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Glossary of Bio 112 TEST 3

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Explain the 5 Characteristic that make up an animal
1. are multicellular heterotrophic eukaryotes(have to ingest organisms or organic material that is decomposing)
2.No Cell Walls (no cellulose, lignin, etc)
3.Have unique tissues (muscle and nervous tissue)
4. reproduces sexually
5. have "HOX" Homeobox genes



Explain what "multicellular heterotrophic eukaryotes" have to do
have to ingest organisms or organic material that is decomposing
Since animals have no cell walls, what holds the bodies together?
held together with EXTRACELLULAR PROTEIN (especially collagen)(=connective tissue)
Which protein is most important in holding the body together?
collagen (=connective tissue)
Nervous Tissue is used for
Impulse Conduction
Muscle Tissue is used for what
movement
Namethe 3 kinds of muscles
smooth, cardiac, and skeletal muscles
Which of the 3 muscles are used when using the tongue or diaphragm?
skeletal muscles
Which of the 3 muscles are used when controling body heat?
skeletal muscles
Collagen is a form of what
connective tissue
An animal produces sexually. Which stage dominates the most... haploid or diploid
diploid
In the sexual stage of animals the _____, ____ sperm fertilizes with the _______, ______ eggs
smaller, flagellated sperm
larger, nonmotile eggs
What is a multicellular, hollow ball of cells that is formed while the zygote undergoes cleavage?
blastula
A succession of mitotic cell division leads to the formation of what when the zygote undergoes cleavage?
a blastula
A succession of mitotic cell division leading to the formation of a blastula happens when
a zygote undergoes cleavage
cleavage leads to
a blastula
A blastula undergoes __________.
Gastrulation
An example of this would be some cells migrate inward, forming tissue layers
gastrulation
The 2-3 germ layers form during __________.
gastrulation
"germ" means what
seed
Name the 3 germ layers and where they lie
Endoderm --> inner layer
Mesoderm--> middle layer
extoderm--> outer layer


The MESODERM is only found in some




While the 3 germ layers are being formed (=gastrulation) the embryo is called what
gastrula
Some animals develop directly through ______________ stages into adults. Others have a __________ stage, where the young look different from the adult
transient
larval
this is immature; looks, feeds, lives different from the adult
Larva (s)
larvae (pl)

EX: tadpole, trochophore, larva of mollusks, and annelids)


What larva grazes and feeds on algae?
tadpole
Animal larvae eventually undergoes ________.
Metamorphosis
The change from larval form to adult form is called _________.
Metamorphosis
What animals have the "Hox" Homeobox genes?
all animals from sponges to complex vert. and insects
_____________ regulates the expression of other genes.
Hox Genes
Homeobox genes is also called what
Hox Genes
Hox genes help transform _________ to animal in specific animals
zygote
The more Hox genes the animal has.. the __________________________________.
more complex the animal is



(Humans have more than box flies or sponges)



What genes are similar in animals groups?
Hox Genes
Name the 2 different times of animals
vert. and invert.
Which group of animals do not show true evolutionary relationships but is still used
artificial groups
What kind of animals are fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals?
Vertebrates
This makes up 97% of all animals
invertebrates
WHat is found in ALL animal phyla (about 35)
invertebrates
Arthropods, insects, annilids,and worms are considered to be what
invertebrates
The animal kingdom is _______________.
Monophyletic
This means that all animals come from a common ancestor
Monophyletic
The Animal kingdom is closely related to ___________________
a colonial flagellated protist
The animal kingdom is considered to be monophyletic. It is thought to have split away about 1MYA during the _______________ era.
Precambrian
Early animals inhabited seas, then moved to _______, then moved to _________.
fresh water
Land
Fossil records suggest that animal forms did what
diversified relatively rapidly
How long did the diversification last with the Animal Kingdom?
about 35 MY

between 565(Late Precambrian)-535(Early Cambrian) MYA





When did most of the animal fossils appear in the cambrian rocks
Cambrian Explosion (535-525 MYA)
Where was the most rich fossil during the Precambrian Explosion found at
China, British Columbia, and greenland
If there are 3 tissue layers that are formed during the development of the blastopore it is called
Triploblastic
The ________ has the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. It is found in MOST animal phyla
Triploblastic development
In the PROTOSTOME development, the first opening is the _________ and the second opening is the ____________.
1st-> mouth
2nd-> anus
In a ___________, the blastopore of the eucoelomate develops into the mouth and the 2nd opening becomes the anus
protostome
Mollusks, annelida, arthropods

Protostomes or Deuterostomes?

