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Glossary of Beahvioral Neuroscience

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Created by mstapleton

Neurotransmitter
Chemical released by a neuron onto a target with an excitatory or inhibitory effect

Synapse
junction between one neuron and another neuron, usually between an end foot of the axon of one neuron and a dendritic spine of the other neuron
Calmodium
protein in which incoming CA2+ binds and the resulting complex takes part in 3 chemical reactions
Synaptic Vesicles
round granule that contains neurotransmitter
Denric Spines
protrusionm usually point of contact with axons, increases its surface area
GABA vs. Glutamate
Inhibitory/ Excitatory to neurons
Metatropic receptors
embedded, no pore, linked to a g-protein, receptor for INDIRECT effect
Transporters
protein molecules that pumps substances across a membrane
Reuptake
Deactivation of a neurotransmitter when membrane transport proteins bring the transmitter back INTO THE PRESYNPATIC axon terminal for subsequent reuse
Small Molecule Transmitter
belongs to a class of quick-acting neurtransmitters synthesized in the axon terminal from products derived from the diet
Rate Limiting Factor
any enzyme that is in limited supply, thus restricting the pace at which a chemical can be synthesized
G-Protein
belongs to a family of gunylnucleotide binding proteins coupled to metatropic receptors that, when activated bind to other proteins

Alpha- detaches when a neuotransmitter binds to the G-protein

Diffusion
Away from the synaptic cleft
Degradation
by enzymes in the synaptic cleft
Second Messenger
chemical that carries a message to initiate a biochemical process when activated by a neurotransmitter (the first messenger)
Psychoactive drugs
substances that act to altar mood, thought, or behavior and is used to manage neuropsychological illness
Agonist
substances that ENHANCES the function of a synapse
Antagonist
Substance that BLOCKS the function of a synapse
Binge Drinking
drinking enough alcohol to elevate BAC to 0.08g% with a 2 hour period

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