Glossary of Biol 2261 exam 2

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Name the 9 airborne bacterial diseases.
1)Streptococcal diseases
4)meningococcal infections
5)Haemophilus influenzae infections
7)pneumococcal pneumonia
8)primary atypical pneumonia 9)legionellosis
What are the three types of hemolysis?
1) beta
2) alpha
3) gamma rxn
What is it called when an orgainsm causes complete hemolysis of blood cells on blood agar?
Beta hemolysis
What is it called when an organism causes incomplete hemolysis of blood cells on blood agar?
Alpha hemolysis
What is it called when an organism shows no hemolytic rxn on blood agar?
Gamma rxn
What kind of rxn results in a clear zone around colonies on blood agar?
Beta Hemolysis
What kind of rxn results in a greenish zone around colonies on blood agar?
Alpha Hemolysis
What kind of rxn has no change around colonies on blood agar?
Gamma Rxn
What is blood agar?
agar where ther is 5% sheep's blood added
What detects hemolytic rxns?
Blood agar
What is a serological rxn?
a rxn between antibodies and antogens.
Identify the Lancefield group each belongs in.
1) Streptococcus agalactia
2) Streptococcus pyogenes
3) Many stains including fecal enterococci
1) Group B
2) Group A
3) Group D
What group of the genus Streptococcus is the most virulent in humans?
Group A
What group of the genus Streptococcus is found in the normal flora of humans and animals?
Group D
What group of the genus Streptococcus is mildly virulent in humans?
Group B
Lable each according to their hemolytic rxns.
1)Group A
2)group B
3)group D
1)Beta hemolytic
2)Beta or alpha, some are gamma
3)Gamma reactive
Which Lancefield group is
1)Detected biochemically by turning black on bile esculin agar?
2)often ID'ed by raqpid serological testing and is sensitive to the A disk
3)dectected biochemically by the CAMP test
1)Group D
What is the A disk?
a small paper filter disk w/ a low concentration of bacitracin. Group A will not have growth around the A disk in an agar plate.
What is the CAMP factor?
It enhances the hemolysin of staphococcus aureus.
What did Enterococcus faecalis use to be called?
How many groups did Lancefield ID? How many groups are there today?
over 20
What are Lnacefield groups based on?
Serological groups, also may be distiguished by biolchemical testin of antibiotic sensitivity.
What are the diseases associated w/ Streptococcus pyogenes?
1)Respiratory Symptoms
2)Systemic symptoms
3)scarlet fever
4)immune related complications
5)other conditions/portals of entry
What are the respiratory symptoms of Streptococcus pyogenes?
effects upper respiratory tract, pharyngitis, raw throat w/ puss pockets.
Streptococcus pyogenes is very invasive resulting in systemic symptoms. what are they?
1)Septicemia-in blood
2)internal infections
what causes Scarlet fever?
it is due to a strain that produce an erythrogenic toxin which is an exotoxin that causes hemorraging in capillary beds.
What is a major factor that helps Strepococcus pyogenes colonize?
Protein M
In Streptococcus pyogenes what causes other immune related complications?
it is damage to the bodies own tissue by the immune system as it tries to fight strep infection.
What are some other immune related complications caused by Streptococcus pyogenes?
Rheumatic fever
What does Rheumatic fever affect?
mostly the heart tissue
What is glomerulonephritis?
damage to kidney tissue specifically the gulumerius.
What are the other conditions/portals of entry caused by Streptococcus pyogenes?
1)Erysipelas-skin infection
2)necrotizing fasciitis-flesh eating bacteris
3)puerperal sepsis-childbirth fever
How does Necrotizing fasciitis spread?
bacteria gets into blood stream and gets into fascia(tough outer covering) of muscle tissue causing death of tissue(black).
What disease are these a sign of?
Bright red rash along upper part of body, very high fever, very bright red rash in mouth, swollen and red tongue.
Scarlet fever
What makes certain strains of the Corynebacterium diphtheriae so virulent?
they contain an extra gene that encodes for the diphtheria exotoxin.