Protostomes
Another word for cavity
coelom
Schizo (greek) means
split
This arises from the splitting of the MESODERM band
Body cavity (= coelom)
solid masses of mesoderms split to form coelom
Schizocoelous
IN protostomes, early embryos form by developing cells dividing diagonally to one another is called what

(ONLY FOUND IN PROTOSTOMES)

spiral cleavage
The fate of ______________ is determined early (ie. cells are programmed as to what they will turn into)

i.e. head, eye

embryonic cells
In protostomes, if the embryonic cells are separated, the cells cant turn into a complete individual. That is called
determinate cleavage
The blastopore is the first opening or the second opening
first
In _________ the blastopore becomes the anus and the second becomes the mouth
Deuterostome
Chordates, enchinoderms

protostomes or deuterostomes?

deuterostomes
folds of archenteron(=primative gut) form coelom
enterocoelous
What is another name for a primative gut
archenteron
Body cavity from the mesodermal outpockets of the gut is called

(only in deuterostomes)

entercoelous
The 2 developing cells that form right angles in the deuterstomes is called
radial cleavage
bilateral cleavage
In deuterstomes, the fate of ____________ is NOT determined early on unlike protostomes
embryonic cells
in deuterostomes, the fate of the embryonic cells are not determined early... this is called
indeterminate cleavage
____________ & ______________ have played important roles in showing relationships among animal phyla
comparative anatomy
embryonic development
In indeterminate cleavage, groups of cells spilt and each turn into individuals. The individuals are called
identical twins
Phylogenetic tree is based ______________ sequence from a small subunit ________________
Nucleotide
ribosomal RNA
_______________ may NOT be a good characteristic for showing evolutionary relationships
INTERNAL DESIGN
since animals cant make their own food (heterotrophic) that need a system to help take care of their food. What is it called
digestive system
Some (i.e. sponges and coral) sit and let food come to them. They are known to be
sessile
If an animal goes looking for food they use 3 senses. Name which ones they use
smell (=chemoreceptors)
sight (=photoreceptors)
hearing and touch (=mechanoreceptors)

what we use for the sense, hearing and touch
mechanoreceptors
what we use for the sense, smell
chemoreceptors
what we use for the sense, sight
photoreceptors
what is the problem with ingested food as SOON as it is taken into the body
it is OFTEN not in a usuable form for cells of animals
During consumption of food, the ____________ is too complex, so it must be broken down ( =___________________)
food
digested
In humans, after our food is broken down, the nutrients is shipped off to where
our liver
after the food is broken down (digestion) the food is absorbed into what of animals
body fluids
name the 2 basic designs of the digestive system
incomplete digestive system
complete digestive system
Which digestive system has a dead end tube (only one opening)

(EAT, FOOD PROCESSED, THEN THROWN BACK UP)

incomplete dig. system (flatworms)
Which digestive system has food and waste go in and out of same hole

(ie flatworms)

incomplete d.s.

Which digestive system has 2 openings
complete digestive system
Which digestive system has food come in one end and exits out the other end
complete digestive system
A modification with humans is our tongue. What is it loaded with
chemoreceptors (=taste buds)
Our taste buds are actually
chemoreceptors
A modification with humans is our ORAL CAVITY. What is our oral cavity the site of
mechanical and chemical digestion
What specialized region of the digestive system is a muscular tube that carries the food from the mouth to the stomach?
Esophagus
What is the specialized region of the digestive system that is at the top and bottom which regulates the flow of food?
Sphincters
What specialized region of the digestive system stores food where it chemically breaks it down?
Stomach

What specialized region of the digestive system is the site of chemical digestion and absorption?




