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Glossary of BIO 202 lab prac 2

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What are the three parts of an artery or vein?
tunica intima
tunica media
tunica externa

What is the structural difference between a capillary and a vein?
capillary only has tunica intima
What are the differences between artery and vein under a microscope?

artery is thicker and more round
vein is thin and irregular
What is the function of an artery
carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the body
What is the function of a vein?
moves deoxygenated blood to the heart
What is function of capillary?
Diffuses nutrients and oxygen into blood stream
What is the circle of willis?
it is the cerebral arterial wall
What is the function of the Circle Of Willis?
ensures continuous blood flow to the brain
What four arteries make up the Circle of Willis (cerebral arterial circle)

basilar artery
posterior cerebral arteries
posterier communicating arteries
anterior communicating artery


What is the foramen ovale?
Hole in the interial wall for a fetus
What is the function of the foramen ovale?
allows blood to bypass the lungs
What does the foramen ovale become?
fossa ovalis
What is a common artery?
It will branch into an internal and external vessel
What does the cartoid artery divide into (3 parts)?
ophthalamic - blood to eyes
anterior cerebral- blood to brain
What are the four major paired arteries?
Renal, kidneys
Suprarenal, adrenal glands
Gonadals, gonads
Lumbars, vertebrae, spinal cord, abdominal wall


What artery and vein pair do NOT have the same name?
common carotid artery
jugular vein
What makes up the upper respiratory system?
nostrils, nasal cavity, paranasal cavities, pharnyx
What makes up the lower respiratory system?
larnyx, trachea, bronchi, lungs
When does the respiratory system go from the abdominal to thoracic?
at the diaphragm
What is considered the voice box and where is it located?
larnyx, hard cartilage on top of trachea
What cells make up the respiratory system?
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
What is a goblet cell and what is it's function?
cell that creates a sticky mucus that covers the ciliated epithelium
What is the function of the cilia?
Beat to move the mucus toward the pharnyx where it swallowed
What are the 3 regions of the pharnyx?
upper nasopharnyx
middle oropharnyx
lower layrngopharnyx

What structure joins the laryngopharnyx to the trachea?
larnyx
The larnyx is made of what 3 cartilages?
thyroid, epiglottis, cricoid,
What is the difference between vestibular folds and vocal cords?
Vestibular folds: upper pair of folds that prevent foreign materials from entering glottis and close glottis during coughing and sneezing

Vocal cords: lower pair of folds, to produce sound air is exhaled

Where is the trachea in comparison to the esophagus?
anterior
Where does gas exchange occur?
in the pulmonary capillaries in between alveoli
What is going into the RBC?
oxygen
What is leaving the RBC?
CO2
Know the difference between parietal pleura, pleural cavities, and visceral pleura
pleural cavity- pleural cavities contains the lungs and is lined with serous membrane

parietal pleura: lines thoracic wall

visceral pleura: covers superficial surface of lungs



What is the purpose of surfactant?
Secretes oily substance to keep the lungs from sticking together
What is inspiratory capacity?
tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume (big breath in)
What is tidal volume?
normal breath
What is expiratory reserve capacity?
breathing out
residual volume
the air in our lungs that can't be expelled
functional residual capacity
residual and up to normal passive breathing
What is hyperventilating?
blowing out lots of carbondioxide and ph is basic
What is hypoventilating?
carbondioxide builds up in body and ph becomes acidic
CO2 production rate is matched to what
metabolism and respiratory rate

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