What is the exotoxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae and its effects?
a cytotoxin that inhibits protein sysnthesis so kills host cells.
What causes the coryneform arrangement of Corynebacterium diphtheriae?
snapping division (like a green bean) forming "L" and "V" shapes.
What is this called?
layer of dead cells and bacteria that form in the mouth and back of throat, grayish in color, causes very soar throat and bloody when breaks off.
Pseydomembrane formation
How do we avoid getting Diphtheria today?
vaccination w/ diphtheria toxoids, part of the DBT vaccine.
What is a toxoid vaccine comprised of?
inactivated/deactivated toxin
What airborne disease causes difficulty breathing and a staccato cough?
Does pertussis cause systemic infections? why or why not?
No, b/c it does not enter the blood stream
What is often the cause of death for Pertussis?
How do we prevent ourselves from getting Pertussis today?
vaccination- part of the DBT vaccine
What is chocolate agar?
blood agar heated to 60 degrees cooking and breaking down the blood
What are these the symptoms of?
Headache and stiff neck
Listlessness, dizziness, disorientation
seizures, coma, death
Is Haemophilus influenzae the cause of the flu?
No, a virus is.
there are several strains of Haemophilus influenzae, which type is most associated w/ cases of bacterial meningitis? eye infections?
Type B
Type III
What is the causative agent of chanchroid?
Haemophilus ducreyii
what strain of Haemophilus influnezae are most frequently associated w/ infections?
the viulent stain type B
Is Mycobacterium difficult or easy to culture? why?
Difficult, it grows very slowly
WHat is the cause of leprosy?
Myobacterium leprae
What are tubercles often associated w/ TB?
pockets of live microbacteria walled off by fibrious CT
TB can remain dormant for many years, how?
WHat is it called when TB spreads to other areas of the body and what does it cause?
Miliary TB
the body to waiste away
How does Tuberculin skin test work for detecting TB?
fragments of dead TB cells are injected just under the skin, if person has ever been exposed a ring/rash will develope. this is due to a immune response to the dead cells
TB can be prevented by a vaccination, is it given in the US?
Diplococcus pneumoniae is the former name for what?
Pneumoncoccal pneumonia
What are the Lnacefield classifications for Pneumoncocal pneumonia?
there are none
What kind of hemolytic rxn occurs on Pneumococcal pneumonia?
Pneumoccal pneumonia causes a lower respiratory tract infection, why not an upper?
it is normal flora in the upper RT.
What genus is naturally cell wall defient? is this normal?
What bacteria may parasitize certain aquatic protozoa and/or contaminate building ventilation systems?
Legionella pneumophila
What are foodborne intoxications caused by?
the exotoxin secreted by bacteria in contaminated food. - caused by the exotoxin, doesn't matter if bacteria colonize or not
What are foodborne infections caused by?
the ingestion of live bcteria that colonize the digestive tract. - bacteria must colonize
list 3 the food and waterborne bacterian intoxications.
Staphylococcal food poisoning
Clostridial food poinsoning
List the 6 food and waterborne bacterian infections.
Typhoid fever
Diseases associated w/ E. coli
Camphylobactriosis and Heliobacteriosis
Describe the Botulinum toxin
a neurotoxic exotoxin that is heat sensative
Botulism causes flaccid paralysis, what are the first muscles to be affected?
abdominal muscles
Botulism is very deadly, what is the cause of death?
How much bacteria does it take for it to be deadly?
respiratory and cariac failure
only a few micrograms
Describe wound botulism
it occurs when bacteria contaminate a wound and begin to excrete toxin.
Describe animal botulism.
bacteria from soil conlonizes in grazing animal's digestive tract
describe infant botulism
spores colonize in infants digestive tract, infant goes to sleep and never wakes up. often misdignosed as SIDS
Why doesn't infant botulism affect adults?
our normal flora competes with the bactera
How is infant botulism transmitted to infants?
raw honey or apple juice.
What disease is catalase positive?
Staphylococcus aureus
Which species of Staphylococcus is more cirulent and is coagulase positive?