Small intestine
What does food turn during its stay in the stomach (like a chunky soup)?
Chyme
There are two major components of composition?
1. cells
2. extracellular material




Zoologists recognize about _______ animal phyla,
35
____________________ depend on clues from comparative anatomy, embryology, developmental genetics, and molecular systematics of extant species to show relationship among groups.
Systematists
What specialized region of the digestive system is the site of absorption of vitamins, h20, & waster storage?
Large Intestine
This comes in all shapes and sizes, and carries out the work of organisms.
Cells
Made of fluid, protein fibers, helps support, transport molecules (plasma from blood)
Extracellular materials
2 main components of tissue that performs specific functions and look similar
cells
extracellular materials
what are the 4 major types of tissue in animals
1.epithelial
2.Connective tissue
3. muscle tissue
4. nervous tissue


What type of tissue

-often secretes (in glands)
-protects (skin)


epithelial
What type of tissue:

- cells are close together
-lines body cavities and ducts


epithelial
What type of tissue:

-is the surface of blood vessels, mouth, glands, body cavities
-absorbs (ie. digestive system, kidney)


epithelial
What type of tissue:
- is classified by # of cells along the upper surface (=free surface)
Epithelial
Epithelial is classified by number and shape of cells along the upper surface. Which layer is the simple epithelium?
single layer
Epithelial is classified by number and shape of cells along the upper surface. Which layer is stratified
multiple layer
Epithelial is classified by number and shape of cells along the upper surface. Which shape is "dice=like"
CUBOIDAL
Epithelial is classified by number and shape of cells along the upper surface. Which shape looks like brick on the ends?
columnar
Epithelial is classified by number and shape of cells along the upper surface. Which shape looks flat like floor tiles
squamous
Which connective tissue:

- cells dispersed in matrix (fluid &/or fiber matrix)



connective tissue
Which connective tissue:
- consistency can vary from hard (bone) to fluid (bone), to cartilage (sort of hard, like ears)
connective tissue
Which connective tissue:
- functions mainly to bind and support other tissues
connective tissue
Which connective tissue:
- composed of long cells (fibers) that con contract
muscle tissue
Which connective tissue:
- is the most abundant tissue in animals bc activity consumes a lot of energy
muscle tissue
Name the 3 different types of muscle tissue
cardiac, skeletal, smooth



Which connective tissue:
- brings about movement (things inside as well as whole organisms)
muscle tissue
While using muscle tissue, one uses a tremendous amount of ___________ contracting muscles
energy (ATP)
which muscle helps digest food?
smooth muscle

(is found everywhere that skeletal and cardiac isnt)

Which connective tissue:
-sense stimuli and transmit signals from 1 part of the animal to the other part
nervous tissue
What is the nervous tissue's functional unit
neuron (=nerve cell)
The nervous tissue consists of a cell body of 2 or more extensions. What are they called
dendrites and axons
Which connective tissue:
- found in brain , spinal cord, and nerves
nervous tissue
There are lots of variations in animal shapes , but some do have similarities (so you can make generalizations).
Name the 3 symmetries
-asymmetrical
-bilateral symmetry
-radial symmetry

Which symmetry has no balance to body parts?
asymmetry
Sponges are the ONLY animals that have this symmetry
asymmetry
What type of symmetry s where the body parts radiate off of the central axis

(you can't identify the left from the right, or top from the bottom)





radial symmetry
This symmetry has
-surface with mouth (=ORAL SURFACE)
-has surface with no mouth (AORAL SURFACE)





radial symmetry
This symmetry is found in Cnidarians, Hydra, ad Jellyfish
Radial symmetry
What is the most common symmetry
bilateral symmetry
What symmetry led to the evolution of cephalization?
bilateral
What symmetry is where

-animal has dorsal, ventral surfaces, right and left side, head end(cephalization), and tail end

bilateral
which symmetry

- if you cut the animal down the middle, you would have mirror images

bilateral
__________ has a concentration of neurons (like senses)
Cephalization (=head end)
name the 3 different types of internal designs in animals
1. Solid
2.false coelom
3. true coelom

