Glossary of Bio Exam 4
Created by yq713
- Land plants evolved from?
- green algae
- the closest living relatives to land plants?
- What are the four key traits between land plants and charophyceans?
1. Rose shaped complexes for cellulose synthesis
2. Peroxisome enzymes
3. Structure of flagellated sperm
4. Formation of a phragmoplast
- non charophycean algae use what sort of arrays for cellulose synthesis?
- linear arrays of proteins
- charophycean algae use what sort of arrays for cellulose synthesis?
- rose shaped complexes
- what is the prupose of peroxisome enzymes
- they help minimize the loss of organic products as a result of photresperitation.
- what is a phragmoplast?
- an alignment of cytoskeletal elemens and golgi vesicles around the midline of a dividing cell.
- what is sporopollenin?
- a layer of durable polymer that prevents exposed zygotes from dying out in charophyceans.
- what defines the plant kingdom
- embryophytes(plants with embryos)
- covering consisting of polyesters and waxes that prevents dehydration.
- what are the five key traits that separate land plants from charophycaens?
2. alternation of generations
3. walled spores produced in sporangia
4. multicellular gametangia
5. multicellular dependent embryos
- what are secondary compounds?
- products of secondary metabolic pathways that aid in a plants survival. e.g. alkaloids and tanins
- what are apical meristems?
- regions of cell division at the tips of shoots and roots. The cells specialize later on like stem cells.
- what are the two multicellular body forms that make up the alternation of generations in plants?
- Are the cells of the gametophyte haploid or diploid?
- haploid (single set of chromosomes.
- how is the gametophyte formed?
- By mytosis of a haploid gamete.
- what is the purpose of the sporophyte?
- to produce spores.
- Is the sporophyte haploid or diploid?
- diploid(two sets of chromosomes)
- what are the spore producing organs within the sporophyte?
- what are sporocytes
- spore mother cells.
- what is unique about plant spores
- sporopollenin enriched walls
- what are the names of the female gametangia?
- what are the names of the male gametangia?
- what are placental transfer cells
- cells that help transfer nutrients to the plant embryo while it is in the archegonia.
- what is vascular tissues?
- tissue that transports water and nutrients through the plant body.
- what are vascular plants?
- plants that contain vascular tissue.
- Non vascular plants are calle?
- ferns are a part of which clade?
- club mosses are a part of which clade?
- seedless vascular plants consist of which two clade?
- lycophytes and pterophytes.
- seed plants can be divided into what two groups?
- What is unique about Gymnosperms.
- Their seeds are not enclosed in chambers.
- what is unique about Angiosperms.
- Their seeds are enclosed in chambers.
- Bryophytes consist of which three phyla?
in bryophytes which stage is larger and longer living, sporophytes or gametophytes.
- What are protonema?
- a mass of one cell thick filaments produced by a germinating moss spore.
- what is a gametophore
- the second half of a moss gametophyte, it produces gametes.
- what two parts make up the body of a moss gametophyte.
- what are rhizoids?
- long tubular single cells that anchor bryophyte gametophytes.
- what three parts does the bryophyte sporophyte consist of.
- What is plasticity?
- The ability of an organism to mold its self in response to the local environment.
- What is morphology
- External form.
- What are the three basic plant organs?
- Roots, stems and leaves
- what is the function of the root system
- anchor the plant and absorb water and minerals, and store organic nutrients
- what does the taproot develop from
- embryonic foot
- what are lateral roots
- branch roots that come from the taproot
- describe a fibrous root system
- no taproot, many small roots grow from the stem each with its own lateral roots.
- roots arising from the stem are called?
- seedless vascular plants and monocots have which type of root system.
- Fibrous root system
- eudicots and gymnospores have which type of root system?
- taproot system
- what is root hair
- extension of root epidermal cell, increases surface area, nutrient absorbtion, water absorption.
- The stem system consists of ?
- An alternating system of nodes and internodes.
- what are nodes?
- the points at which leaves are attached.
- what are internodes?
- stem segments between nodes.
- What is an auillary bud
- structure located between leaf and stem that has the potential to form a lateral shoot.
- What is apical dominance
- tendency for the terminal bud to grow while the auxillary buds are dormant. Makes the plant move towards light.
- What is the purpose of a leaf
- what two parts does the leaf typically consist of?
- monicots have what sort of leaf veins?
- eudicots have what sort of leaf veins?
- what is the dermal tissue system
- equivalent of our skin.
- the dermal tissue in non woody plants is called the
- the in woody plants old regios of the epidermis are replaced by?
- the two vascular tissues are?
- what is the purpose of xylem
- convey water and minerals up from the roots to the shoots
- what is the purpose of phloem
- transport organic nutrients such as sugars from where they are made to where they are needed.
- the vascular tissue of a root or stem is called the ?
- Tissues that arent part of the dermal or vascular systems are part of?
- the ground tissue system.
- ground tissue that is internal to vascular tissue is called?
- ground tissue that is external to vascular tissue is called
- describe parenchyma cells
- large central vacuole, perform most of the metabolic functions of the plant, can devide and differenciate under special conditions.
- describe collenchyma cells
- help support young parts of the plant shoot, remain living and flexible.
- describe sclerenchyma cells
supporting elements, thick secondary walls, mature cells cant elongate.
- what are the two types of sclerenchyma cells?
- what is the function of sclerids
- very thick secondary walls that impart hardness
- what are the two types of water conducting cells?
