## Glossary of Big Exam

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- Reciprocal Determinism
- Social learning theorists.

An interactive triad of the person, his/her bx, and the environment regulate the individual's bx.

- Autonomic Nervous System
- Controls automatic or involuntary bodily functions of the smooth muscles and glands, including digestion, heart rate, and breathing. Primary function is to maintain HOMEOSTASIS. Divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.

- Spinal Cord Divisions
- Thoracic = C1-C7

Lumber = T1-T12

Sacral = S1

- Quadriplegia
- Severing between C1 and C5

(all 4 limbs)

- Paraplegia
- Severing at C6 or C7

(paralysis in the legs and partial paralysis of the arms)

Severing at T1 or lower

(paralysis in the legs)

- Gerstmann's Syndrome
- Lesions of the dominant parietal lobe and results in agraphia, acalculia, right-left disorientation, and finger agnosia.

- Thalamus
- Major sensory relay center.

Receives input from all senses except olfaction.

Critical in the perception of pain.

Abnormalities have been linked to schizophrenia.

- Limbic System
- Hypothalamus, Hippocampus, Amygdala, Septum, parts of the Thalamus, and parts of the Frontal and Temporal Lobes.

Involved with emotional bx, particularly aggression.

- Amygdala
- Stimulating increases aggression.

Removal resulst in placidity, apathy, hyperphagia, hypersexuality, and agnosias.

- Septum
- Moderating effect on aggression.

Damage can result in rage.

- Kluver-Bucy Syndrome
- Damage or removal of the amygdala that results in placidity, apathy, hyperphagia, hypersexuality, and agnosias.

- Classical Neurotransmitters
- Acetylcholine, the Catecholamines, Serotonin, and the Amino Acids.

- Acetylcholine
- Most common NT.

Voluntary movement and memory and cognition.

Prevalent in hippocampus.

Deficiency involved in Alzheimer's.

- Catecholamines
- Dopamine and Norepinephrine.

Synthesized from dietary tyrosine and phenylalanine.

- Norephinephrine
- Noradrenaline

Involved in mood, pain perception, and sleep.

- Catecholamine Hypothesis of Affective Disorders
- Depression is associated with a relative deficiency of catecholamines, especially norepinephrine, while mania is associated with a relative excess of catecholamines.

- Permissive Hypothesis of Serotonin Functioning
- A deficiency in serotonin permits the expression of affective disorders, but it is not sufficient in and of itself. Both mania and depression are characterized by low levels of serotonin, but differ in terms of high versus low norepinephrine.

- Addison's Disease
- Undersecretion of corticosteroids, or adrenal insufficiency, with sx of apathy, weakness, irritability, depression, and GI disturbance.

- Cushing's Disease
- Oversecretion of corticosteroids (adrenal cortex) with sx of agitated depression, irritability and emotional lability, difficulties with memory and concentration, and even suicide. Adiposity (swelling and fattening) of the face, neck, and trunk.

- Apraxia
- Inability to carry out purposeful motor movements. Left-brain lesion.

- Dementia
- MEMORY PLUS

Impairment in memory plus at least one of the following four conditions:

aphasia

apraxia

agnosia

disturbance in executive functioning

- Postconcussion Syndrome
- headache, dizziness, fatigue, diminished concentration, memory deficit, irritability, anxiety, insomnia, hypochondriacal concern, hypersensitivity to noise, and photophobia.

MOST COMMON: IRRITABILITY, FATIGUE, HEADACHE, DIZZINESS

- Delirium
- Acute onset and fluctuating course, clouded sensorium, and most likely reversable.

- Sleep Stages
- 1 = little alpha, predominance of theta

2 = spindles (greatest amount of time)

3 and 4 = delta (hard to awaken)

REM = EEG patterns of stage 1 with rapid eye movement

- Generalized Seizures
- Tonic Clonic (Grand Mal)

Petit Mal (absence)

- Partial Seizures
- Simple Partial (focal are of brain only)

Jacksonian (initially localized w/ spread to adjacent areas)

Complex Partial (aura, purposeless bx, lip smacking, unintelligible speech)

- General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
- Hans Selye

Response to severe stress.