Which internal design has

-no cavity (coelom) between the digestive system (=gut) and the body wall

solid
What is the name given to flat worms, ribbonworms, etc that have a SOLID internal design
acoelomates
Another word for false coelom is
psuedocoelom
Which internal design

-cavity between gut and body wall but NOT completely lined with mesoderm but partially

false coleom
What do you call the Nematodes (roundworms) and rotifers that have a false coelom
pseudocoelomates
What is another word for true coelom
eucoelom
which internal design

-coelom is completely lined with mesoderm

true coelom
What is the 2 advantages of true coelom
1.allows for organ complexity
2. holds gametes
Most animals have what internal design
true coelom
What do you call mollusks, annelids, chordates, arthropods, echinoderms that have TRUE COELOM
eucoelomates
There are 4 different types of embryonic development. Name them
1 diploblastic development
2 triploblastic development
3 protostome development
4 deuterostome development


Which embryonic development is where gastrulation leads to 2 tissue layers: ECTODERM and ENDORDERM, with a noncellular MESOGLEAS layer in the middle
diploblastic
In the diploblastic development, what is the name of the noncellular layer in the middle of the ectoderm and endoderm?
Mesoglea
Cnidarians : jellyfish, sean anemones, corals are all examples of what kind of embryonic development?
Diploblastic development
Which specialization is at the anterior end and stores food so one can eat a lot at one time (birds, earthworms, insects)?
crop
What specialization is considered to be a modified esophagus?
gizzard
What specialization is a muscular chamber used to mechanically digest food. (Birds add pebbles to it to help them tear up their food) Also found in DINOSAURS!!!
gizzard
What specialization is considered to be a modified stomach
rumen
What specialization houses bacteria, protist(mutualism); is the site for FERMENTATION
rumen
_____________ produces sugars for cows.
fermentation
The ________ is actually part of the esophagus but known as the modified stomach but not a true stomach
rumen
What specialization helps break down vegetation
rumen
If an animal (cow, deer, sheep) have a rumen, the animal is called
ruminants
What specialization is an extension of the large intestine
cecum
_______ means blind pouch
cecum
What specialization houses bacteria, helps digest plant material, and is longer in plant eaters than in meat eaters
cecum
What are the 4 major processes in obtaining nutrients
1. foraging
2.ingestion
3.Digestion
4. absorption


The process in obtaining nutrients where :

- search for food by using senses
(you can spend a lot of time looking for food)


foraging
The process in obtaining nutrients where :
- take in body food by using teeth, venom, claws, stingers, tentacles, tongues, beaks, baleen
ingestion
nail-like sheets that are frayed and are in whales
baleen
How the animal gets food often depends on how big the food is relative to the animal size.

This way is : -very smell food items rel. to size (basking sharks, baleen whales)

filter feeders
How the animal gets food often depends on how big the food is relative to the animal size.

This type of feeding is where the food is a fluid not a solid. (eg mosquitos, butterflies, hummingbirds, leeches etc)

fluid feeders
How the animal gets food often depends on how big the food is relative to the animal size.
What type is where large food items are relative to the size of the animals?
bulk feeders
What type of feeders are most animals
bulk feeders
Humans, Great white shark, lions, phythons are examples of what kind of feeders
bulk feeders
An animal that eats meat is called
carnivores
Owls, most sharks, cats, snakes, hawks are what kind of eaters
carnivores
If an animal eats plants , it is called
herbivores
horses, gorillas, antelopes, rhinos, rabbits, rodents, are all what kind of eaters
herbivores
If an animal eats BOTh plants and meet it is called
omnivores
Bears, raccoons, cockroaches, humans are all what kind of eaters
omnivores
converts food to a form that can be absorbed into body fluids and utilized by cells
digestion
What are the 2 types of digestion?
mechanical and chemical digestion
Which type of digestion uses teeth and muscle

(type of teeth adapted to type of food eaten)

mechanical digestion
In mechanical digestion, __________ works the jaws and makes up wall of digestive tube, and kneads food (peristalsis)
muscle
_________ is a type of SMOOTH muscle that kneads food and mixes it with chemicals during digestion