2. vessel elements
- what is the purpose of sieve tube members
- transport sugars and nutrients
- define indeterminate growth
- the plant never stops growing
- leaves undergo what type of growth
- determinate growth(they stop growing)
- How long do annuals live
- a year of less
- how long do biennials live
- roughly two years
- how long do perrenials live
- till something kills them
- apical meristems enable what type of growth
- primary growth(roots and shoots extend in length)
- lateral meristems enable what type of growth
- secondary growth(growth in thickness)
- what are the two types of lateral meristems
1. vascular cambrium
2. cork cambrium
- what is the function of vascular cambrium
- adds layers of vascular tissue (secondary xylem and phloem)
- what is the purpose of cork cambrium
- replaces epidermis with peridem
- what are initials
- cells that stay in the meristem as sources of new cells
- what are derivatives
- cells that are displaced from the meristem and become specialized.
- what is the purpose of the root cap
- protect the apical meristem during root growth
- what are the three zones of cells behind the root tip
1. zone of cell division
- in roots the stele is typically a ?
- vascular cylinder
- what is the purpose of cells within the ground tissues of roots
- store nutrients and absorb minerals
- what is the endodermis
- cylinder one cell thick that divides the vascular cylinder from the rest of the root.
- lateral roots arise from the?
- where is the pericycle located?
- outermost cell layer in the vascular cylinder
- soil is a source of?
- mineral nutrients
- 80 - 90 % of a plant is made up of
- the bulk of a plants organic material comes from
- CO2 absorbed from air
- what is an essential element
- a chemical element needed to complete a life cycle
- how many essential elements are there?
- essential elements that are required in large amounts are
- macro nutrients
- define micro nutrients
- nutrients needed in very small amounts, act as cofactors
- what are the nine macro nutrients?
- carbo, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, phosphorus, dulfur, potassium, calcium, magnesium
- what type of tissue can draw more nutrients when the plant is in short supply
- younger tissue
- what is humus?
- remains of decaying organisms
- topsoil is a mix of?
- rock fragments, living organisms, humus
- distinct soil layers are known as
- most fertile soils are usually?
- a loam consist of ?
- equal amounts of sand silt and clay
- what charge of particles are more easily drained from the soil
- describe cation exchange
- H= displace other cations from the soil allowing them to be absorbed by the plant
- agriculture does what to soil?
- depletes its mineral content
- what does the NPK code define
- the ratios of nitrogen phosphorus and potassium in fertilizer
- irrigation in arid regions can cause what problem
- makes soil salty
- the process of using plants to clean up waste in unusable soil is known as?
- what mineral has the greatest effect on plant growth?
- plants can only absorb nitrogen as
- ammonium or nitrate
- what is nitrogen fixation
- when bacteria convert N2 to NH3
- nitrogen fixation is catalyzed by
- what are nodules?
- swellings on the plant where it is infected with nitrogen converting bacteria.
- how do legumes form symbiosis with only certain species of rhizobium bacteria
- by the structure of the flavanoids it emits
- describe crop rotation
- a legume is planted after a non legume to replace nitrogen by nitrogen fixation
- what are mycorrhizae
- a mixture of roots and fungus that is benefitial
- what are the two types of mycorrhizae
- what is the the defining characteristic of ectomicorrhizae
- they from a dense mantle over the roots
- in angiosperms, which generation is dominant
- angiosperms have what reproductive feature
- are flowers determinate or indeterminate
- what are the four floral organs
- what do the floral organs attach to
- what do sepals do
- enclose and protect the floral bud before it opens
- what is the anther
- structure at the end of the stamen, produces pollen
- what are the two parts of the stamen
- what are the three parts of the carpel
- if the ovary is above the stamens it is
- if the ovary is below the stamens it is
- flowers with only functional stamen are called
- flowers with only functional carpels are called
- plants with both carpellate and staminate flowers on the same plant are
- plants with both carpellate and staminate flowers on the different plants are
- when a microspore undergoes mytosis it generates what two cells?
1. generative cell
2. tube cell
- what is self incompatibility
- a biochemical mechanism that prevents a plant from fertilizing itself
- what is a microphyle
- gap in the ovary that the pollen tube enters
- what is the endosperm
- food storing tissue of the seed
- a simple fruit is one that deveolps from
- a single carpel
- an aggregate fruit is one that develops from
- multiple carpels
- what is imbibtion
- when the germinating seed takes up water
- what is the radicle
- the embryonic root
- what is vegatative reproduction
- asexual reproduction of a plant
- what is fragmentation
- when part of a plant is hacked off and grows into a new plant
- what is apomix
- the asexual production of seeds
- what is de-etiolation
- when the plant switches from its growing underground strategy to its growing above ground strategy.
- what are transcription factors
- things that bind directly to dna and effect their transcription by rna
- what is a tropism
- a response the results in the curvature of a plant
- what is auxin
- idoleacetic acid, causes elongation of coleoptiles
- what do expansins do
- break the connections between cllulose microfibrills so that the cell can elongate
- what do cytokins do
- promote cell division
- what do gibberellins do
- promote stem elongation, fruit growth, and seed germination
- what do brassinosteroids do
- similar to auxin, promote elongation
- what does abscisic acid(ABA) do
- slow growth
- when is ethylene produced
- in response to stress or drought
- what is vernalization
- treatment with cold to induce flowering
- what is an abiotic stress
- a non living stress
- what is a biotic stress
- a living stress
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