Alarm

Resistance

Exhaustion

- Chlorpromazine
- Thorzine (traditional antipsychotic)

- Prolixin
- Fluphenazine (traditional antipsychotic)

- Stelazine
- Trifluoperazine (traditional antipsychotic)

- Haldol
- haloperidol (traditional antipsychotic)

- Navane
- thiothixene (traditional antipsychotic)

- Mellaril
- thioridazine (traditional antipsychotic)

- Clozaril
- clozapine (novel antipsychotic)

- Risperdal
- risperidone (novel antipsychotic)

- Zyprexa
- olanzapine (novel antipsychotic)

- Seroquel
- quetiapine (novel antipsychotic)

- Extrapyramidal Sx (EPS)
- Movement-related sx which are the most potentially damaging side effects of antipsychotics.

Dystonia (muscle spasms of neck, back, tongue, eyes or larynx)

Parkinsonism (mask like face, shuffle)

Akathisia

Treated with anticholinergic agents (Cogentin, Artane)

**Risperdal and Zyprexa do not cause.

- Elavil
- amitryptyline (TCA)

- Anafranil
- clomipramine (TCA)

- Tofranil
- imipramine (TCA)

- Prozac
- fluoxetine (SSRI)

- Zoloft
- sertraline (SSRI)

- Paxil
- paroxetine (SSRI)

- Nardil
- phenelzine (MAOI)

- Parnate
- tranylcypromine (MAOI)

- Wellbutrin
- bupropion (other)

- Xanax
- alprazolam (anxiolytic)

- Klonopin
- clonazepam (anxiolytic)

- Valium
- diazepam (anxiolytic)

- Ativan
- lorazepam (anxiolytic)

- Restoril
- temazepam (sed/hyp)

- Halcion
- triazolam (sed/hyp)

- Ambien
- zolpidem (sed/hyp)

- Tegretol
- carbamazapine (anticonvulsant)

- Neurontin
- gabapentin (anticonvulsant)

- Depakote
- divalproex (anticonvulsant)

- Dexedrine
- dextroamphetamine (stimulant)

- Ritalin
- methylphenidate (stimulant)

- Malpractice Lawsuit
- Dereliction of Duty Directly causing Damages

- Preamble of Ethics Code
- Goals are "the welfare and protection of the individuals and groups with who psychologists work," as well as "the education of members, students, and the public regarding ethical standards of the discipline."

- Consultation
- Somewhat familiar with treating a particular disorder but not an expert in that area or concerns about remaining objective.

- Supervision
- Applying a newly learned technique or beginning work with a specialized population.

- Training
- Unfamiliar with a certain area of knowledge.

- Referring Out
- therapist's personal beliefs interfer with the therapy, client feels uncomfortable with therapist, or therapist lacks competence in treating the presenting problem.

- Statements by Others
- Psychologists retain responsibility for public statements even when they hire someone to promote them or their practice. Must prevent others from making deceptive statements and correct them when possible. Prohibited to compensate a media employee for publicity. When paid ads are used, must be identified.

- In Person Solicitation
- Prohibited when people are vulnerable to undue influence.

- Payments and Fee-Splitting
- Must be based on services provided. May never pay another professional for a referral.

- Student Disclosure of Information
- Prohibited unless it is necessary to help students who are having personal problems that interfere with clinical work or pose a risk of harm.

- Professional Psychologists
- Doctoral degree in psychology from an organized, sequential program in a regionally accredited university or professional school.

- Records
- Full Record = 3 years after tx complete

Full Record or Summary = 12 years

Dispose of no earlier than 15 years after tx complete.

- Buckley Amendment
- FERPA

Protects the privacy of student records in higher education institutions.

- Right of Accounting
- Patients have the right to recieve an accounting of all the disclosures of their PHI for the past 6 years.

- Griggs Versus Duke Power Company
- I/O Case affected the issue of testing in the workplace. Tests that measured broad abilities, in which minorities passed at lower rates, were unfair to use to make decisions of hiring and promotion. **Tests must measure skills necessary for a particular job.

- Adverse Impact
- 4/5ths Rule

Percentage of minorities selected must be at least 4/5ths of the percentage of nonminorities selected.