(it is a wave of smooth muscle contraction)

peristalsis --> helps move food through waste system
Chemical digestion involves what 4 things
water, bile, acid, enzymes
_______ serves as a solvent for chemical breakdown as it reacts with food molecules to break them down (=hydrolysis)
water
When waters reacts with food molecules to break it down it is called _______.
hydrolysis
Hydrolysis is too slow. A _______ is needed to speed up (i.e proteins)
enzyme
_______ is needed to digest all major food groups ( carbohydrases, proteases, lipases, nucleases)
enzymes
Produced by exocrine glands (with ducts)(e.g. salivary glands, pancreas) and cells lining digestive system(stomach and intestine)
enzymes
__________ is always under the stomach
pancreas
Most of the digestion occurs ______the cell in the LUMEN of the tube (=extracellular) Enzymes spill out onto food.
outside
Some enzymes are secreted in an INACTIVE form. What is it called
zymogen

(eg. pepsinogen, trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen)

It reduces self destruction (cells making active ____ would kill themselves)
enzymes
Pepsinogen is activated by what
low pH
HCl is made up by _________ cells of the gastric glands (stomach)
parietal cells
Pepsinogen is made by ______ cells
chief cells
_________ activates trypsinogen to trypsin in intestine
enteropeptidase of the duodenal glands
Inactive forms of pepsinogen can be activated by
enzymes
If _______ surrounds trypsinogen it turns into trypsin.
enteropeptidase
trypsin actives _____
all other forms inactive forms in the lumen
The main advantage of HCl is what
it kills foreign agents that can hurt us (stomach pH)
_____ activates pepsinogen
Hcl
HCl denatures (=unfolds) proteins to expose __________
peptide bonds
Produced by liver and stored in gall bladder (often green)
bile
Emulsifying agent (like soap) bc it converts fat globules to droplets
bile
bile contains
bile salts (pigments frm the breakdown of RBC)
Digestion occurs from _______ to _______.
mouth to large intestine
The bacteria that lives in the intestine aids in digestion of __________. This is a form of MUTUALISM
carbohydrates
What is the most common bacteria that lives in out intestine and gut
E coli
Bacteria synthesizes what 2 vitamins
B and K
What 3 things in mammals increase surface area for absorption during digestion
Circular folds, villi, microvilli
________ occurs after digestion
absorption
During which stage of digestion is the nutrient molecules small enough to get into the body fluids?
absorption
During absorption, nutrients move between and thru _________
cells lining the intestine
Villi is velvet like... and has _______ on it
Microvilli
________ has villi on it. Villi has microvilli on it
Circular folds
Absorption occurs in what 2 mechanisms
active mech.
passive mech.
During absorption, GLUCOSE, AMINO ACIDS, DIPEPTIDES, and VITAMINS (which come from food digested) are ______________ transported thru what layer
actively
epithelial
During absorption, FRUCTOSE, FATTY ACIDS, and WATER are _________ in through the __________ layer
diffused (making it passive)
epithelial layer
Absorption: once amino acids and sugars get into the blood, it gets shipped to the_____________
liver
Fatty acids and glycerol reform in cells, become coated with protein, mixes with cholesterol to become __________
chylomicrons
Chylomicrons get picked up by _________ then shipped to the blood
lacteals of lymphatic
Chylomicrons get picked up by lacteals of lymphatic then shipped to ________
blood
What is the longest part of the digestive system?
small intestine
Most absorption occurs in the ____________



small intestine

IT IS 6 METERS (20FT)!