Which is more common and is coagulase negative?
Staph. Aureus
Staph. Epidermidis
Does Staph. Aureus produce Staphylococcal enterotoxins exotoxins?
some do
Are Staph. Aureus enterotoxins heat resistant?
Does Clostridium Perfringins produce enterotoxin exotoxins?
some do
What genuses are members of the family Enterobacteriaceae?
Escherichia coli
What genuses are sometimes carried asymptomatically?
What is the most virulent member of the genus Salmonella?
Salmonella typhi
What bacterial infection of the genus Salmonella has been isolated from chickens? mice?
Salmonella gallinarum
" typhimurum
How would dairy products be contaminated w/ Salmonella?
fecal material
What two genus bacteria are tested for during meat testing? why
E. coli - fecal contamination
Staph. aureus - skin contamination
Shigellosis w/ symptoms of bloody stool is called what?
What bacteria of the genus Vibrio is associated w/ outbreaks of gastroenteritis due to eating contaminated shell fish?
Vibrio parphaemolyticus
WHat causes the symptoms of Cholera?
the entertoxin blocks water reabsorbtion by inhibiting the anion active transport mech. in the large intestinal epithialium.
What disease is associated w/ rice water stools?
What was the resent outbreak of Cholera caused by?
the spread of new drug resistant strain.
Why is E. coli used as an indicator of water and food contamination?
b/c so widely spread in fecal matter.
E. coli is not normally too damaging for adults, but E. coli O157:H7 is why? what does it cause?
it is invasive and spreads to the blood stream
hemorrhagic E. coli disease and kidney damage in children
What diseas was spread at White Water in ATL?
E. coli O157:H7
How are soilborne bacteria normally transmitted?
through breaks in the skin, respiratory tract, or intestinal tract
List the 5 soilborne bacterial diseases.
Gas Gangrene
Most species of Bacillus are not pathogenic except _______.
Bacillus anthracis
describe skin anthrax
development of open soars or regions on skin, eats away at tissue.
describe intestinal anthrax
developes when brought in thru the oral route, causes formation of lesion in intestines.
describe pulmonary anthrax
caused by breathing in spores of anthrax, they invade and grow in lungs eating away and destroying alveoli. is almost 100% fatal
What is Woolsorter's disease?
pulmonary anthrax
What is Clostridium mtetani attracted to?
Iron ie rusty nails
How does Clostridium tetani work?
it begins to secrete Tetanospasmin, a neurotoxin exotoxin that acts as a cholinesterase blocking acetylcholine.
what causes lock jaw?
Clostridium tetani
What is the treatment for Clostridium tetani?
antitoxins and muscle relaxers
What is the prevention for Clostridium tetani?
vaccination w. tetanus toxoid
What is dry gangrene?
w/o bacteria infection, if blood flow is reduced to tissue ie tourniquet, frost bite.
What is gas or moist gangrene?
gangrene accompanied by bacterial infection
What is the only treatment for gangene?
to remove dead tissue
What bacteria can breech the placenta barrier?
List the 5 arthropodborne diseases.
Lyme disease
Rocky Mt. spotted fever
Epidemic Typhus
Endemic Typhus
Yersinia is in the family Enterobactereaceae, is it found as normal flora in the colon?
What disease is characterized by bi-polar staining?
How are Arthropodborne bacteria carried?
by animals w/ jointed legs and invertabra (insects, archnid, crawfish, lobster)
What are ectoparasites?
animals that obatin a living by feeding on the blood of human hosts, a very effective spread of bacteria, saliva to blood. (ticks, fleas, lice)
What are these the symptoms of?
infection of lymph node tissue, swelling, hemorraging, buboes(purplish black swollen nodes).
Bubonic plague
WHat does Septicemic plague affect?
blood stream
What does Pneumonic plague affect?
How is the plague treated in humans?
When and where was lyme disease first noted?
Northeastern US
What is Erythema chronicum migrans (ECM)?
rash associated w/ lyme disease
how do we treat lyme disease?
