Glossary of Biology 101 Chapter 1-3 Test

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What are the 7 characteristics of life?
1. Life is Organized
2. Acquire Materials and Energy
3. Reproduce
4. Growth and Development
5. Are Homeostatic
6. Respond to Stimuli
7. Life has an Evolutionary history


Evolution is the process by which a species changes through time.
Evolution explains both the unity and the diversity of life.

Respond to Stimuli

Living things respond to external stimuli, often by moving toward
or away from a stimulus.

Are Homeostatic
The organ systems of plants and animals maintain homeostasis,
an internal environment for cells that usually varies only within
certain limits.

Grow and Develop
In humans, development includes all the changes that occur from
the time the egg is fertilized until death. This includes growth, an
increase in size and often number of cells, as well as repair that
takes place following an injury.


Cells come into being only from preexisting cells and all living things
have parents. DNA enables living organisms to pass on hereditary
information from parent to child.

Acquire Materials and Energy

Organims require an outside source of materials and energy
to carry on life’s activities.

Humans and other animals get these materials when they eat food.

Life is Organized!
Atoms join together to form molecules that make up cells.
In more complex living things, cells join to form tissues, which
form organs - structures that perform specific functions in the body.
Organs belong to an organ systems which then form
individual organisms.

Biological organization extends beyond the individual to populations,
communities, ecosystems, and finally the biosphere.

What are the Levels of Organization

From Cell to
Multicelled Organism to
Population to
Community to
Ecosystem to

What is a molecule?

Two or more joined atoms of elements.

What are "The Molecules of Life"?
**The Molecules of Life are Complex Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, DNA, and RNA. Only living cells make them.**
What is a cell?
Smallest unit of life that can live and reproduce on its own. Cells have an outer membrane, DNA and other materials.
What is a Tissue?
A Tissue is an organized group of cells and substances interacting in some way to perform a specific task.
What is an Organ?
An Organ is a structural unit of two or more Tissues working together to perform a specific task.
What is an Organ System?
An Organ System is Organs interacting physically, chemically or both in some task.
What is an Atom and what are its building blocks.
An Atom is the smallest for of an element that retains the elements characteristics. Electrons, Protons, and Neutrons are an atoms building blocks.
What is the Scientific Method?
Scientific Theory

What is Energy?
Energy = Capacity to do work
What is Metabolism?
Metabolism = Reactions by which cells acquire and use energy to grow, survive, and reproduce

What is Homeostasis?
Homeostasis is the regulation of the internal environment so as to maintain a stable, constant condition.
What is a Producer?
Producers Make their own food. Plants during photosynthesis.

What is a Consumer?
Consumers Depend on energy stored in tissues of producers

What is a Decomposer?
Decomposers Break down remains and wastes

What is the Unity of Life?
All organisms:
- Are composed of the same substances
- Engage in metabolism
- Sense and respond to the environment
- Have the capacity to reproduce based on instructions in DNA

What is DNA?
DNA (DeoxyriboNucleic Acid)
-Signature molecule of life
-Molecule of inheritance
-Directs the assembly of amino acids

Explain Scientific Names as used in Taxonomy.
Devised by Carolus Linnaeus
-First name is genus (plural, genera)
- Homo sapiens - genus is Homo
Second name is species within genus
- Homo sapiens – species is sapiens

The Three Domains- Describe a Bacteria
Single Cells, Prokaryotic(no nucleus), most ancient lineage
The Three Domains- Describe a Archaea
Single Cells, Prokaryotic(no nucleus), lineage closer to Eukaryotes.
The Three Domains- Describe a Eukarya
Eukaryotic(they have a nucleus), Single-Celled and Multi-Celled species categorized as Protists, Plants, Fungi, and Animals.
What is a Mutation?
Mutation = change in DNA

What is an Adaptive Trait?
A trait that gives the individual an advantage in survival or reproduction, under a given set
of circumstances

What is Evolution?
Genetically based change in a line of descent over time

The Population changes, not just individuals

What is Artificial Selection?
-Breeders are selective agents
-Individuals exhibiting favored traits are bred
-Favored traits become more common in population

What is Natural Selection?
-Individuals vary in some heritable traits
-Some forms of heritable traits are more adaptive
-Natural selection is differences in survival and reproduction among individuals that vary in their traits
-Adaptive forms of traits become more common than other forms

What is the role of Experiments?
-Used to study a phenomenon under known conditions
-Allows you to predict what will happen if a hypothesis is nearly correct
-Can never prove a hypothesis 100% correct

What is the design of an Experiment?
Appropriate for investigation
Control group
- A standard for comparison
- Identical to experimental group except for variable being studied
Sampling error
- Nonrepresentative sample skews results
- Minimize by using large samples

What is a Scientific Theory and what is the Importance?
-A theory is more like a scientific law than a hypothesis. A theory is an explanation of a set of related observations or events based upon proven hypotheses and verified multiple times by detached groups of researchers. One scientist cannot create a theory; he/she can only create a hypothesis.
-Components of a theory can be changed or improved upon, without changing the overall truth of the theory as a whole.