After the small intestine, nutrients go to the _______ to be processed
liver
Liver helps regulate ______ levels in the blood so that it stays constant
sugar levels
Live stores sugars as _______.
glycogen
What percentage of the meal is absorbed UNLESS it is a lot of plnt material
80-90%
80-90 % of a meal is absorbed but __________ % is used to process the food (muscle movement, making chemicals, foraging costs, etc)
3-30%
Which intestine is used for storage
large
The passage of solid waste that can't be used is called
elimination
________ move out wastes.
muscles (peristalsis)
during fermentation of food, ________ cells reduces friction and prevents tearing inthe digestive tubes.
Goblet cells
The brain has a center in the hypothalamus that makes one fell hungry or full. What is the center called
satiety center
Another word for fullness level is
satiety level
In the ENDOCRINE system, name the 3 hormones that suppress the appetite

and the 1 that stimulates

Leptin
PYY
INSULIN



GHRELIN





Which hormone (in the endocrine system) is secreted by fat cells, helps regulates fat storage
leptin
Which hormone (in the endocrine system) is from the intestine after the meal, inhibits the motility of the gut
PYY
Which hormone (in the endocrine system) from the pancreas and increases after a meal
insulin
Which hormone (in the endocrine system) from the stomach when hungry, STIMULATES hunger
ghrelin
What starts gall bladder contraction
Cholecystokinin ((CKK)
what is the first hormone ever discovered
secretin
which 4 hormones affect digestion
gastrin
cholecystokinin (CKK)
secretin
enterogastrone


which hormones that affect digestion :

- is secreted by the stomach and stimulates the secretion of DIGESTIVE Enzymes

gastrin
gastrin stimulates the secretion of _______
digestive enzymes
which hormones that affect digestion :

- stimulates bile and pancreatic enzyme secretion

cholecystokinin (CKK)

it is an intestinal hormone

CKK (choleycystokinin) _______ bile and pancreatic enzyme secretion
stimulates
which hormones that affect digestion :stimulates pancrease which dumps in the bicarbonate that helps neutralize acid chyme coming from the stomach
secretin (intestine hormone)
which hormones that affect digestion :

-INHIBITS peristalsis, acid secretion

enterogastrone (an intestinal hormone)
name the 3 things that nutrients are used for
growth
repair
energy

What is it called when nutrients are used to help replace constanly dying cells
repair
What is it called when nutrients provide materials to make new cells and tissues
growth
what is it called when nutrients are used to do work (make new molecules, move)
energy
_____ is needed for staying awake and for basic functions
energy
What is the BASAL METABOLIC RATE of humans
2,000 calories per day
If nutrients are not met _______
undernourished
Animals need specific nutrients. If it cant be made/synthesized = ______________
essential nutrients
if you dont get essential nutrients = ______________
malnourished
if you get more nutrients than needed

(which leads to diabetes, heart disease, none and joint problems, etc)

overnourished
5 major nutrient types
1.Carbohydrates
2.proteins
3.fats
4.vitamins
5.minerals



The nutrient ________ is used for energy
carbohydrates
the nutrient _____ is used to make tissues and enzymes
proteins
the nutrient ______ is used for energy storage, insulation, and protecton
fats
which nutrient is organic and is need in small amounts (divided into 2 groups)
vitamins
what are the 2 groups that vitamins are divided up into
water soluble vitamins( C,B)
fat soluble ( A, D, E, K)
which type of vitamin aids in enzyme function (C and B vit.)
water soluble vitamins

(it helps with enzyme functions to carry out metabolic rate)

Which type of vitamin is with vit. A,D,E,K
FAT SOLUBLE
Vitamin ______ is important in blood clotting
K
Vitamin ______ is an antioxidant that helps prevent damage to lipids of CELL MEMBRANES
E
Vitamin ______ aids in absorption and use of calcium and phosphorus

PROMOTES BONE GROWTH

D
Vitamin _____ deals with retinal
A
_______ are small organic non-protein molecules that carry groups between _________
coenzymes
enzymes
name the 8 minerals needed for nutrients
1. calcium
2.phosphorus
3. sulfur
4. potassium
5. chlorine
6. sodium
7. magnesium
8. iron






Cell has constant requirements to stay alive and function. What are 4 of them
nutrients, oxygen, water, ions
____________ transports cell requirements
circulatory system
If an animal can take care of their cellular needs without a circulatory system, their body allows for ______________
simple diffusion
MOst animals have a _____________ for transporting vital substances ( nutrients, gases, wastes, hormones) through the body
circulatory system
2 kinds of circulatory systems
open and closed
Internal organs surrounded by sinuses (spaces), bathed in blood, heart with blood vessels


