extra
amylose
most abundant organic chemical on planet earth
cellulose
composed of C H O, but less oxygen
lipid
are lipids more dense of less dense than water?
less dense
waxes, oils and fats, steriods, phopholipids, and prostaglandins
lipids
lipid fat=
glycerol +triglyceride
what are the functions of lipids?
-component in all membranes
-best chemical form to store energy
measures energetic compound
bomb calorimeter
-1 gram carbohydrate yilds - Kcals
-1 gram fat yields - Kcals


-4
-9
what is the best way to store energy?
fat
unable to dissolve in blood. takes cholesterol to arteries
LDL
take cholesterol to liver
hdl
is cholesterol bad
no
how many adults are overweight and how many are obese
1/3% for both
multiple health problems including atheriosclerosis leads to which two things?
hypertension and cardiac infarction (arrest)
this causes problems with female sex hormones and menstrual cycle
too little fat
eat a lot, then throw up
bulimia
all contain C,H,O and N,S
proteins
proteinse have an unbelievable variety in a mammalian cell. how much?
10^5 or 10^6
-structural component
-enzymes
-muscle contraction proteinse

are functions of what?



proteins
each amino acid contains what?
aminegroup
how many amino acids are theoretically possible?
inifinte
how many amino acids are in all living organisms
20
who knows what the amino acids in all living organisms are?
biochemists
all biological proteins consist of combinations of how many amino acids
20
where are amino acids assembled into proteins
ribosomes
sequence of amino acids is critical...why
-determine the characteristics of a protein
-are determined by the genetic code
a protein is the --- expression of a gene?
physical
distinguish between physics:
concerned with motion and attraction
chemistry is concerned with:
reactions
simply making and breaking bonds. shufflig atom and energy is a
chemical reaction
-electrons in pairs
-no net charge
-satisfy octet rule
-number of atoms must balance
reversibility of reactions



reaction tendencies
energy is a major --- required by all life
resource
energy releasing:
eergonic
energy requiring:
endergonic
increase chemical rates and are recyclable
biological catalysts
most enzymes are --- --- --- and their tertiary (what kind of shape) shape is important.
protein in construction
3d
spellings of enzymes end in what?
-ase
enzymes --- activation energey
decrease
one molecule of carbonic anhydrase can convert how many h2o and co2 into h2co3 in a second
600,000
the capacity to do work
energy
the transfer of energy
work
highly ordered
high grade energy
poorly ordered
low grade energy
energy at rest and in action is what kind of energy
potential energy
energy action
kinetic energy
the first law of thermodynamics
energy conservation
energy is neither created or destroyed;it is changed in type
energy conservation
what is a practical example of energy conservation:
diet
energy in = energy out + energy stored.
energy budget
second law of thermodynamics:
energy transfer
any transformation of high grade energy into another high grade energy in so 100% efficient. unavoidable formation of heat
energy transfer
energy does not decrease in --- but rather in
quantity
quality
measure of disorder
entropy
second law of thermodynamics prevents the building of
perpetual motion machines
spontaneous tendency towards increasing disorder in the universe means
the universe is moving towards greater entropy
where is the energy in photosynthesis
photons (wavelengths)
the energy in photosynthesis comes from which wavelengths
red and blue
why do we see green in plants?
reflection of light
-occurs in autotrophs with chlorophyll
-organelle: chloroplast
-synthetic, endergonic reaction
-driven by light, not heat energy


photosynthesis
photosynthesis is driven by --- not ----
light.
heat energy
light energy captured by chlorophyll moves electrons to higher orbits, electron energy used to produce many -- of these bonds in molecules like glucose
c-h
what is the importance of photosynthesis?
it can not be overstated- sets limit on available energy.
plants convert light energy into
chemical bond energy
how much energy is left after conversions of energy?
1%
plants make
sugar
what is the source of nearly all fuels
sun
sunlight > --- --- > heat > ---
chemical bonds
outerspace
what are two exceptions of energy:
nuclear fuels
gleothermal
what to plants do?
-conversion of sunlight energy into chem bond energy
-remove atmospheric co2, reduce global warming
-releace 02 as a byproduct
-generate fossil fuels- oil gas and coal
-forests provide > 3,000 products
-chemicals made by plants such as alkaloids. 25% of pharm. meds have at least 1 plant
-plants beautify the world