(selection rate of nonminorities x .8)

- Unfairness
- Minorities and nonminorities score differently on the predictor test yet perform similarly on the criterion. (2 parallel lines)

- Differential Validity
- Significantly different criterion-related validity coefficients for different ethnic groups on the same test. More valid for predicting performance of one group than another.

**Actually rarely occurs. Result of low sample size.

- Critical Incident Technique
- Method of obtaining data for a job analysis. Involves ascertaining the specific actions that lead to desirable or undesirable consequences on the job.

- Multiple Regression Approach
- Selection Procedure

Compensatory Technique

Low scores on one predictor can be compensated for by high scores on another predictor.

- Multiple Cutoff
- Selection Procedure

Noncompensatory Technique

Only applicants who meet or exceed the cutoff on each of the predictors will be considered.

- Multiple Hurdle
- Selection Procedure

Noncompensatory Technique

The predictors are applied in a particular order, and an applicant must pass the cutoff score on the first predictor in order to continue on in the selection process.

**Efficient and Cost Effective

- BARS (Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales)
- Evaluation method where behavioral anchors are based on critical incidents.

Problem = Scale development is expensive and time consuming, scales do not tend to measure actual day to day activities, but rather hypothetical situations.

- Training and Individual Differences
- Overall, training does not always equalize differences in ability; it may actually magnify them.

- Holland's Personality-Job Fit Theory
- Individuals and job traits can be matched and close matches will correlate with job success and satisfaction. (RIASEC)

- Congruence
- Holland

Degree of match between the personality type and the work environment.

High = Longevity at the job

- Consistency
- Holland

How closely related an individual's first two code letters are on the hexagon.

Higher = stability in work hx

- Differentiation
- Holland

Distinctness of a profile.

(the more an individual is represented by one personality type, the more distinct)

- Environmental Identity
- Holland

Individual's view that the work environment has a clear and stable system of goals and rewards.

- Vocational Identity
- Holland

Clarity and stability of an individual's own goals and interests.

High = Make decisions more easily and with greater confidence

- Super's Life/Career Rainbow
- Career decision making involves a range of changes and decisions from career entry to retirement (developmental).

Growth (to 14)

Exploratory (15-24)

Establishment (25-44)

Maintenance (45-64)

Decline/Disengagement (65+)

**Career patterns are determined by SES, abilities, personal characteristics, and opportunities.

**life roles

**Express self-concept through vocation

- Krumboltz's Social Learning Theory
- (developmental)

Career development is based on social learning, environmental conditions and events, genetic influences, and learning experiences.

**Choose career based on what you have learned through modeling and reinforcement.

- Tiedeman and O'Hara's Theory of Career Development
- Differentiation = distinctions about different aspects of oneself and environment.

Integration = unifying different aspects which results in better decision making, more refined goals, and more useful plans.

- Schein's Career Anchor Theory
- Person's self-concept acts as an anchor, or stabilizing force, determining what future occupational decisions will be made.

- Cognitive Resource Theory
- (Leadership)

Looks at whether directive vs. nondirective leadership style will be more effective depending on the cognitive resources of the employees as well as stress levels, experience of leader, and group support for leader.

- Vroom and Yetton's Normative Model
- (Leadership)

Decision Making

Extent to which leaders allow their subordinates to participate in making decisions.

- House's Path-Goal Theory
- (Leadership)

Recommends that the leader increase personal payoffs for subordinates and make the paths to the payoffs easier by clarifying and reducing roadblocks.

- Hersey and Blanchard's Situational Leadership
- (Leadership)

Employees' Readiness to Perform

If not ready, tell them what to do.

If more ready, need less task orientation.

(Telling, Selling, Participating, and Delegating)

- Most Important Reason for Complying with a Manager's Request
- Presence of the combination of expert and referent power (incremental power).

- Rational-Economic Model
- (classical approach)

Involves basing decisions on a clear definition of the problem, knowing all possible alternatives and consequences of choices, and then choosing the optimum solution.

- Administrative Approach
- (behavioral) (satisficing style)

Herbert Simon

Used when problems are ambiguous, only partial knowledge is available, and the first satisfactory alternative is chosen.