(found in insects, crayfish, gastropods, bivalves)


open cir. system
-Blood always confined in vessels
-blood under greater pressure, circulates faters

(found in vert. and earthworms)


closed cir. system
4 major components of the vert. cir. system
1.heart
2.arteries
3.capillaries
4. veins


What makes up the heart of a vert.
atria and ventricles


could have 1-2 of both


What part of the major components of the vert. cir. system is a

very muscular wall where blood is under the HIGEST pressure and highest velocity

arteries
_____ carries blood away from the heart
arteries
Arteries branches into _______ and then into ________
arterioles
capillaries
These are the smallest vessels in the circulatory system, so the blood moves slow
capillaries
Site of exchange between blood and tissue fluid
capillaries
________ carries blood toward the heart
veins
Veins are joined to capillaries by ________
venules (small veins)
Vein's pressure is _______ than arteries.
less than
vein's velocity is ______ than capillaries, and is _______ than arteries
faster than

less than

Vein's muscle layer is ______ than arteries
less than
Veins have _________ which prevent back flow
valves
______ muscles squeezes veins ("milk") which helps returns blood to the heart
skeletal muscles
Blood flow dynamics:

Put Capillaries, Arteries and Veins in order by area

C > V> A
Blood flow dynamics:

Put Capillaries, Arteries and Veins in order by velocity

A > V> C
Blood flow dynamics:

Put Capillaries, Arteries and Veins in order by pressure







A >C >V
IN the circulation pathways, in what order does the single circuit system's blood flow

(fish)

heart -> respiratory organ -> body -> heart
IN the circulation pathways, in what order does the double circuit system flow

(amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals)

Heart-> respiratory organ -> heart -> body



The heart is composed of what kind of muscle
cardia
the valves between the atria and ventricles is called
atrioventricular valves
IN the heart, the ____ is thin walled
atria
IN the heart, the _____ is thick walled
venrticles
What are the valves called between the ventricles and aorta, pulmonary trunk
semilunar valves
In a heartbeat, the first d sound is from the ________ valve and the second is from the ___________ valve
atrioventricular
semilunar
If you have a defected valve, you have a
heart murmur
The right side of the ventricles is going to where
the lungs and back
The left side of the ventricles is going to where
the body and back
What is the humans pulse
65-75
What is an inverse relationship between heart rate and size?
pulse
What is an elephants pulse
25
what is a shrew's pulse
600
________ is self excitable, but the nervous system regulates it.
cardiac muscle
specialized tissue that conducts electrical impulses through the heart
conductive tissue
If the heart is damaged, it can be studied with
ECG (electrocardiograph)
The P wave is the
atrium
T - wave is for
repolarization
How long does the heart cycle last
0.8 seconds
during the heart cycle (.8 seconds) how long does heart relax? and what is it called
0.4 sec
diastole
QRS wave is for the
ventricles
during the heart cycle (.8 seconds) how long does the atria contract and what is it called
0.1 second (systole)
during the heart cycle (.8 seconds) how long does the ventricles contract and what is it called
0.3 seconds (systole)
during the heart cycle (.8 seconds) , what is the most important part?
systole (ventricles contract)
do the atria and ventricles pump at the same time?
yes
During the capillary exchange, the heart beat creates ____________ in the capillaries
hydrostatic pressure
Capillary exchange --> pressure at the arterial end is _____________ than the venous end by what numbers
greater than

32 vs 15

in Capillary exchange , _______ is the negative force .
albumin
_______ is a protein in yur plasma
albumin
during the capillary exchange more is going out than coming in, ________ fixes it
lymphatic system
In the capillary exchange, pressure forces fluid out into ________________.
Tissue spaces

