Glossary of Bio 112 TEST 4

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The ________ is composed of proteins, carbs, and lipids which are food sources for other organisms (eg. bacteria, nematodes, protists, and flukes)
Organisms have ____________________ to prevent entry and destroy foreign agents that gain entrance into their bodies
defense mechanisms
The vertebrate's defense mechanism is closely associated with _________________ and _____________.
the lymphatic system
______________ fights foreign agents (which produce antibodies)
The lymphatic system helps filter out and kill foreign agents. Name the 6 things that make up the lymphatic system.

What are the 2 main groups of the body's defenses
Nonspecific defense mechanism (=innate immunity)
specific def. mech. (=acquired immunity)
Another name for nonspecific defense mechanism is
innate immunity
Another name for the specific defense mechanism is
acquired immunity
The immunity that you are born with is called
innate immunity (nonspecific)
The immunity you have to obtain after you are exposed to foreign invaders is called
acquired (specific)
The defense mechanisms are divided into 3 lines of defense. Which defense mechanism is made of the 1st and 2nd line
nonspecific def. mech
The defense mechanisms are divided into 3 lines of defense. Which defense mechanism is made up of the 3rd line of defense
specific def. mech.
Which 2 lines of defense work together?
2nd and 3rd

Which line of defense is known as the "external defense"
1st line of defense
Which line of defense is known as "internal"
2nd line of def.
The specific defense is also known as acquired immunity. They are both considered the __________.
immune system
Which line of def. host the skin, mucous membranes, and secretions of the skin and mucous membranes?
1st line of def. (external)
Which line of defense hosts the Phagocytic WBC's, antimicrobial proteins, and has the inflammatory response
2nd line of def. (internal)
Explains what the inflammatory response does
allows for more antibodies to come in
Which line of defense host Lymphocytes and antibodies
3rd line of def.
______________ is other WBC that make antibodies
In the NONSPECIFIC line of defense's 1st line, ______ is not penetrable if intact
Skin has 2 layers. what are they
epidermis and dermis
What type of membranes line the digestive, respiratory, and urogential tracts
mucous membranes
In the 1st line of defense, what traps microbes?
mucous membranes
___________ is another name for foreign agents
What chemical in the stomach kills microbes (=foreign agents)
What chemical kills microbes dealing with eye secretions
(e.g. protein enzymes)
Skin secretion lowers pH

What can remove microbes that have been trapped in the 1st line of def.
ciliated epithelium in respiratory system
What comes into play when the 1st line of defense is penetrated?
2nd line of defense
What is the 3 major components of the 2nd line of defense?
Phagocytic WBC
Inflammatory Response
antimicrobial proteins (NOT antibodies)

Pus from a wound is a collection of what

dead WBCs
WBC's kill microbes by _______
phagocytosis (=cell eating)
If something creeps around like an amoeba, it is called a
Phagocytic WBC's move into ________________
tissue spaces
Neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, and macrophages are examples of ______________
Phagocytic WBC
What is known at the "guard dogs" of the body
Phagocytic WBC's
If the inflammatory response is damaged or has an entry of microbes, what releases from the mast cells and basophils?
If the inflammatory response is damaged or has an entry of microbes, histamine is released from what 2 places
mast cells and basophils
IN the inflammatory response, histamine causes _________. (which increases permeability of __________) redness, heat, pain
-increases blood flow
-chemical signals (PROSTOGLANDINS of damaged cells)
-attracts WBC's to the site

inflammatory response
During __________ is when the antimicrobial proteins enter the tissue space
inflammatory response
-Allows for clotting (i.e Fibrinogen to fibrin)
-prevents spread of microbes
-prevents blood loss


Inflammatory Response
WBC's phagocytize _____. Helps repair damaged tissue
foreign agents
2 classes in the antimicrobial pattern. Name them
complement and interferon
_________ leads to microbe lysis bc it embeds in foreign agents
-promotes phagocytosis
-has a group of 20 different plasma proteins
-essential to NONSPECIFIC and SPECIFIC defenses


