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Glossary of Biology-karly

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Characteristics of living organisms
Organization/hierarchies, growth/biosynthesis, metabolism and the regulation of it, homeostasis, selective response, adaptation, reeproduction
Homeostasis
maintain balance within normal limits
metabolism
the sum of all processes that allow an organism to survive
growth
development of an organism to full maturity
adaptation
behavioral or physical adjustments that aid the life of animals
reproduction
production offspring by organized bodies
steps of the scientific method
1. define the problem, 2. research background info, 3. formulate hypothesis, 4. experiment to test he hypothesis, 5. record data systematically, 6. interpret data and draw concclusions
hypothesis
a tentative answer to a well-framed question; an explanation on trial
variable
the thing in the experiment that changes
control
the thing in the experiment that stays the same
reductionism
the reduction of complex systems to simpler components that are more manageable to study
holistic
large-scale objective of understanding emergent properties
taxonomic classification
kingdom, domain, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species, subspecies
kingdom archaebacteria
unicellular organisms in the domain archea
kingdom eubacteria
true bacteria
kingdom protist a
"grab bag"; plant and animal like features
fungi
non photosynthetic-secrete an arsenal of enzymes
planate
photosynthetic
animalia
can not make their own food
prokaryotic cell
lacks a true nucleus; lacks membrane bound organelles with the exception of ribosomes-very small
eukaryotic cell
10x larger then prokaryotes; have a true nucleus; have many membrane bound organelles
the molecule responsible for order in living organisms because it contains biologically encoded instructions for continuity of the species
DNA
cell
the basic unit of structure and function in all living organisms
robert hooke
discovered the cell
cell theory
all things are made of cells; cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living organisms; living cells come from pre existing cells
control group
the variable is not introduced and everything is as if usually is
experimental group
the variable is introduced
four most abundant elements in living systems
oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen
bottom number of element
the number of protons and electrons
top number minus the bottom number of element
number of neutrons
nomenclature
naming things
taxonomy
classification
valence elections
the subatomic particles responsible for the chemical properties of atoms
protons
in nucleus of the atom and is positively charged
electrons
int he nucleus of the atom and is negatively charged
neutrons
orbits around the nucleus and is negatively charged
isotopes
atoms that differ in neuron number
atomic number
the number of protons that is unique to a particular element is written as a subscript to the left of the symbol

atomic mass
the sum of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
energy levels
an election can not exist between them; they want an octet of 2:8:8:...
electronegatvity
the tendency of an atom to attract electrons
hydrophobic
repels h2o
ionic bonds
electrons gained or lost; can form between any two oppositely charged ions
covalent bonds
electrons are shared
hydrophilic
attracts h2o
non-polar covalent bonds
electrons are shared equally
polar covalent bonds
electrons shared unequally
hydrogen bonds
1/20th of the strength of an ionic or covalent bond
they form when a hydrogen atom covalently bonded of one electronegative atom is also attracted to another electronegative atom
hydrogen bonding of a molecule
strong hydrogen bonds would be ice then when the bonds break and reform liquid water is the structure. ice is spacious and had fewer molecules. ice is less dense
effects of hydrogen bonding in the water molecule
the temperature where water is most dense
4 degrees
why freezing properties are important to living organisms
ice is less dense and floats on the surface projecting and insulating organism in the water
the four major macromolecules
carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleus acisd
carbohydrate
includes both surges and polymers of sugars
lipids
includes fats, phospholipids, and steroids that mix poorly with water if at all
phospholipids
essential for cells because they makeup cell membranes or biological membranes
nucleic acid
information molecules; a polymer consisting of many nucleotide monomers; serves as a blueprint for proteins through the actions of proteins for all cellular activity; DNA and RNA
saturated fats
have hydrogen atoms; fat energy storage function
unsaturated fats
lack hydrogen atoms; functioning energy storage
denaturing
a protein that loses the tertiary structure and won't function; caused by temperature change, ph changes and addition of chemicals
three components of a nucleotide
5 carbon sugar, phosphate group and a nitrogenous base
RNA
contains ribose, 5 carbon sugar, single stranded; contains adenine, guanine, cytosine and uracil
DAN
deoxyribose, 5 carbon sugar, double helix; contains adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine
amino acids
one carboxyl group and one amino acid group
what links amino acids during dehydration synthesis
peptide bonds
storage polysaccharides for plants
starch
storage polysaccharides for animals
glycogen
cellulose
the structural polysaccharide in plant cell walls
chitin
the structural polysaccharides in the exoskeleton of insects and arthropods
important hydrophilic functional group in living cells
cotton
buffer
substances that minimize changes int he concentrations of H+ and OH- in a solution
how to figure out ph solutions
defined as the negative logarithm base 10 of the hydrogen ion concentration; PH=-log[H+]
when the ph changes from one to three the hydrogen ion concentration does what
it becomes 10x more basic
what is ATP and what is it importance
energy; related to nucleic acids
compartmentalization in cells
done for organization and to be arranged to create higher forms and more complex organisms
plastids
leukoplasts, chromoplasts and chloroplasts
plant cells
have cell walls, have plastids, have larger vacuoles
animal cells
have a glycocalyx, have no vacuoles
golgi apparatus
warehouse and shipping center; products are modified, packaged and shipped; wraps product vesicles
nucleus
control center; nuclear pores
nucleolus
assemble of ribosomes
plasma membrane
traffic cop; phosolipid bilayer; selectively permeable
endoplasmic reticulum
series of membranes that continues from the plasma membrane to nuclear embrace; transportation railway system
ribosomes
ite of protein synthesis
free ribosomes
free floating in cytoplasm
bound/attached ribosomes
attached to endoplasmic reticulum or nuclear envelope/membrane
cholroplasts
stores green pigment chlorophyll
mitochondria
folds are called criste; they incresae surface area to create energy in the form of ATP; site of cellular respiration
cytoskeleton
microtubules and microfilaments; supposts; anchors organelles
leucoplasts
clear plastid; stain-iodine starch; deep blue/purple