- Job Enrichment
- Giving employees a greater role in planning and performing their work (opportunity for satisfiers)

"Vertical Loading"

=increased satisfaction and performance, decreased turnover, and decreased absenteeism

- Job Enlargement
- Expands the variety of tasks the employee performs without increasing responsibility or autonomy.

"Horizontal Loading"

=Increased satisfaction and only slightly affects job performance

- Alderfer's ERG Theory
- Divides needs into those based on existence, relatedness, and growth. All needs may influence at the same time. If person is frustrated, will move towards a previously met need. Satisfying a need may make the need even stronger.

- McClelland's Acquired Needs Theory
- TAT to measure needs.

nACH - need for achievement

nAFF - need for affiliation

nPOWER - need for power

*Needs are acquired over time.

**People can be trained to think more like high nACH people.

- General Expectancy Theory/Vroom's Valence-Instrumentality-Expectancy (VIE)Theory
- People behave in ways that are based on their perceived expectancy that certain rewards will follow.

Expectancy = success on the task

Instrumentality = rewards

Valence = value of rewards to person

- Adam's Equity Theory
- Ratio of self-inputs/self outcomes vs. others' inputs/outcomes. Based on Social Comparison Theory.

- Locke's Goal Setting Approach
- 1 - goals should be specific

2 - goals should be of intermediate to high level of difficulty

3 - workers must receive feedback

4 - a sense of self-efficacy will increase performance

5 - employees must accept the goals**

- Organizational Development
- Focuses on total organizational change and on systematic ways to bring about planned change.

- Stages of Group Development
- Forming

Storming

Norming

Performing

Adjourning

- Ideal Group Size for Decision Making
- 5 or 7

- Implosive Therapy
- Stampfl

Conducted in imagination only. After the pt. is exposed to the feared object in imagination, the therapist interprets possible psychosexual themes.

- Self-Control Procedures
- Self-Reinforcement

Self-Monitoring (detailed record of what one does)

Stimulus Control (narrowing the range of stimuli that elicit a particular bx)

- Overcorrection
- Type of punishment that involves restitution or reparation, as well as physical guidance.

- Kohler
- Insight studies with chimps.

- Tolman
- Latent Learning

- Ellis - Rational Emotive Therapy
- Approaches problems in a direct and straight forward way by convincing pts of their irrationality.

Irrational Beliefs

ABC Model (Activating event, Belief, Consequence)

Direct Instruction, Persuasion, and Logical Disputation

Active and Confrontative

- Beck - Cognitive Therapy
- Empirical hypothesis testing as a means of changing existing beliefs.

Socratic Questioning (collaborative)

Psych sx result from maladaptive thoughts (automatic and very often occur outside of cs awareness)

Logical Errors, Faulty Conceptions, Self Signals

*Depression results from a maladaptive cognitive triad.

**Goal = identify and test negative cognitions, to develop more flexible schemas, and to rehearse new cog and bx responses.

- Meichenbaum - Cognitive Bx Modification
- Self-Instruction Therapy

Stress Inoculation Training

**focus on "self-statements"

Collaboration

Socratic Style

- Self-Instruction Therapy
- Meichenbaum

Combines modeling and graduated practice with ret to help pts that have problems with taks completion.

1. Therapist Modeling 2. Therapist Verbalization 3. Pt Verbalization

4. Pt Silently Talks Through the Task

5. Independent Task Performance

**ADHD

- Stress Inoculation Training
- Meichenbaum

**PTSD

Bolstering of pt.'s repertoire of coping responses to milder stressors can decrease susceptibility to more severe stress.

- Rehm - Self Control Model of Depression
- Depression is a result of negative self-evaluations, lack of self-reinforcement, and high rates of self-punishment.

- Ego Psychology
- Focus on the ego's capacity for integration and adaptation.

Hartmann

A. Freud

Erikson

- Object Relations Theory
- Deals with capacity to have mutually satisfying interpersonal relationships.

- Neo-Freudians
- Focus on the impact of social and cultural factors in determining personality.

Sullivan

Horney

Fromm

- Sullivan
- Interpersonal Theory

Personality exists only in an emotional exchange between people.

