Glossary of Bio 225 Exam 1

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Created by lepd25

Explain the relationship between the environment, genotypes, and phenotypes.
Environment effects how genotype is going to function.

The genotype determines the phenotype

The phenotype is a product of what two factors?
The genotype and the environment
The genotype is the product of...?
evolution acting through natural selection and other evolutionary processes
True of false: Homeostatic level is a number
False -- it\'s a range
Define: Phenotype
Morphology - appearance includes physiology and behavior
Define: Phenotypic Plasticity
the ability of a phenotype to change in response to environmental conditions
Define Adaptation:
Changes in population over evolutionary time as a result of natural selection that improve the survivability or reproductive fitness of the species.
Phenotypic plasticity allows for the same _______ to result in multiple _________.
Genotype, phenotypes.
True or False: The environment effects the phenotype
True or False: The environmental effects can be internal and external.
Define: Homeostasis
Maintenance of a constant internal environment despite changes in external environment.
True or falst: homeostasis = equilibrium
FALSE! Equilibrium = death
Any change in the ________ elicits a physiological response which functions to maintain ___________.
Environment, homeostasis.
The two regulatory systems are?
Endocrine System
Nervous System
Endocrine system is _______ & _______.
Slow and sustained
Effects of the nervous system are _______ and __________.
fast and transient
Define: Positive Feedback

That is, A produces more of B which in turn produces more of A. Positive feedback is in phase with the input, in the sense that it adds to make the input larger
Define: Negative Feedback
Examples of this are numerous, from the regulating of body temperature, to the regulating of blood glucose levels.

when gland X releases hormone X, this stimulates target cells to release hormone Y. When there is an excess of hormone Y, gland X \"senses\" this and inhibits its release of hormone X.

Feed-forward Action =
Anticipatory Action
Define: Anticipatory Action
You put your jacket on before leaving the building because you know it will be cold.
Define: Acclimitization
Adjustment in physiological function/s in response to changes in the environment (multiple factors).

Define: Acclimation
a laboratory phenomenon adjustment in response to only one factor.

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