Glossary of BVI, WVII
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- what is the value of the pleural pressure during normal respiration?
- which bronchus is more inline with the trachea and is therefore more susceptible to aspiration bodies?
- Right main bronchus
- what type of epithelium is found in the bronchus?
- pseudostratified, ciliated epithelium
- what type of epithelium is found in the bronchiole?
- simple columnar, ciliated
- define deadspace
- the area in the respiratory system where there is no gas exchange
- give an example of a disease in which there is increased physiological deadspace
- which type of alveolar cells secrete surfactant?
- Type II alveolar cells
- major component of surfactant?
- function of surfactant?
- decreases surface tension, thereby preventing alveolar collapse
(also decreases intra-alveolar fluid accumulations)
- at what point in respiration is the resistance of the lung the least?
- when the lung is fully inflated (at the end of inspiration)
- what happens to resistance as lung volume decreases (expiration)?
- resistance becomes greater
- give an example of a lung disease that is significantly effected by dynamic closure.
(high pressures move equilibratory point down to an area where the airway is collapsible. collapsible airways cause wheezing (or even collapse) upon respiration.
- at which week of gestation does formation of the respiratory tract begin?
- week four
- when does alveolar development:
- 1. 34 weeks gestation
2. two years of age
- what are Clara cells?
- non-ciliated cells that accumulate and detoxify some agents
- what are Kulchitsky cells?
- neuroedocrine cells
*secrete vasoactive amines and hormonally active polypeptides*
- chronic irritation causes the epithelium of the lung to change from ? to ?
- columnar (simple or pseudostratified) to squamous
- what is the Reid index?
- ratio of the thickness of the mucous glands to the thickness of the bronchial wall.
- what is an example of when the Reid index would be increased?
- chronic bronchitis
- T/F: cartilage and mucous secreting glands are found in the BRONCHIOLES
- what cells are found in the bronchioles?
- non-ciliated Clara cells
* clearance of airborne particles is difficult in the bronchioles due to the lack of ciliated cells*
- the respiratory unit of the lung is known as ?
- an acinus
- what lung components make up an acinus?
- respiratory bronchioles
- what type of membrane is found between the alveoli?
- fused basement membrane
- a congenital abnormality of the lung in which incomplete or defective development occurs is called?
- pulmonary hypoplasia
- what is an example of compression of the lung that results in pulmonary hypoplasia?
- diaphragmatic hernia
- what is another important cause of pulmonary hypoplasia?
- what is the difference between intra- and extra- lobular sequestration?
- 1. intralobular occurs within the visceral plerua
2. extralobular occurs outside of the visceral pleura
- diseases that present with hoarsness or voice changes are most likely diseases of?
- the larynx
- which type of reactive lesion of the larynx is caused by HPV?
- squamous papilloma
rarely progresses to cancer
- 95% of laryngeal carcinomas are of what type?
- squamous cell carcinomas
- most squamous cell carcinomas of the larynx are caused by?
- irritation (esp. tobacco smoke)
- infections seen in the bronchi and bronchioles are most common in what age group?
- what is the significance of a smoker who inhales irritant gases?
- many are oxidants and compound the chronic exposure to tobacco smoke
- effects of ozone on airways?
- makes airways more reactive and exacerbates asthma and other lung diseases
- which irritant gas is found in industrial environments or decaying grain?
- nitrogen dioxide
- why is carbon monoxide so lethal?
- binds hemoglobin, preventing oxygen biding and transport
- inert matter (that may be smaller than vision allows) can cause diseases of the bronchi and bronchioles. what is another name for this matter?
- particulate matter
- a nonspecific granulomatous response in the bronchial tree is known as?
- bronchocentric granulomatosis
- what organism is known to cause bronchocentric granulomatosis in asthmatic patients?
- constrictive bronchiolitis involves constriction from?
- submucosal thickening of bronchiolar wall
- constrictive bronchiolitis will produce what pattern of lung disease?
- obstructive pattern
- what is bronchiectasis?
- chronic necrotizing infection of the bronchi and bronchioles leading to abnormal permanent dilatation.
- from what do most lung tumors arise?
- bronchial epithelium
- what happens after prolonged atelectasis?