Prototaxic (0-7 mos)-serial sensation

Parataxic (8-11 mos)-sequential sensation

Syntaxic (12 mos-2 yrs)-causal sensation

- Karen Horney
- Neurosis develops from feelings of alienation, basic anxiety, and basic hostility that result from the child's discovery of helplessness in the face of all-powerful, indifferent adults.

Moving Toward, Moving Against, Moving Away

- Erich Fromm
- Marx and Existentialist philosophers

Man's bx results from sociocultural and economic conditions.

Having Mode and Being Mode

- Adler - Individual Psychology
- Striving for superiority and personal competence. Motivated by social (aggressive) drives. Feelings of inferiority that motivate mastery or contribute to neurosis.

Teleological View of Bx

- Systematic Training in Effective Parenting (STEP)
- Adler

Democratic approach to parenting that values and respects the child's contribution. Use natural and logical consequences of bx as the basis of discipline.

- (Adler/Dreikers) Child's Misbx Results From 4 Mistaken Goals
- 1. Attention

2. Control/Power

3. Revenge

4. Desire to be left alone

- Rogers - Client Centered Therapy
- Incongruence/Congruence

Pathology is due to incongruence between the self and experience.

Phenomenal Self

Focus=Clarifying feelings without judging or elaborating upon them.

Empathy, Warmth, Genuineness

- Perls - Gestalt Therapy
- People structure experiences as whole, integrated organisms, not in cognitive or affective fragments. (figure and ground)

Focus=Becoming aware of whole personality by discovering those aspects of self that are blocked from awareness. INTEGRATION

- Glasser - Reality Therapy
- Responsibility

Focuses on clarifying pt values and helping pt to evaluate current bx and plans in relation to these values.

Key Element=Control Theory

(juvenile delinquents and prison inmates)

- Berne - Transactional Analysis
- Goal is for pt to become aware of the intent behind their communication and to eliminate deceit so that pt can interpret their own bx accuately.

Ego States, Transactions, Games, Strokes, Life Scripts

- Thermal Biofeedback vs. EMG Biofeedback
- EMG is more effective for tension headaches as compared to thermal for migraines.

- Prochaska's Transtheoretical Model of Bx Change
- Precontemplation

Contemplation

Preparation

Action

Maintenance

**Motivational Interviewing is an enhancement of this

- 5 Factor Theory of Personality
- Costa and McCrae

Openness to experience

Conscientiousness

Extroversion

Agreeableness

Neuroticism

- General Systems Theory
- Homeostasis

- Cybernetics
- Circular nature of feedback loops.

Negative Feedback Loop-decrease deviation

Positive Feedback Loop-increase deviation

- Psychodynamic Family Therapy
- Facilitation of individual maturation in the context of the family system.

Marital Schism

Marital Skew

- Object Relations Family Therapy
- Framo

Focuses on transferences and projections between couples of family members.

- Structural Family Therapy
- Minuchin

Family is viewed as a single, interrelated system, which is assessed according to hierarchy of power, clarity and firmness of boundaries, and significant alliances and splits.

Rigid Triads: Triangulation, Detouring, Stable Coalition

Tx=Taking Sides, Blaming, Forming Coalitions

- Communications Family Therapy - MRI
- Satir, Watzlawick, Bateson, Jackson, Haley

Double Bind

Addresses communication problems using indirect (paradoxical intervention) and direct (teaching and pointing out) techniques.

- Strategic Family Therapy
- Haley

Views family's presenting problem and sx as a communicative act.

Tx=resolving presenting problem only (defined by bx objectives and techniques)

Focus=interrupting rigid feedback cycle and defining a clearer heirarchy (paradoxical interventions)

- Milan Group - Systematic Family Therapy
- Circular questioning and prescription of rituals

- Family Systems Theory
- Bowen

Genograms

Goal=personal differentiation from the family-of-origin, the ability to be one's true self in the face of familial or other pressures that threaten loss of love or social position.

Emotional Triangle=closeness of 2 members excludes a third.

- Solution Focused Therapy
- Steve de Shazer

Very brief

Miracle Question

Exception Question

Scaling Question

- Narrative Therapy
- Michael White

Sx do not serve functions, but rather they oppress people.