chromoplasts
colored pigments; site of photosynthesis
selectively permeable
it is a membrane that allows certain substances in but does allow other substances in via size or chemical make up. kinda like a water filter to let water out and catches the bad stuff
energy molecules
ATP
NAD and FAD
electron carriers that donate electrons to the election transport chain to produce the ion gradient which will eventually produce ATP
"structure is related to function in cells
flagellum in animal cells
fluid mosaic model
the plasma membrane and the membranes of organelles consist of a doub;e ;ayer of the interior membrane, and the phospholipid tails are hydrophobic as are the interior portions of membrane proteins in contact with them. the phospholipids heads are hydrophilic, as are proteins or parts of proteins in contact with the aqueous solution on either side of the membrane. carbs are found only attached to proteins or lipid on the outer surface of the plasma membrane
viscosity
the ability of cells to move in and around themselves
diffusion
movement of substances from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration moving with the concentration gradient
dialysis
the process of separating molecules in solution by the difference in their rates of diffusion through a semipermeable membrane such as dialysis tubing
hypotonic
the cell water wil enter the cell faster than it leaves and the cell will swell and lyse like an overfilled water balloon
hypertonic
non penetrating solutes; the cell will lose water to its environment shrivel and probably die
isotonic solutions
isotonic to the cell there and will be no net moment of water
ways substances move in and out of cells
simple diffusion/osmosis/passive transport
facilitated diffusion/passive transport
biological pumps/active transport
endocytosis/exocytosis/active transport
dialysis
junctions




endocytosis
moves substances into the cell
exocytosis
moves substances out of the cell
pinocytosis
cellular drinking; movement of liquids in or out of cells
phagocytosis
cellular eating; movement of solid and large particles into or out of the cell
plasmademata
cytoplasmic extensions between adjacent plant cells
junctions
direct physical contact with which cells often adhere, interact and communicate
passive transport
does not requires ATPs
active transport
requires ATPs
fluidity of membranes
the steroid cholesterol which is wedged between phospholipids molecules in the slasma membranes of animal cells, has different effects on me bran fluidity at different temperatures
peripheral proteins
not embedded in lipid bilayer; appendages loosely bound to the surface of membranes
integral proteins
penetrate the hydrophobic core of the lipid bilayer
transmembrane protein
span the entire membrane
concentration gradient
the region alng which the density of a chemical substance decreases
turgid
very firm
plasmolysis
the pulling away of the membrane as a plant cell shrivels
facilitated diffusion
pssive diffusion without he help of transport proteins that span the membrane
gated channels
open and close in the response ot a stimulus
electrochemical gradient
a chemical force and an electrical force acting on an ion
electrogenic pump
a transport protein the generates voltage across a membrane

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