(which carries the nutrient, ions, etc)

if pressure drops during the cap. exchange,
fluid will not move out properly
f pressure is too high during the cap. exchange,
the vessel could rupture
Albumin in blood creates _____________.
osmotic pressure (22mm Hg)
what is aword that means "swelling"
adema
_____________ picks up excess fluid, and transports it back to the blood
lymphatic system
Lymphatic system has lots of
lymphatic vessels
blood is composed of 2 things
Plasma 55%
Cellular elements 45%
In plasma, what has the function as a solvent for carrying other substances
water
In plasma, names the 6 ions that act as an osmotic balance, pH buffering, and regulation of the membrane
sodium
potassium
calcium
magnesium
chloride
bicarbonate








In plasma, there are 3 proteins. Which one acts as an osmotic balance and pH buffering
albumin
In plasma, there are 3 proteins. Which one clots
fibrinogen
In plasma, there are 3 proteins. Which one is used for a defense
antibodies
plasma make what percent of blood
55
cellular elements make up what percent of blood
45
3 things that make up cellular elemts in the blood
RBC
WBC
Platelets

What is the disease of heart and blood vessels (half of the deaths in the US)
cardiovascular disease
heart attacks is cause by
thrombus or embolus
what is a blood clot in the vessel called (in heart)
thrombus
what is a blood clot that forms then moves
embolus
if thrombus and embolus blocks coronary artery =
heart attack
if thrombus and embolus blocks artery to brain =
stroke
this means "brain deprived from oxygen"
ischemic
If you spill blood out of veins and it clots =
hemorrhagic
restriction of diameter of arteries through the accumulation of fatty plaques (bc of your diet)
atherosclerosis
plaque in veins become harden by __________
calcium
high blood pressure = breaking of the capillaries = ?
hypertension
if you have high blood pressure (=hypertension), you could have
high cholesterol
What are 4 things that causes high blood pressure
genetic
smoking
lack of exercise
high animal fat in diet


gas exchange is called ____________
respiration
What are the two sources of oxygen that are respiratory mediums
air and water
What is the name of the gas exchange that is skin breathing (earthworms, some amphibians)
cutaneous gas exchange
Cutaneous gas exchange allows skin to be moist for _____________ of gases
diffusion
In cutaneous gas exchange, blood flows through ________ in skin
blood vessels
Name the 4 organs of gas exchange
1cutaneous gas exchange
2.gills
3.tracheae
4.lungs


what is the tiny air holes throughout the insect's body which allows for gases directly with cells
tracheae
T or F : Lung are bloody
true
what is an internal sac used for gas exchange
lungs
Pharynx is the
throat
What is the opening to the trachea
glottis
________ leads to the larynx
glottis
Voice box, adam's apple, wall of cart. , contains vocal cords

that is all called the

larynx
the wind pipe
(which has rings of cart to keep it open)
trachea
forks of trachea that leads into a smaller bronchioles
bronchi
What is the sac closely related to the capillaries ( look liek a grap cluster)
alveoli
Where is the actual site of gas exchange (o2 in, co2 out)
alveoli
This makes up the majority of the lung tissue
alveoli
Around each alveoli sac is a ________________
capillary bed
lungs are located in what cavity
thoracic
Another for ventilation is
breathing
when air moves in it is called INHALATION .... what is another word for it
inspiration
During inhalation, what moves down, so the rib cage can expand
diaphragm
during inhalation, volume of the chest cavity ____________ and the pressure of the lungs __________.
increases
decreases
air SUCKED into lungs = ?
bulk flow mechanism
inhalation creates ______ pressure
neg.
When air moves out , it is called exhalation... wat is another name for it
expiration
During exhalation, the _______ moves up (relaxes) and the rib muscles relax
diaphragm
during exhalation, the volume of the chest cavity is ____________
decreased
exhalation creates ______ pressure in the lungs relative to the outside
positive
brains regions are called (2 things)
pons
medulla oblongata
The pons and medulla oblongata contain the
respiratory center (=nervous system regulation)
__________ send impulses to diaphragm and rib muscles which leads to a ___________.
respiratory centers
contraction
Respiratory centers are sensitive to ______ in body fluids (rel. to CO2 levels)
pH levels
When running and breathing hard... it is due to a decrease in _____________
pH levels

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