- fibrotic scarring of the lung occurs
- describe what happens in resorptive/obstructive atelectasis
- *caused by an obstruction or mucous plug of bronchus
*residual air is resorbed and the lung collapses distal to the obstruction
- when the pleural cavity is filled with fluid or air, what type of atelectasis may occur?
- compression atelectasis
- which type of atelectasis is generally irreversible and what causes it?
- contraction atelectasis
*occurs when scarring and contraction of the pleura prevents lung expansion
- fluid within the alveoli is known as?
- pulmonary edema
- what type of fluid is usually in the alveoli in pulmonary edema?
- what am I called?
rapid onset of severe, life threatning respiratory insufficiency, tachy, cyanosis, severe arterial hypoxemia that is refractory to oxygen therapy?
adult respiratory distress syndrome
- mortality rate of ARDS?
- pathogenesis of ARDS?
- 1. initial lesion is damage to alveolar wall
2. followed by vascular leakage, cell sloughing, edema, hyaline membrane formation, atelectasis
3. PROTEINACEOUS fluid accumulation is important in pathogenesis
4. compliment and cytokines play critical roles
5. Type II cell proliferation and interstitial inflammation, organization, fibrosis
6. fibrosis may resolve or death may result
- what is the most common cause of ARDS?
- respiratory distress syndrome in infants is called?
- hyaline membrane syndrome
- what defines the two stages of ARDS?
- 1. acute stage, cellular
2. organization stage, fibrosis
- how long after the onset of the acute stage does the organization stage of ARDS begin?
- obstructive lung disease is caused by?
- increased resistance to airflow from partial or complete obstruction at any level.
- restrictive lung disease is caused by?
- reduced capacity of lung due to decreased expansion of parenchyma
- which disease type is known as a volume/capacity disease?
- restrictive lung disease
- which disease is known as an airway disease?
- obstructive lung disease
- chronic bronchitis is what type of lung disease?
- asthma is what type of lung disease?
- ARDS is what type of lung disease?
(hyaline alveolar membranes)
- bronchiolitis is what type of lung disease?
- pneumoconiosus is what type of lung disease?
- interstitial/infiltrative lung disease is what type of lung disease?
- bronchiectasis is what type of lung disease?
- what is the major clinical symptom seen in obstructive lung disease?
- what type of "chest" is seen in a COPD patient?
- barrel chest
- what are the three major components of COPD?
- 1. emphysema
2. chronic bronchitis
3. small airway obstruction
- what difference in the PFT would you see in a person with COPD?
- decrease in FEV
- what is panacinar emphysema?
- emphysema involving the entire acinus from the respiratory bronchioles to the terminal acinus
- describe centrolobular emphysema
- emphysema involving the respiratory bronchiole only
(the terminal acinus is normal)
- where in the lung is centrolobular emphysema the worst?
- upper lobes
- where is paraseptal emphysema located?
- along the pleura and perilobular space
- what is bullous emphysema?
- any form of emphysema resulting in air spaces over 1cm.
- describe senile emphysema
- larger ducts and smaller acini; seen with aging; elasticity is normal
- which type of emphysema is seen in a-1-antitrypsin deficiency?
- which type of emphysema is most common in smokers with chronic bronchitis?
- which organ makes alpha-1-antitrypsin?
- function of a-1-antitrypsin?
- protects alveoli from destruction by inflammatory cell proteinases (trypsin, elastase)
- what is a major source of elastase seen in the pathogenesis of emphysema?
- chronically irritated neutrophils and macrophages
- changes seen in a PFT with emphysema? (3)
- 1. decreased FEV1
2. decreased FVC
3. increased RV
- a persistent cough with sputum production for at least 3 months in two years is known as?
- chronic bronchitis
- what would the Reid index be in a patient with chronic bronchitis?
(more mucous and serous glands)
- in severe cases of chronic bronchitis there may be obliteration of the bronchial lumen, also known as?
- bronchiolitis obliterans
- In COPD, when is a person called a "blue bloater?"
- when chronic bronchitis symptoms dominate
(also cor pulmonale, obese)
- in COPD, when is a person called a "pink puffer?"
- when empysema symptoms dominate the disease
(thin, pursed lips)
- what side does bronchiectasis most commonly occur on?
- Left side
- avg. age of onset of bronchiectasis?
- first two decades
- in what respiratory disease is bronchiectasis commonly seen?
- what is asthma that is refractory to aggressive treatment called?