Goal=help pt "re-story" by casting difficulties as a struggle for control with a sx.

- Behavioral Family Therapy
- Normal family functioning results when adaptive bx is rewarded, maladaptive bx is not reinforced, and the benefits of being a member of the family outweigh the costs.

**In troubled families, maladaptive bx is reinforced by family attention.

Tx=concrete, oberservable behavioral goals.

- Cognitive Behavioral Family Therapy
- Relationship related cognitions are seen as the underlying cause of feelings and bx of family members.

- Ideal Group Composition
- Heterogeneous in terms of conflict

Homogeneous in terms of ego strength

7 or 8 members

range of 5 to 10

- Eysenck Meta-Analysis
- 2/3 of all neurotics improved over a 2 year period whether or not they received tx.

Also noted that treated people seemed to do worse than non-treated people.

- Average Effect Size of Tx
- .85

- Improvement by 8th Session
- 50% of patients are measurably improved

- Improvement by End of Six Months
- 75% of patients were measurably improved.

- Seligman Effectiveness Study
- 90% of treated pts doing well

long-term tx yielded better outcomes

- True Experimental Research
- At least 1 IV is manipulated

Subjects randomly assigned

- Quasi-Experimental Research
- At lease 1 IV is manipulated

Non-random assignment (pre-existing groups)

- Observational, Passive, or Non-experimental Research
- No intervention or manipulation

Sometimes called "correlational"

- Between Groups Design
- Independent Data

- Within Subjects Design
- Correlated Dat

-matched

-repeated measures

-inherent relationship

- Counterbalancing
- Used to deal with carryover effects inherent in repeated measures.

Latin Square

- Mixed Design
- Both independent and correlated groups.

- Single Subject Design
- Idiographic

AB, ABAB, Multiple Baseline, Simultaneous Tx, and Changing Criterion

**Problem=Autocorrelation

- Group Subject Design
- Nomothetic

- AB Design
- A baseline condition is followed by a tx condition.

**Threat=History

- ABAB Design
- Baseline and tx conditions are alternationed: tx, baseline, tx, baseline

**Protects against treat of history

**Problems=failure of IV to return to baseline, ethics regarding removal of effective tx

- Multiple Baseline Design
- Tx is applied SEQUENTIALLY or CONSECUTIVELY across subjects, situations, or bx.

Resolves problems associated with AB and ABAB designs, but is more time consuming and $$.

- Changing Criterion Design
- Attempt to change bx in increments to match a changing criterion.

10 cups one day, then 8 the next, and then 6 the third day.

- Time Sampling
- Behavioral Measurement

Useful for bx that is not discrete, thus has no beginning or end.

Momentary

Whole Interval

- Momentary Time Sampling
- Observer records whether target bx is present or absent at the moment the time interval ends.

- Whole-Interval Sampling
- Scoring target bx positively only if it is exhibited for the full duration of the time interval.

- Event Recording
- Tallying the number of times the target bx occurred.

Useful for a target bx that is discrete and occurs infrequently.

- Simple Random Sampling
- Every member of the population has an equal chance of being randomly selected.

- Stratified Random Sampling
- Population divided into strata and then a random sample of equal size of each strata is selected.

(ex. divide into various SES levels and then select equal numbers from each SES)

- Proportional Sampling
- Subjects randomaly selected in proportion to their representation in the general population.

- Systematic Sampling
- Selecting every kth element after a random start. (ex. every 10th person is selected)

- Cluster Sampling
- Identifying naturally occurring groups of subjects and randomly selecting certain clusters. (schools in school district - randomly select 10 schools)

- Threats to Internal Validity
- Factors other than the IV that may have caused the change in the DV.

History (Control Group)

Maturation (Control Group)

Testing Practice (Solomon Four Group Design)

Instrumentation (Control Group)

Statistical Regression (Control Group)

Selection Bias (Random Assignment)

Attrition

Diffusion (tighter control of experiment)

- Solomon Four Group Design
- Helps control for effects of testing practice.

Divide subjects into 4 groups.

One=pre and post test, intervention in between

Two=pre and post test, but no intervention

Three=intervention and post

Four=pre and intervention

- Threats to Construct Validity
- Refers to factors other than the desired specifics of intervention that result in differences.