WHat is the Weil-Felix test?
test used to detect Rickettsia(Rocky MT. s.f.) it is a rxn of serum to Proteus OX19.
What is a positive rxn when testing for Rocky Mt. S.F.?
clumping together in Weil-felix test
What genuses are obligately intracelluar parasites, what does this mean?
Rickettsia and Chlamydia
Is rickettsia a virus?
no it is a bacterium
List the 4 sexually transmitted bacterial diseases.
Is it difficult or easy to culture Treponema pallidum?
it cannot be cultured on lab medium
How is syphilis detected?
microscopically or serologically
Chlamydia is often mistaken for what other disease?
gonorrhea, but treatment is very different, chlamydia is harder to treat.
List the 3 Miscellaneous bacterial diseases>
Staphylococcal infections
Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections
Is it difficult or easy to culture Mycobacteium leprae?
it cannot be cultured
how do we treat leprosy?
how often is leprosy seen? where?
about 12 cases a year
warm humid enviro.
What genus has a nonfermentative metabolsim
What are the symptoms of urethritis?
burning senstation, discharge, painful urnination
What is pelvic inflammatory disease?
falopian tubes open ended so bacteria can come out into abdominal area
What is one of the most heat resistant exotoxins?
Staph. aureus enterotoxin
What disease affects the upper rt and is non systemic?
What disease affects the upper rt and forms a pseydomemebrane?
Can diphtheria cause cardiovascular damage?
yes it spreads thru the blood
What disease causes upper rt infections, rhinitis, sinusitis, epiglottisits, septicemia, and meningitis in young children?
Haemophilus influenzae
What disease is associated w/ children and crowded quarters and can cause upper rt infections, septicemia, and meningitis?
Meningococcal Infections
WHat disease affects the lower rt?
Pneumococcal Pneumonia
WHat disease characterized by fluid build up in lungs and is a frequent cause of sencondary bacterial pneumonia?
Pneumococcal Pneumonia
What disease spreads to several organs thru blood stream including liver, kidneys, meninges and causes jaundice and bloody vomit?
What disease is a hospital aquired infection and causes rt infections, urinary tract infections, and infections in burn pt?
Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections
WHat disease causes inflammation of the prostate, epididymis and testes sometimes sterility and fallopian tube inflammation and blockage, and pelvic inflamatory disease?
What disease typically requires prolonged exposure and causes lung infections and tubercle formations?
What disease is associated w/ skin infections, boils, pimples, impetigo, toxic shock syndrom and septicemia?
Staphylococcal infections
What disease breaches the placenta barrier and causes miscarriages and congenital damage?
What disease is similar to staph. food poisoning and causes abdominal pain, nausea?
Clostridial Food Poisoning
What disease causes mild cases of primary pneumonia and may cause severe primary pneumonia in immunocompromised pt?
Primary atypical pneumonia
WHat disease acts as a cholinesterase breaking down acetylcholine?
What does this cause?
rigid paralysis
What disease's toxin's interfere w/ water reabsorbtion causing gastroenteritis that may last several months?
WHat disease causes a blood infection w/ high WBC?
What disease causes mild to no symptoms, mild fever, headaches?
Endemic typhus
What disease causes macropapipular rash that begins on palms and soles then to other parts, very high fever, lymph node swelling, and has a high fatality rate/
Rocky Mt. S.F.
What disease causes high fever, rash begining on trunk and spreads to extrimities and has a high fatality rate?
Epidemic Typhus
WHat disease causes gastroneteritis w/ watery diarrhea and bloody stool?
What disease has an incubation of several wks, has flu like symptoms, several months later joint pain and swelling and cardiovascular and NS damage?
Lyme disease
WHat disease is associated w/ EMC?
Lyme disease
What disease is associated w/ whitish skin lesions, loss of sensation, and disfiguration?
What disease causes ulcers in the walls of the intestines, bloody stool w/ little diarrhea, rose colored spots on abdomen and baow perforations?
Typhoid Fever
what disease causes rice water stool?
What disease causes painful soft chancre, open bleeding sores, pelvic inflammation, and urethritis?