Interferon's proteins are produced by ______________________.
virus infected cells
The proteins of the interferon induce ________ to produce other proteins that inhibit viral replication
neighboring cells
Neighboring cells prevents _________
viral replication
What protects against viral attacks bc it slows the replication of the virus
T or F:Interferon can attract phagocytes "pit bulls'
We have millions of _________ to fight off foreign agents
T or F: The immune system is something one is born with is acquired
_______ recognized foreign agents, toxins, or transplanted tissues
immune system
The immune system develops a __________ response to inactivate or destroy the invader
Any foreign agent that stimulates the immune response and is composed of proteins and polysacchrides is called
Each antigen activates ____________ lymphocytes that produces antibodies
Each antigen activates SPECIFIC lymphocytes that produce specific proteins. The proteins are called
Each lymphocyte (lock and key) has a unique kind of _____________ (100,000 on surface)
_________ chemistry is similar to receptor molecule
How many groups of antibodies are there
The 5 different groups of antibodies have what basic shape?
Y shaped
Which antibody deals with allergies
Name the 5 different antibodies
IgM, IgG, IgA, IgE, IgD
Name the 3 key features of the immune system
1. specificity and diversity
2. memory
3. self- nonself recognition

During the memory portion of the immune system is where the immune system can "remember" past exposure to antigens. The individual gains ______________.
acquired immunity
During the first step in the memory cell production, the ______________ is exposed to the antigen
During the 2nd step of the memory cell production what does the lymphocytes do after they are exposed to the antigen?
clones itself (=proliferates)
What is any foreign substances (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protzoa, parasitic worms, pollen) that elicts an immune response?
antigen (=any agent that we react to)
Antigen is composed of ________ or _________
protein or polysacchrides
A body has millions of ______ types
Each lymphocyte type has unique kind of ________ (100,000 on surface)
Antibody chemistry similar to a ________ molecule
A ___________ can kill anything.
A __________ kills a specific invader
Non-specific defense
Specific Defense
There are 5 major groups of anitbodies : IgM, IgG, IgA, IgE, IgD. What are their basic shapes?
Y shaped
An individual can obtain __________ after being exposed to a virus (i.e. chicken pox)
acquired immunity
Part of the immune system that can recall past exposure to antigens....This is how acquired immunity is formed
Explain the 3 steps in memory cell production
1. Lymphocyte is exposed to antigen
2. lymphocyte proliferates(= clones itself)
3. one set (effector cells_ defends against immediate threat; other memory cells, available for the next invasion

____________ allows for quicker and more intense response to infection
acquire immunity
A normal functioning immune system can distinguished its own molecules from foreign molecules (antigens)
self-nonself recognition
MHC =?
major histocompatibility complex molecules
Cells of "self" have a unique molecular _________
When somethin enter body that does not have unique print... what kicks in?
Immune system
When the immune system kicks in it is called a ______
B lymphocytes matures into --------------
bone marrow
Which response involves B cells
Humoral Response
B cells turn into _______
plasma cells
B cells turn into plasma cells that produces ________
_____________ helps neutralize and eliminate antigens
humoral response(body fluids)
How does the humoral response neutralize and eliminate antigens
through neutralization, opsonization, and activation of complement
Does neutralization, opsonization, and activation of complement occur inside or outside the cell
Antibodies that bind to antigens on surface of the virus, then neutralize it so it wont be able to attach to the host cell
Binding of antibodies to antigens on the surface of the bacteria which promotes phagocytosis
Binding of antibodies to antigens on surface of foreign cells activates the complement system
activation of complement
Complement molecules form pores that leads to _______
What involves T lymphocytes
cell-mediated response
The T cell is also developed in the bone marrow, but it goes through ________ to be activated
thymus gland
These cells are very important in acting against bacteria, viruses INSIDE host cells
cell mediated reponse's T cells
_________ acts against protozoans, fungi, worms, cancer cells, and transplanted cells
cell-mediated response
_______binds to and ruptures (=lyse) infected cells
T cells
T or F:both kinds of response (cell medicated and humoral) gives us immunity
Which response defends against extracellular pathogens by binding to antigens and making the pathogens easier targets for phagocytes and complement
humoral response
which response defends against intracellular pathogens and cancer by binding to and lysing the infected cells or cancer cells
cell mediated response
Both (humoral and cell-mediated) responses are enhanced by _______ and _________
macrophages and Helper T Cells
Macrophages phagocytic present antigens to _______________
helper t cells
Tc =?