What are some limits of Science?
-Scientific approach cannot provide answers to subjective questions
-Cannot provide moral, aesthetic, or philosophical standards.

What is Matter?
Matter refers to anything that takes up space and has weight.
What is the Atomic Number?
The atomic number is how many protons are in an atom.
What is the atomic mass of an element?
The Atomic Mass is the weight of the atom and can be found by doubling the atomic number in all cases except hydrogen. It is the weight of the protons and Neutrons in the atom.
What elements make up 96.5% of the body?
Oxygen 65%,Carbon 18.6%, Hydrogen 9.7%, and Nitrogen 3.2%
What are Isotopes
Isotopes are atoms that have the same atomic number but differ in the number of neutrons. Most isotopes are stable but some emit radiation.

Radioactive Isotopes-Define
Isotopes are atoms that have the same atomic number but differ in the number of neutrons. Most isotopes are stable but some emit radiation.
A radioactive isotope behaves the same as do stable isotopes of the same element.
How are Isotopes displayed?
- X
A = mass number
= number of protons + number of neutrons
Z = atomic number
X = symbol of the element

What is Valence or Valency?
The pattern of electrons in an atom - especially those in the outermost shell - determines the Valence of the atom; that is, the ratios in which it interacts with other atoms
Valence and Valence Electrons
The outermost shell of an atom is its valence shell, and the electrons in the valence shell are valence electrons.
-valence electrons can be gained, lost, or shared to form chemical bonds.
What establishes the chemical behavior of an atom?
it is the number and arrangement of the electrons in the atoms of an element that establish the chemical behavior of that element.

What is an Electron?
-Carry a negative charge
-Repel one another
-Are attracted to protons in the nucleus
-Move in orbitals or volumes of space that surround the nucleus

What is the Octet Rule?
The Octet Rule states that atoms become especially stable when their valence shells gain a full complement of valence electrons
What is a Cation?
A Cation is a Positively charged ion and is formed when an Atom loses an electron during an Ionic Bond
What is an Anion?
An Anion is formed when an atom gives up an electron to become negatively charged during Ionic Bonding
What is a neutrally charged atom?
Atom has equal number of electrons and protons - no net charge

What is an Ionic Bond?
During an ionic reaction, certain atoms give up and others receive electrons to achieve a stable outer shell that contains eight electrons. The resulting oppositely charged ions (charged particles) are attracted to each other forming an ionic bond.
Ionic bonding is a type of electrostatic interaction between atoms.

What is Covalent Bonding?
Following a covalent reaction, atoms share pairs of electrons within a covalent bond in order to achieve a stable outer shell. Double and triple bonds are also possible in some molecules.

What is a NonPolar Covalent Bond?
1. the electrons shared by the adjacent atoms in the bonds are shared equally
2. the consequence of this equal sharing of electrons is that there is no charge separation (dipole moment).
3. since there is no charge separation in the covalent bonds this molecule cannot enter into a charge interaction with water and will therefore be hydrophobic

What is a Polar Covalent Bond?
-Number of protons in nuclei of participating atoms is not equal
-Electrons spend more time near nucleus with most protons
-Water - Electrons are more attracted to O nucleus than to H nuclei

What is a Hydrogen Bond?
Polar molecules, such as water molecules, have a weak, partial negative charge at one region of the molecule (the oxygen atom in water) and a partial positive charge elsewhere (the hydrogen atoms in water).

Thus when water molecules are close together, their positive and negative regions are attracted to the oppositely-charged regions of nearby molecules. The force of attraction is called a hydrogen bond. Each water molecule can be hydrogen bonded to four others.

What are the properties of Water?
Due to its polarity and/or hydrogen bonding:
-water is a liquid at room temperature;
-loses and gains heat slowly;
-has a high heat of vaporization;
-is less dense when frozen;
fills vessels;
-and is the universal solvent.

What is a Hydrophilic Substance?
Hydrophilic (water loving) substances
- Polar
- Hydrogen bond with water
- Example: sugar

What is a HydroPhobic Substance?
Hydrophobic (water fearing) substances
- Nonpolar
- Repelled by water
- Example: oil

Liquid water can absorb much heat before its temperature rises


Much of the added energy disrupts hydrogen bonding rather than increasing the movement of molecules

Evaporation of Water

Large energy input can cause individual molecules of water to break free into air

As molecules break free, they carry away some energy (resulting in a lower temperature)

What is Water Cohesion?
Hydrogen bonding holds molecules in liquid water together

Creates surface tension

Allows water to move as continuous column upward through stems of plants

What are Acidic Solutions (High H+ Concentrations)

Acids release hydrogen ions. Compared to water, acidic solutions have more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions.