- status asthmaticus
(results in death)
- which antibody mediates Type I hypersentivity asthmatic reactions?
- describe the acute phase response in a type I hypersensitivity asthmatic rxn
- antigen exposure, binds to IgE receptor of mast cells
- results in release of mediators (histamine, leukotrienes, prostaglandins, cytokines)from the mast cells
- these mediators trigger bronchiospasm, bronchoconstriction, edema, mucous secretion
- describe the late phase response.
- seen 4-8 hrs. later
- caused by cells recruited in the acute phase (neutrophils, basophils, lymphocytes, eosin.)
- additional mediator release and epithelial cell damage
- which drug is known to trigger asthma (along with triggering nasal polyps)
- what happens in exercise induced asthma?
- physical activity induces bronchospasm
- what causes microvascular pulmonary edema
- usually injury related
- leakage of capillaries within alveoli
- histologically, what is seen in pulmonary edema as a result of heart failure?
- hemosiderin laden macrophages in alveoli
- describe a "saddle" pulmonary embolus
- large thrombus at the bifurcation of the pulmonary artery - cuts off ALL pulmonary circulation. Cause of sudden death.
- describe the symptoms seen in a peripheral embolus
- sudden onset SOB, chest pain, tachycardia
- what is the value that, above it, is called pulmonary hypertension?
- 25mm Hg
- describe the morphology of pulmonary hypertension at the pulmonary artery level.
- - hypertrophy of media of pumlonary arteries
- followed by intimal proliferation and fibrosis
- plexiform lesions form in wall - these lesions dilate
- results in hemorrhage and fibrinoid necrosis of the arteries and arterioles
- what is "pre capillary" pulmonary hypertension?
- increased resistance in pulmonary arteries prior to capillary beds
- causes of precapillary pulmonary hypertension? (3)
- 1. primary pulmonary HTN
2. L to R shunts
3. recurrent pulmonary emboli
- what is "post capillary" pulmonary hypertension?
- increased resistance in post capillary vasculature
- causes of post capillary HTN? (3)
- 1. LV cardiac failure (back up in lungs)
2. mitral stenosis
3. pulmonary veno-occlusive disease
- what type of antibodies are seen in goodpasture's syndrome?
- anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies
- pulmonary manifestations of goodpastures?
- hemorrhagic necrotizing interstitial pneumonia
- what is the triad of symptoms seen in Wegeners Granulomatosis?
- 1. necrotozing angiitis
2. aseptic necrosis/granulomas of lungs and upper respiratory tract
- Goodpastures and Wegeners are collectively known as?
- diffuse Pulmonary Hemorrhagic syndromes
- in relation to restrictive lung diseases, describe the:
1. oxygen diffusing capacity
2. lung volume
- 1. reduced oxygen diffusing capacity
2. reduced lung volume
3. reduced compliance
4. increased elasticity
- what is another name for most restrictive lung diseases?
- interstitial lung disease (due to fibrosis)
- the following disease belong to which class of lung diseases?
usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP)
Desquamative intstitial pneumonitis (DIP)
- Diffuse Interstitial Lung Disease
- of the diffuse interstitial lung diseases, which is the most common type?
- of the diffuse intersitial lung diseases, which has the worst prognosis?
(87% mortality, avg. survival 103 yrs)
- what is the average age of onset of UIP?
- 5th-6th decade
- UIP is also associated with an increased occurance of?
- bronchogenic carcinoma
- which area of lungs is most often involved in UIP?
- base and pleural surface
- In UIP, what is seen histologically?
- heterogenous cellularity and fibrosis
- grossly, what is seen in UIP?
knobby pleural surfaces ("muscular cirrhosis")
- what do we mean when we say temporal heterogeneity is seen in UIP?
- cellular areas alternate with fibrotic areas
- in desquamative interstitial pneumonitis (DIP), what is seen in the alveoli?
- large aggregation of monocytes in alveoli
(also minor interstitial fibrosis)
- what would be seen in an X-ray of a DIP patient?
- ground glass infiltrates
- treatment for DIP?
- which cell type is hyperplastic in DIP?
- type II pneumocytes
- what is bronchiolitis obliterans?
- fibrosing inflammation that occludes the lumen of the small airways
- what is BOOP?
- bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia
- what are some possible etiologies of BOOP?