Helper T cells secrete cytokines that activate ______ and ______
Tc Cells and B cells
If one has aids , they lose_______ and lose immunity
How is immunity acquired?
actively or passively
Which immune system is derived from an individuals OWN immune system
active immunity
Active immunity is acquired _________
naturally (through exposure to a disease agents)
or artificially (thru vaccinations)
Name 5 common vaccinations we get
measles, mumps, polio, small pox, and tuberculosis
Passive immunity is acquired by _________ being transferred from one organism to another
Which immunity: mother to fetus across placenta(natural) (i.e. from mother blood to baby's blood) mother to baby in breast milk serum of antibodies from another animal (shot against rabies)
passive immunity
When the immune system turns against itself
autoimmune system
When the system begins to destroy its own cells and tissues
autoimmune system (which isnt well understood)
Which autoimmune disease is when inflammation damages cartilage and bone of joints
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Which autoimmune disease is when the autoimmune rxn destroys pancreatic cells (beta cells) that produce insulin
Insulin-dependent diabetes
Which autoimmune disease is when the immune system destroys the myelin sheath that insulates nerves cells
MS = Multiple Sclerosis
In Multiple Sclerosis, _____ is needed to transmit impulses at the proper speed
____________ leads to neurological abnormalities
MS = multiple sclerosis
Which immune disorder is when certain environmental antigens(allergens) lead to the release of histamines
allergies is a ____________ to antigens
over rxn
Allergies leads to ___________

sneezing, running nose, etc, asthma

bronchial constriction =?
When you have allergies , you take
Which disorder of the immune system is when the individual is deficient in either humoral or cell-mediated immune defenses
An example of a congenital immunodeficiency
SCID= Severe Combined immunodeficiency
- Individual can be more susceptible to infection
- can be developed later(aquired) in life (Hodgkins Disease or cancer that suppressed IM sys)
immunodef. disorders
Health and state of mind can affect ___________
HIV has preference for ________ cells (has receptors)
helper T
If a person has _________________, their body has neither humoral nor cell-mediated immunity
HIV/AIDS have caused about how many deaths
3 million
What percentage of deaths in africa are from aids
1/3 (33 and 1/3 %)
Too much internal change =?
death of cells and organism
____________maintains internal and relative constancy around cells
homeostatic mechanism
Thermoregulation is made up of ______________ and ____________
ectotherms and endotherms
____________ = cold blooded animals
____________ 's heat is absorbed from surroundings
__________ cannot maintain body temp. internally

(invert, fish, reptiles, amphibians )

T or F: Ectotherms get no body heat from metabolism
False: they get some
__________ derive most body heat from their own metabolism
__________maintain consistent internal temperature even as the environment's temperature fluctuates
T or F: Ectotherms are usually warmer than surroundings.
False :endotherms
Endotherms require food to maintain _______ to sustain temp and stay alive
active metabolism
Name the 4 ways an organism can lose/gain heat from the environment
1 conduction
2 convection
3 evaporation
4 radiation

a direct transfer of heat between surfaces in contact
a transfer of heat to air or liquid that is moving past the body surface
loss of heat from surface of liquid as liquid transforms to gas
transfer of heat between 2 bodies not in contact
Heat conduction moves how
from high temp. to low temp
Thermoregulation depends on _____________ and __________
heat production and heat loss/gain
Endotherms can alter rate of ________________
heat production
_________ can change metabolic rate
________ can affect fat breakdown
Hormones can change metabolic rate; affects fat breakdown =?????
nonshivering thermogenesis
Nervous system can make you shiver; generates additional heat =????
shivering thermogenesis
Endotherms may change rate of ____________
heat loss/gain
___________ can adjust coat thickness (hair, feathers) using muscles to raise/lower hairs, changes insulating ability of fur
Endotherms can increase/decrease _______ of skin
Endotherms can increase/decrease temp. of skin, subsequent eat loss is by _______ and _______
convection and radiation
Heat loss by evaporation is through ________ and _______
panting and sweating
Behavior can affect _____________
body temperature
If it gets too hot or cold, an organism might do what
relocate to a more suitable environment (warm/cool rocks) or migrate to another climate(birds)
Bathing uses _________ and _______ cooling to remove heat
What animal burrows underground to lower temp
gopher turtles
a temporary reduction in metabolic rate which bypasses times of cooler temp (bats, humming birds)
long-term torpor (during cold winters)
A summer hibernation is called ________________

snakes when dry/hot

Where is the body's thermostat said to be
hypothalamus (in the brain)
The cells located in the 2 thermoregulatory areas : ____________ and ____________
cooling center and heating center
the cooling center controls __________, __________, and_________