What is Basic Solutions (Low H+ Concentrations)

Bases take up hydrogen ions or release hydroxide ions (OH-). Compared to water, basic (alkaline) solutions have more hydroxide ions than hydrogen ions.

What is the pH Scale?
The pH scale is a means to indicate the acidity or alkalinity of a solution. The scale ranges from 0 to 14 with 7 being neutral. Acids have a pH lower than 7 and bases have a pH higher than 7.

What are Buffers?
Buffers are mechanisms that help keep pH within normal limits by taking up excess hydrogen ions or hydroxide ions. Maintaining pH within a narrow range is important to health.

Carbonic Acid-Bicarbonate
Buffer System

When blood pH rises, carbonic acid dissociates to form bicarbonate and H+

H2CO3-->HCO3- + H+
When blood pH drops, bicarbonate binds H+ to form carbonic acid
HCO3- + H+ --> H2CO3

What is an Organic Compound?
Organic Compounds are Molecules that contain Carbon and have at least one Hydrogen atom.
What is a functional group?
-Atoms or clusters of atoms that are covalently bonded to carbon backbone

-Give organic compounds their different properties

What are the important functional groups?
Hydroxyl group -OH
Methyl -CH3
Carbonyl -C=O
Amino group -NH3+
Carboxyl group -COOH
Phosphate group -PO4-
Sulfhydryl group -SH

What is the Hydroxyl groups characteristics?
-Found in alcohols and is the -OH group.
Water Soluble

Examples-Sugars and amino acids

What are the Methyl groups characteristics?
Found in fatty acid chains and Not water soluble.
What are the characteristics of the Carbonyl group?
-Found in sugars amino acids, and nucleotides.
-Water Soluble
-An Aldehyde if at the end of Carbon backbone
-a Ketone if attached to an interior carbon of the backbone

What are the characteristics of the Carboxyl group?
-Found in Amino Acids and fatty acids
-Are Water Soluble
-Highly Polar
-Acts as an acid(meaning they release Hydrogen)

What are the characteristics of the Amino Group?
-Found in Amino Acids and certain Nucleotide bases.
-they are Water soluble
-Acts as a weak base (accepts H+)

What are the characteristics of the Phosphate group?
-Found in Nucleotides(ATP)
-Also in DNA & RNA, many proteins and phospholipids.
-Water Soluble

What are the characteristics of the Sulfhydryl group?
-Found in the Amino Acid Cysteine
-Helps stabilize protein structure (at disulfide bridges)
What is Hydrolysis?
-A type of cleavage reaction
-Breaks polymers into smaller units
-Enzymes split molecules into two or more parts
-An -OH group and an H atom derived from water are attached at exposed sites

What is a Condensation reaction?
Condensation (Dehydration) – covalent bonds join two molecules (monomers; building blocks) into a larger molecule. Removal of water.

What is a Hydrolysis Reaction?
Hydrolysis (Cleavage) – a molecule splits into two smaller ones. Addition of water. Hydro=water, lysis=split.

What are Carbohydrates?
Carbohydrates (carbo=carbon, hydrate=water) contain the grouping H – C – OH in which the ratio of hydrogen atoms to oxygen is the same as water (1:2:1 ratio of C:H:O). Carbohydrates serve as an energy source for cells.

What are Monosaccharides?
Monosaccharides (simple sugars) have a low number of carbon atoms; a pentose has five carbon (5C) atoms and a hexose has six carbon atoms (6C). Glucose (6C) provides a ready source of energy for cells.
What is a Monosaccharide?
Simplest carbohydrates
Most are sweet tasting, water soluble, Most have 5- or 6-carbon backbone
Glucose (6 C)Fructose (6 C)
Ribose (5 C)Deoxyribose (5 C)

What is a Disaccharide?
A Disaccharide is Two monosaccharides covalently bonded.
-Type of oligosaccharide
-Formed by condensation reaction

What is a Polysaccharide?

-Straight or branched chains of many sugar monomers
-Most common are composed entirely of glucose
- Cellulose
- Starch (such as amylose)
- Glycogen

What is the storage form of carbohydrates in plants?
Starch - easily digested, storage form of glucose in plants

What is Cellulose?
Cellulose - tough, indigestible, structural material in plants

What is Glycogen?
Sugar storage form in animals

Large stores in muscle and liver cells

When blood sugar decreases, liver cells degrade glycogen, release glucose

What are Lipids?
Most include fatty acids
- Fats
- Phospholipids
- Waxes
Sterols and their derivatives have no fatty acids
Tend to be insoluble in water

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