how is insuline produced
islets of langer hands
where is insuline produced
pancreas
most organisms do not feed on
sunlight
feed on others
heterotrophs
the energy currency to fuel the activities of cells
atp
-nerve impulse transmission.
-contraction of muscle fibers
-production of hormones

are kinds of what



atp
energy carrier molecules in the cell
adp & atp
cellular respiration is
uncharged and energy will be in use
bilogical work is
charged and linked together
reverse of photosynthesis
overall reaction of cellular respiration
overall efficiency of cellular respiration is
45%
-conducted by both autotrophs and heterotrophs
-occurs in cytoplasm and mitochondria
-catabolic, exergonic reaction
-requires o2 and releases co2

are characteristics for what?




cellular respiration
when,
h atoms are dismantled from the c atoms,
energy is released,
and used to generate atp from adp...what is happening


glucose is being split apart
what is the final h+ acceptor to form water
oxygen
during complete oxidation of glucose, all c becomes --- and all H becomes ---
CO2 and H2O
what are 3 major biochemical pathways?
1-glycolysis
2-krebs cycle,
3-electron transport system

metabolism --- many chemicals
oxidizes
first choice:
second choice:
last choice:
...when oxidizing chemicals


-carbohydrates
-fats
-amino acids

these have more energy per gram
fats
protein deficiency-
amino acids
carbohydrate stores what and how much?
glycogen- 24 hours worth
human blood glucose
90-100 mg/100 ml blood
insuline produced by islets of langerhans in which organ pancreas is what?
hormone
helps cells absorb glucose from the blood
hormone
too little glucose in blood
hyperglycemia
too much glucose in blood. "spills into urine"
hypoglycemia
24 million (8% of pop), 25% not diagnosed...
epidemiology of diabetes
fasting blood glucose between 100-125 pre diabetes. if > 125 diabetes
diagnosis
juvenile diabetes is which type?
type 1
acquired diabetes. at epidemic status in usa. is which type of diabetes
type 2
gestational diabetes-induced by pregnancy, usually stops after birth is which type of diabetes
type 3
external supply of insulin to regulate glucose is what?
treatment
cardiovascular disease, periphial arterial disease, nerve damage, hypertension, stroke, blindness, organ transplant, limb aputation. are what?
complications of diabetes
how many people get something amputated per week in the us, and how much is caused by diabetes?
3,500 per week.
1/2 caused by diabetes
what are the 3 energy processes supporting life on earth?
-source
-transformation
-oxidation

what is the source that supports life on earth?
nuclear fusion
what is the trasformation for life on earth
photosynthesis
what is the oxidation for life on earth?
cellular respiration
study of biological functions
physiology
physiology is studied at many levels of organization for example...
heart, whole animal, movement
relationships exist between form and function is which major concept of what?
first major concept of physiology
role of mechanism. physiological systems are both explained by and constrained by mechanism, ie the laws of phys. and chem is which major concept oh what
second major concept of physiology
internal states remaining relatively constant is what?

also, which major concept of physiology is it?

homeostasis

3rd

harvard physiologist that came up with the term homeostasis
walter cannon
physiological (organ) systems are ---, --- and maintain ---.

these promote ---, ---, and ---

multi-functional, inter-related, homeostasis.

survival, death, reproduction

who studies the origin of the universe and matter?
astronomers, astrophysicists, conmologists
is the universe expanding, stable, or contracting?
expanding
the determination that the universe is expanding is accomplished by who?
edwin hubble
what was the big bang?
13.7 million years ago. the earth was in a small ball and then it exploded.
what is singularity?
the small ball the earth used to be in before the big bang
chemistry with magic is
alchemy
what are the four elements
earth, wind, water, fire,
what are the three goals of the study of matter...
-to lead to gold
-universal solvent
-fountain of youth

the study of matter/ energy
otherwise known as real science
chemistry

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