- 1. infections
5. collagen vascular disease
- which virus is often seen as a cause of BOOP?
- describe the condition of the distal airways as seen in bronchiolitis obliterans
- distal airways are overinflated and/or filled with cellular debris (macrophages, lipids, cholesterol)
- what are some toxins that are known to cause bronchiolitis obliterans? (3)
- 1. nitrogen oxides (silofillers disease)
- T/F: a tumor can cause bronchiolitis obliterans
tumors are considered obstructions that can cause bronchiolitis obliterans
- what causes hypersensitivity pneumonia?
- prolonged exposure to dust allergens
- how is hypersensitivity pneumonia different from asthma?
- the reactive site is the alveolus
(the reactive site in asthma is the airway)
- what type of hypersensitivity rxn. occurs in hypersensitivity pneumonia?
- early: Type III immune-complex rxn
late: type IV hypersensivity response
- describe the histopath seen in hypersensitivity pneumonia
- granulomas frequently seen
if chronic: fibrosis and honeycombing
- what are some allergens that oftentimes lead to hypersensitivity pneumonia?
- bird dander
- how is hypersensitivity pneumonia distinguished from pneumoconiosis?
- hypersens. pneum: allergic reaction varies by individual
pneumoconiosis: all individuals react the same
- treatment for hypersensitivity pneumonia?
removal of allergen if possible
- what causes pneumoconiosis?
- dust inhalation
- what are some factors regarding the inhaled dust that lead to pathogenicity?
- 1. Amount of dust inhaled
2. Size and shape of dust particles
3. solubility and physiochemical properties
4. presence of additional irritants
- what is the most dangerous sized particle?
- 1-5 microns
these are the ones that reach small airways and alveoli
- what happens once the dust is inhaled that causes damage?
- they produce a fibrotic response
- which intrinsic defense mechanism removes inhaled larger particles?
- mucociliary epithelium
- which intrinsic defense mechanism is geared towards the particles that reach the alveoli?
- alveolar macrophages
- what is Caplans syndrome?
- a triad of:
2. rheumatoid arthritis
3. pulmonary rheumatoid nodules
- T/F: coal workers pneumoconiosis is associated with an increased cancer risk
no increased CA risk
- describe the following stages of coal workers pneumoconiosis:
4. progressive massive fibrosis
- 1. aggregates of fibrosis with surrounding emphysema
2. fibrotic (>2.5 cm)
3. more than one lesion; symptomatic
4. end stage; large consolidated area; significant symptoms; RARELY OCCURS WITHOUT CONCURRENT Si OR TOBACCO EXPOSURE
- what are the terminal complications of pulmonary massive fibrosis? (2)
- 1. cor pulmonale
2. RV hypertrophy
- what is the most toxic form of inhaled silica?
- crystalline silica (quartz)
- describe acute silicosis
-rapidly develops, high mortality
-short term, high doses of small particle silica
-diffuse fibrosis of lung; dense eosinophilic material in alveoli
- describe simple nodule (chronic) silicosis
-pulmonary fibrosis WITH collagenous nodules
- concentric collagen bundles surrounding clear needle shaped spaces of silica
- larger particles; longer, lower exposure
- chronic silicosis is associated with an increased risk of?
(at least 30x)
- asbestos causes an increased risk of?
- describe the morphology of asbestosis
- diffuse interstitial fibrosis w/asbestos fibers
- circumscribed, dense, hyalinized or calcified plaques on pleura and diaphragm.
- what is siderosis?
- iron dust exposure
(usually not significant)
- what is the difference between the acute and chronic forms of berylliosis?
- 1. acute - similar to an allergic response, no granulomas
2. chronic - non-caseating granulomas, diffuse interstitial reaction
- which two types of "bodies" are seen in berylliosis?
- 1. Schaumann body (protein, calcium, iron)
2. Asteroid bodies (lipoprotein aggregates in a giant cell)
- what is Loeffers Syndrome?
- transient pulmonary lesions and eosinophilia; probably an allergic reaction
- what is microfilaria?
- when a worm or mite produces an eosinophilic response
- describe the lung involvement seen in Scleroderma
- diffuse fibrosis and vascular thickening
- lung involvement usually the fatal component of the disease
- honeycombed changes
- result of pulmonary vascular intimal thickening seen in scleroderma?