Heating center controls ________ of superficial blood vessels, ________ of fur, and shivering _________

_________ senses temperature in the skin
nerves cells of the hypothalamus
Universal solvent which is needed for chemical rxns in body
other than water , __________ is also need for chemical rxns (which helps maintain H2O balance between ______ and ________)
cells and tissue spaces
If a cell gets too much water , it ____
swells and bursts
If a cell doesnt get enough water
shrivels and dies
diffusion of water across selective permeable membrane
____ occurs when 2 solutions separated by a membrane differ in solute concentration
Terrestrial animals problem with water
getting enough
Aquatic animals problem with water
getting rid of it
Terrestrial animals gets water through (3 things)
food, drinking, and oxidative metabolism
Terrestrial animals' water exits by ______ and _______
evaporation (lungs and skin)
excretion (urine)
T or F :Aquatic animals are effected by evaporation
false NOT effected
Aquatic animals problem is _________
Cells of "self" have a unique molecular "finger print" THe finger print is called
MHC= Major histocompatibility complex molecules
What are the 2 kind of responses of the immune system
humoral response and Cell- mediated
Animals are often grouped on whether they ________ difference between solute concentration of body fluids and surrounding environment
_____________ are aquatic animals that maintain solute concentrations that are essentially the SAME (isoosmotic) as the surrounding waters

(JELLYFISH, flatworms. MOLLUSKS, and marine atrhropods)

___________ maintain solute concentration of body fluids that DIFFER with surroundings

(require energy expenditure)

_________ body fluid solute concentrations fluctuates very little even though environmental solute concentrations may change


When body fluids are less than the norm than surounding seawaters

hypotonice = hypoosmotic
In hypotonice, less solute and greater percentage of free water in body fluids than surrounding water = ?
lose water to environment
Marine fish pump what out through their gills
Fresh water fish pump salt in or out of gills?
How does marine fish compensate for osmotic water loss?
drinking seawater
In the marine fish, the excess salt is pumped out by __________
gill epithelium = transport epithelium
T or F: Freshwater fish excrete small amounts of concentrated urine
Freshwater produce LOTS
MARINE produce small
When the marine fish excrete a scanty amount of urine bc lots of _______ are in little water
salt ions

which means it conserves water

If fish if there is more solute and less free water, the fish is

(which means more solute inside the fish than in the water)

_______ are well developed in freshwater fish to get rid of excess water
Loss of salts in urine are replenished by
eating, active uptaked of NA and Cl ions fomr surround water
The active uptake of Na and Cl ions fom surround water is by the ______________
gill epithelium = transport epithelium
Humans die if _______% of water in body is lost
FOr an arthropod to maintain water they have a
waxy cuticle
For a snail to maintain water, they have a
For a reptile, bird, mammal to maintain water, they have a
multi-layered skin with dead, keratinized cells (epidermis)
Animals that live in the desert (kangaroo rat) are nocturnal to reduce dehydration. This change is known as a _____________
behavioral adaptation
A Kangaroo rat produces large amounts of ___________ (from the krebs cycle) of their diet
metabolic water
Which excretory organs conserves water while eliminating nitrogenous wastes?
A kangaroo rat gets 90% of its water gain metabolically. A human has _______ %
A human's water loss is 36% evaporation. What percentage does the kangaroo rat have
A Kangaroo rat's percentage in water loss from urinating is 22%. What is a humans
How many kidney is found in ALL vertebrates
What is the major excretory organ of all vert.
Name the 3 regions of the kidney
Cortex, Medulla, pelvis
Name the pathway for the kidneys
kidney, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
The blood that is filtered by the _______
the kidney is drained by tubes called
After the filtrate leaves the ureters, the excretions are stored into the
urinary bladder
maintains water balance, removes wastes (salts nitrogenous) , and maintains pH balance
The filtrate turns into urine when coming out of the urinary bladder and exiting through the
What is the basic unit of the kidney
The kidney is composed of microscopic tubules called_______
What are the 2 kinds of nephrons of the kidney
cortical and juxtamedullary
What is the nephrons lined with
transport epithelium
what moves the solute in and out of the tubule (=nephron) of the kidney
transport epithelium
The nephrons primary job is to
filter out the blood
-is in close association with the circulatory system (eg. glomerulus, peritubular, capillaries, vasa, recta)
Empty into collecting duct (drains into pelvis)
What is the route of the nephrons
Bowman's capsule,
Proximal tubule,
Loop of Henle
Peritubular Capillaries,
empties into collecting ducts,