Attention and Contact w/ Subjects

Experimenter Expectancies (Rosenthal Effect) (Blind Experimenter)

Demand Characteristics (Blind Subjects)

John Henry Effects (groups should not know about each other)

- Threats to External Validity
- Whether results can be generalized from sample studied to the population.

Sample Characteristics

Stimulus Characteristics

Contextual Characteristics (Reactivity - Hawthorne Effect)

- Reactivity
- When subjects behave in a particular way just because they are participating in research and being observed (Hawthorne Effect).

Threat to External Validity

- Threats to Statistical Conclusion Validity
- Low Power

Unreliability of Measures

Variability in Procedures

Subject Heterogeneity

- Low Power
- Diminished ability to find significant results.

Small Sample Size

Inadequate Interventions

- The Greater the Internal Validity
- The Lower the External Validity

- Best Measure of Central Tendency
- Mean

**Median when data is skewed or extreme scores are present

- Variance
- standard deviation squared

- Positive Skew
- Higher proportion of scores in lower range of values (peak near y axis)

Mode, Median, Mean

- Negative Skew
- Higher proportion of scores in the higher range of values.

Peak far from the y axis.

Mean, Median, Mode

- Leptokurtotic
- Very sharp peak

- Platykurtotic
- flattened distribution

- Percentage Correct
- Criterion-referenced Score

Domain-referenced Score

- Percentile Rank
- How person scored relative to group.

Norm-referenced Score

- Standard Scores
- Based on SD of sample.

Z-scores

t-scores

IQ scores

SAT scores

EPPP scores

**Z-scores are most basic and correspond directly to SD (mean=0, SD=1) Always identical to raw score distribution.

- Percentile Ranks
- 50

84

97.5

99.9

**If points are added to 2 people in distribution, there will be a greater change in rank for person at mid-range as opposed to tail.

- Z-score formula
- Z=X-mean/SD

- Raw Score Formula
- X=mean + or - Z(SD)

- Standard Error of the Mean
- Average amount of deviation of a sample mean.

=SDpop/√N

Varies directly with SDpop

Varies indirectly with N

- Region of Unlikely Values
- Rejection Region

At tail end of curve

Unlikely that a researcher will obtain means in this region simply because of chance.

Corresponds to alpha level (when .05, rejection region is 5% of curve).

**When obtained values fall in rejection region, null is rejected, and tx had an effect.

- Type I Error
- Null is incorrectly rejected, i.e., differences were found and they do not exist.

**Size of alpha directly corresponds to the likelihood of making this error.

- Type II Error
- The null is incorrectly accepted, i.e., no differences are found when differences actually do exist.

**Probability of making this error corresponds to beta (inverse relationship w/ alpha).

- Power
- When null is rejected and it turns out to be correct.

Ability to correctly reject the null.

Increased when sample size is large, random error is small, magnitude of intervention is large, statistical test is parametric, and test is one-tailed.

**Power=1-beta. Beta has the most significant and measurable effect on power. As alpha increases, so does power.

- Assumptions for Parametric Tests
- Interval or ration data

Homoscedasticity (similar variability)

Normally distributed data

- Violations of Homoscedasticity
- Okay as long as an equal number of subjects is used in each cell.

- Chi Square
- Test of Difference

Nominal

One IV

2 or more groups

Independent

- Multiple Sample Chi Square
- Test of Difference

Nominal

>one IV

2 or more groups (per IV)

Independent groups

- McNemar
- Test of Difference

Nominal

one or more IV

2 or more groups (per IV)