- describe the lung involvement seen in RA
- rheumatoid nodules in lungs (especially pleural and subpleural locations)
- caplan's syndrome
- describe the lung involvement seen in Sjogren's syndrome
- lymphoid infiltrate in peribronchiolar and bronchial glands
- increase in lymphomas
- describe the lung involvement seen in SLE?
- - infections and pleural effusions
- hemorrhage and vasculitis
- describe pulmonary alveolar proteinosis
- protein deposits in alveoli
- few inflammatory cells
- protein is similar to surfactant but without surfactant properties
- thought to be an imbalance of phospholipid production and clearance
- describe the disease course of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis
- 1/3 resolve spontaneously
1/3 improve with pulmonary lavage
1/3 don't respond to any therapy
- stereotypical sarcoid patient?
- adult 20-40 yrs
- sarcoid is characterized by?
- non-caseating granulomas
- bilateral lymphadenopathy with hilar involvement
- besides the lungs, what other organs does sarcoid commonly effect?
- what is Lofgren's syndrome?
- erythema nodosum
- what is Mikulicz' syndrome?
- bilateral sarcoidosis of lacrimal, sublingual, submaxillary, parotid glands
- common histopath seen in sarcoidosis?
- giant cells containing asteroid bodies
- Schaumann bodies
- which type of pulmonary carcinoma makes up >90%?
- bronchogenic carcinoma
- what age average does bronchogenic carcinoma most commonly occur in?
- peak incidence in 6th and 7th decade
(rare before 40 yrs)
- 80% of lung cancers occur in ?
- give an example of radiation that increased rates of lung cancers.
- Uranium miners
Atomic bomb survivors
- 1. 20% of deaths in asbestos workers is due to?
2. 10% of deaths are due to?
- 1. bronchogenic carcinomas
- what gas, found in the ground, is known to induce lung cancer?
- which disease, associated with pulmonary scarring, has increased rates of lung cancer?
- which type of lung carcinoma is the most lethal?
- small cell carcinoma
- what is the important distinction that must be made when trying to figure out the type of lung cancer? why?
- small cell cs. non small cell
treatment differs: small cell considered nonresectable, others can be resected
- where do most bronchogenic carcinomas arise?
- central airways
- where do adenocarcinomas arise?
- terminal bronchioles (Clara cells)
- where do bronchioloalveolar carcinomas arise?
- terminal bronchioles (Clara cells)
- what is an:
1. exophytic lesion
2. endophytic lesion
- 1. grows into lumen
2. grows into parenchyma
- where does lung cancer like to metastasize to? (4)
- in order of preference:
- which type of lung cancer has a close correlation with smoking?
- squamous cell carcinoma
(also small cell carcinoma)
- what histologic features are seen in squamous cell carcinoma? (2)
- where in the lung does squamous cell carcinoma usually occur?
centrally (near hilum)
- why do we see cavitating squamous cell carcinomas?
- center of the tumor undergoes necrosis and cavitates
- what is the most common cancer found in women and nonsmokers?
- where in the lung does adenocarcinoma tend to occur?
- what are the two histologic forms of adenocarcinoma?
- 1. typical bronchial derived adenocarcinoma
2. bronchioalveolar carcinoma
- which has a faster growth rate: adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma?
- squamous cell carcinoma
- where do bronchioalveolar carcinomas like to grow?
- along pre-existing structures (such as alveolar walls)
- what would bronchioalveolar carcinoma look like on Xray?
would look like infiltrates suggesting a pulmonary infection
- treatment for bronchioalveolar carcinoma?
(these are usually well-circumscribed tumors)
- small cell carcinoma is thought to arise from which cell type?
- Kulchitsky's cells (neuroendocrine cells within the bronchial epithelium)
- significance of small cell carcinoma arising from neuroendocrine cells?
- tumor often secretes neuropeptides causing paraneoplastic syndromes
- in SCC: tumor state at time of diagnosis?
- generally have metastasized widely
- what effects can some lung tumors have on the superior vena cava?
- cause SVC syndrome (crush the SVC)
- when the tumor causes a nerve entrapment syndrome: what symptoms present when the following nerves are trapped?
1. recurrent laryngeal n.
2. phrenic n.
3. sympathetic system
- 1. hoarseness
2. diaphragmatic paralysis
3. Horners syndrome
- what is tylosis?