What are the 3 processes that make urine
filtration, reabsorption, secretion
T or F:If blood pressure is too low, you will have problems urinating.
If BP is too high you will find _______ in your urine
Small molecule forced through the capillary wall, enters nephron, make up the ___________
__________ and __________ (specialized cells of the capsule) filter out blood cells, large molecules (e.g. albumin, antibodies)
Porous capillaries

(They produce the filtering membrane)

Which process of the kidney function is where the blood pressure forces fluid from the glomerulus (blood) across the Bowman's capsule epithelium into nephron
Filtration is when the _______________ forces fluid from the glomerulus (blood) across the Bowman's capsule epithelium into nephron
blood pressure
Nephrons make ______ liters of filtrate daily
180 L
Filtrate contains a mixture of water, glucose, salts, vitamins, and what else
nitrogenous waste
Which kidney function is a selective transport of filtrate molecules from the nephron into the interstitial fluid (=interstitium)
During reabsorption, molecules from the filtrate move _________ into blood of the ________ (eg Vasa recta, peritubular, capillaries)
back ( reabsorbed)
T or F: Reabsorption involves just passive transports.
False. Active and passive
Reabsorption occurs in 4 parts....
distal tubules
loop of henle
collecting duct

_________ is specialized for reabsorptiong (i.e. microvilli and mitochondria)

and most of the reabsorptiong occurs here

proximal tube
In all vert, nearly all sugar, vitamins, organic nutrients are reabsorbed. IN mammals and birds, ______ is also reabsorbed inthe Loop of Henle
Means getting rid of Hydrogen ions to maintain pH levels
__________ adds plasma solutes to filtrate
Secretion involves what type of transports
active and passive
___________ is the opposite of reabsorption
What are the 2 sites of secretions
proximal tubule
distal tubule
What are the 2 important mechanisms of the kidney function
Antidiuretic hormone and RAAS
Which mechanism of the kidney helps conserve water inthe body
antidiuretics hormones (ADH)
Antidiuretic hormone is produced in the
Antidiuretic hormone is formed from the
pituitary gland
Antidiuretic hormone is released when _________ in the hypothalamus detect an increase blood osmolarity (increase in solutes) due to water loss
osmoreceptor cells
Antidiuretic hormone increases permeability of ___, and ________ cells to water
distal tubule
connecting duct
________ increased water reaborption to bloods decreased osmolarity; inhibits further secretion of it
Antidiuretic hormone
Drinking alcohol can inhibit ___________ released, causes dehydration
Antidiuretic hormone


_________is a homeostatic mechanism for maintaining water balance
Antidiuretic hormone
Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System involves the __________ apparatus
juxtaglomerular (JGA)
RAAS = ?
Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System
A specialized tissue of afferent arteriole and distal tubule near the glomerulus and produces renin
juxtaglomerular apparatus= JGA
______ responds to decrease in blood pressure and/or decreases in NA+ concentration by releasing enzyme _______ into blood
Renin converts inactive _______ (=plasma protein) into active _______ (hormone)
angiotensin II
Angiotension II affects blood pressure and urine volume in what 2 way.
increases arteriole constriction
causes adrenal glands to secrete aldosterone
Angiotension II increases _______ constriction
When Angiotension II increases arteriole constriction, it increases ____________
blood pressure
When the blood pressure increases because os the arteriole constriction bc of Angiotension II, ______ rate is increased


Angiotension II causes adrenal gland to secrete ______________
aldosterone (hormone)
__________ stimulates Na+ reabsorption across the distal tubule (water flows by osmosis) which INCREASES blood pressure

Maintains filtration rate

JGA helps _________________ loss
conserve water
name a serious pollutant
nitrogenous wastes
Metabolism of protein, _____________ produces ammonia (small) but very toxic
nucleic acids
Some animals(aquatic) excrete _________. Others convert it to _______ or _______
uric acid

Out of uric acid, ammonia, and urea which takes the most energy to make and which is the most toxic

most energy to make --> uric acid , THEN urea, ammonia

Most toxic--> ammonia , then urea, then uric acid

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