Correlational

- Kolmogorov
- Test of Difference

1 IV and 1 DV

1 group

independent

ordinal data

- t test single sample
- Test of Difference

1 IV and 1 DV

1 group

independent

I/R data

- t test independent samples
- Test of Difference

1 IV and 1 DV

2 groups

independent

I/R data

- Mann Whitney, Median Test, or Kolmogorov-Smirnov
- Difference

1 IV and 1 DV

2 groups

independent

Ordinal data

- Wilcoxon or Sign Test
- Difference

1 IV and 1 DV

2 groups

correlational

Ordinal data

- t test matched samples
- Difference

1 IV and 1 DV

2 groups

correlational

I/R data

- 1 Way ANOVA
- Difference

1 IV and 1 DV

>2 groups

independent

I/R data

- Kruskall Wallis
- Difference

1 IV and 1 DV

>2 groups

independent

Ordinal data

- 1 Way Repeated Measures ANOVA
- Difference

1 IV and 1 DV

>2 groups

correlational

I/R data

- Friedman
- Difference

1 IV and 1 DV

>2 groups

correlational

Ordinal data

- 2 Way ANOVA or Factorial ANOVA
- Difference

2 IV's

2 groups or more per IV

both IV's - groups independent

I/R data

- Mixed ANOVA or Split Plot ANOVA
- Difference

2 IV's

2 groups or more per IV

1 IV - groups independent

1 IV - groups correlational

I/R data

- Repeated Measures Factorial ANOVA
- Difference

2 IVs

2 groups or more per IV

both IVs-groups correlational

I/R data

- Randomized Block ANOVA
- Difference

2 IVs

2 or more groups per IV

both IVs-groups independent

one blocked

I/R data

***study the effect of a confounding variable

- ANCOVA
- Difference

2 IVs

2 groups or more per IV

with Covariate

independent and/or correlational groups

I/R data

***paritaling out or getting rid of confounding variable

- MANOVA
- Difference

>1 DV

2 groups or more per IV

independent and/or correlational groups

I/R data

- Single Sample Chi-Square Degrees of Freedom
- df=#groups - 1

- Multiple Sample Chi-Square Degrees of Freedom
- df=(#rows-1)x(#columns-1)

- t test single sample degrees of freedom
- df=N-1

- t test for matched or correlated samples degrees of freedom
- df=# pairs-1

- degrees of freedom for t test independent samples
- df=N-2

- degrees of freedom for one way ANOVA
- df total=N-1

df between groups=#groups-1

df within groups=df total-df between groups

- Expected Frequencies in a Chi-Square
- Data in Each Cell:

Sum of the row x Sum of the Column/N

N and Groups are given:

Freq=N/total # of cells

- F Ratio for One Way ANOVA
- =MSbg/MSwg

**When F=1, no significance.

***When F>2, significance.

- Post Hoc that provides most protection from Type I
- Scheffe and Tukey

- Post Hoc that provides most protection from Type II Error (least protection from Type I)
- Fisher's LSD

- Advantage of 2 Way ANOVA
- Not only permits analysis of main effects (significance) for each IV, but also permits analysis of interaction effects.

**When an interaction is significant, main effects must be interpreted with caution. (Interaction must be interpreted first)

- Trend Analysis
- Extension of the ANOVA.

Used to analyze non-linear data such as, doage of drugs, hours of food deprivation, etc.

- Coefficient of Determination
- =correlation coefficient squared

Represents the amount of variability in Y that is shared with, explained by, or accounted for by X.

- Simple Linear Regression Equation
- Derived based on the line of best fit through the scatter plot and is calculated using the least squares criterion.

Regression Equation:

Y=a+bX

- Eta
- Used to calculate the correlation between X and Y when it is thought that X and Y have a curvilinear relationship.

- Pearson r
- Correlation

X and Y=I/R data

- Spearman's Rho or Kendall's Tau
- Correlation

X and Y=ordinal data

- Point-Biserial
- Correlation

X=I/R data

Y=true dichotomy

- Biserial
- Correlation

X=I/R data

Y=artificial dichotomy

- Phi
- Correlation

X and Y=true dichotomies

- Tetrachoric
- Correlation

X and Y=artificial dichotomies

- Partial Correlation
- Examines the relationship between the predictor and the criterion with the effect of a third variable removed.

- Part (Semipartial)Correlation
- Examines the relationship between the predictor and the criterion with the influence of a third variable removed from only one of the original variable.s

- Moderator Variable
- Variable that influences the strength of the relationship between the predictor and the criterion.

- Mediator Variable
- Explaines why there is a relationship between the predictor and the criterion.

- Multiple R
- Correlation

2 or more IVs (at least 1 I/R data)

1 DV (I/R data)