- hyperkeratosis (callous formation)
caused by a type of paraneoplastic syndrome
- in metastatic lung cancer: when would you see leukoerythroblastosis?
- when there is bone marrow involvement
- what is the 5 yr survival rate of lung cancer in general?
- what would a bronchial carcinoid look like?
- small projections into the lumen of the bronchus covered by bronchial epithelium
(good prognosis-metastisizes locally)
- what is responsible for most of the symptoms seen in bronchial carcinoid syndrome?
- obstruction or hemoptysis
- where are mucoepidermoid carcinomas most often found?
- proximal bronchi or trachea
- what is a hamartoma?
- an abnormal overgrowth of tissues in an abnormal pattern (not malignant)
- how can a malignant mesothelioma be distinguished from an adenocarcinoma?
- by molecular markers
- which virus am I?
- member of the herpesvirus family
- causes pneumonitis that can result from a primary infection or from latent reactivation
- has a 35-50% mortality rate in a bone marrow allograft patient that catches it?
causes cytomegalovirus pneumonitis
- the hantavirus belongs to which virus family?
- describe the genome of the hantavirus
trisegmented (3 separate RNA pieces)
- how is hantavirus transmitted?
- aerosolized rodent urine
- what are the three characteristics seen in Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)?
- 1. pulmonary edema
- ~ fatality rate of a hantavirus infection?
- which rodent is the primary carrier of sin nombre virus?
- deer mouse
- what would you see in the following lab values in HPS?
1. platelet count
3. WBC differential
- 1. low
3. Left shift
- what about these values in HPS?
2. LDH, AST, ALT
- 1. low
- how is HPS managed?
1. aggressive supportive care (ventilation too)
2. inotropes (dobutamine)
3. careful monitoring of oxygenation, fluid balance, BP
- which test is used to diagnose influenza?
- hemaglutination inhibition titer
*can see antibodies made in response to the flu
- which family of viruses does the influenza belong to?
- which influenza strain causes pandemic flu and also infects other animals?
- infuenza A
- which influenza strain causes epidemic flu and only infects humans?
- infuenza B
- which influenza strain only causes mild disease and only infects humans?
- influenza C
- what two animals are important reservoirs for influenza A?
- describe the virion and nucleocapsids of influenza
- enveloped virion
- describe the genome of influenza
- 1. influenza A and B have how many RNA segments?
2. what about influenza C?
- 1. 8
each segment encodes 1 or 2 gene products
- what are the two important antigenic determinants found on the influenza A surface?
- Hemagglutinin (HA)
- function of hemagluttinin?
- facilitates attachment to and fusion with host membrane
- function of neuraminidase?
- - allows penetration through respiratory secretions
- prevents viral aggregation
- what binds to viral RNAs and serves as a group specific antigen (A,B,C classification)?
- neucleocapsid protein (NP)
- what is the function of membrane protein (M1)?
- matrix protein
binds to nucleocapsids during maturation
- what is the M2 protein?
- an ion channel - important for uncoating
*activity inhibited by amantidine and rimantidine
- which receptors on the host cell does influenza A bind to?
- scialic acid receptors
- what causes HA to change its conformation?
what change occurs?
- acidification of the endosome causes conformational change
- change exposes hydrophobic residues for fusion
- acidification of the endosome also opens ____, which promotes uncoating.
- M2 ion channel
- what happens to the viral genome once uncoating occurs?
- it is transported to the nucleus
- because the RNA of influenza virus is (-), what is needed for viral gene expression?
- cellular RNA polymerase
- describe the production of mRNA in influenza A
- 1. viral polymerase with endonuclease activity is complexed to 5' end of host mRNA.
2. this 5' end is used as a primer for (-) viral RNA synthesis
3. this results in destruction of the host proteins: the cell will hereafter make viral proteins
- what are the 3 proteins the influenza viral polymerase is composed of?
- 1. PB1 (binds to cap of host mRNA)
2. PB2 (endonuclease)
- does synthesis of the (+)RNA (antigenome)of influenza require priming by cellular mRNA?
(only replication of the (-)RNA strand requires the primer)
- where are HA and NA inserted?
- into the plasma membrane
(this is the site of virion budding)
- when do influenza epidemics occur?
- winter or early spring
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