What disease causes infection and swelling of lymph nodes and purpulish, black discoloration of skin?
What disease causes mild to moderate pneumonia
What disease inhibits synaptic transmissions @ motor neuron ends causing flaccid paralysis of both voluntary and involuntary muscles?
What disease causes gastroenteritis w/ extensive severe diarrhea by blocking water reabsorption causing dehydration and death?
What disease produces a lot of gas, swelling, and blocking blood flow, tissue death, and black discoloration?
Gas Gangrene
What disease causes no pain the first few days and hard chancre
Primary syphilus
What disease causes infantile diarrhea and travelers diarrhea?
Diseases asso. w/ E. coli
What disease is characterized by the disapearance of chance then flu like symptoms, fever, and rash?
secondary syphilus
What disease causes abdominal pain, nausea, and diarrhea for a few hours?
Staphylococcal food poisoning
What disease is similar to gonorrhea but more difficult to treat?
What disease can colonize the stomach lining underneath the mucous layer, causeing stomach irriation and ulcers?
Helicobacter pylori
what disease causes gummae(lesions on skin and mucous membrain, including internal organs) and cardiovascular and CNS damage month or years after contracted?
tetriary syphilus
What disease is associated w/ scaled skin syndrom?
Staphlococcal infections
What disease causes mild to moderate gastroenteritis?
Camphylobacter jejuni
What disease is gram negative, facultatively anaerobic, and is found in colon flora?
Typhoid fever
What disease is gram negative rods, is strictly aerobic, and is found in aquatic or moist evniro. encluding water faucets and respiratory equipement?
Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections
What disease is gram negative rods, stricktly aerobic, and is found in hightly aerated moist enviro. such a streams?
What food borne disease is gram positive rods, widely distributed in soil, is strickly anaerobic, and is spore forming?
Gas Gangrene
Clostridial Food poisoning
What airborne disease is gram positive diplococci?
Pneumococcal Pneumonia
What disease is gram negative, cocci in pairs, and is normal colon flora?
Meningococcal Infections
What disease is gram negative rods, facultatively anaerobic, and is normal respiratory flora?
Haemophilus influenzae
What arthropodborne disease is gram positive, small irregular shaped?
Epidemic Typhus
Endemic Typhus
Rocky Mt. spotted fever
What disease has acid fast rods found in soil and skin flora?
What disease is gram negative rods, facultatively anaerobic and is normal respiratory flora and occasionally found among vaginal flora and under foreskin of males?
What disease is gram negative small irregular shaped, and obligately intracellular parasite?
What disease is gram positive coryneform rods, spore forming?
What disease is gram negative rods, facultatively anaerobic, and part of normal colon flora?
What disease has metochromatic granules?
What disease is gram positive rods, facultatively anaerobic, spore forming, and widely distributed in soil?
What disease is small irregular shaped w/o cell walls?
Primary atypical pneumonia
What disease is gram negative rods, aerobic, and found in the normal flora of humans and animals?
What disease is gram positive cocci in clusters found in the normal flora of skin and the upper rt?
Staphylococcal infections
Staphylococcal food poisoning
What disease is gram positive rods, strictly anaerobic, spore forming, and widely distributed, esp in soil?
Clostridial food poisioning
What disease is gram positive, small rods, non spore forming, and found in soil containing animal waste?
What disease is gram positive cocci in chains or pairs?
Streptococcal diseases
What disease is gram negative, spirochete, and found in soil contaminated w/ animal waste?
What disease is gram negative, rods, facultatively anaerobic, colon flora, and widely distributed among humans and animals?
Diseases assoicated w/ Escherichia coli
WHat arthropodborne disease has gram negative rods, and is facltatively anaerobic?
What disease is gram negative curved, comma shaped, and facultatively anaerobic?
What disease is gram positive, cocci in clusters, skin and upper rt flora
Staphylococcal food poisoning
Staphylococcal infections
What diseases are spirochetes?
Leptospirosis, Lyme disease, and syphilis
What disease is a gram negaive spirillum, microaerophilic and found in the colon normal flora?

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