Glossary of BIO 112 FINAL

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_________ is developed from the follicles or the ovaries.
Ovaries is made of __________ and _________
corpus lutea
How many testes are there
Testes secrete ________ (steroid)
__________ leads to the males primary sexual characteristics
When the testes secrete testosterone... it promotes ________. (= making of the sperm)
T of F: Humans have 2 pineal glands.
false... ONE
Where is the pineal gland located at in humans
in the brain
The pineal gland secretes _________ when it is night time
What helps maintain the daily (=circadian) wake sleep cycles and seasonal cycles?
Pineal gland

also helps reproductive cycle

T of F: The pineal gland helps maintain the reproductive cycle.
In some vertebrates this is known as the 3rd eye... and it can affect skin pigmentation
pineal gland
_______ influences the development of and helps maintain the sex characteristics of the female
the follicle of the ovaries
This thickens the uterine lining for implantation of the embryo
Corpus Luteum (of the ovaries) produces which kind of steroid hormone?
PROGESTERONE and estrogen
_____ produces steroids (estrogen and progesterone) which prepares the uterus for implantation
corpus luteum
____________ is a regulating system and works more slowly than the nervous system
endocrine system
T or F: The nervous system works faster than the endocrine system
What gland secretes chemicals into the blood stream
ductless gland
_____ is composed of glands throughout the body that secretes chemicals (hormones) into blood streams
endocrine system
The kidney is the target organ for what hormone?
The organs that are affected by certain hormones are called what
target organs
Proper hormone levels are maintained by what?
negative feedback mechanisms
If the pH of the duodenum drops, it stimulates the cells of the duodenum to secrete hormone secretin. The secretin goes to the pancreas and stimulates productions of bicarbonate. and the bicarbonate raises the pH of the duodenum back.

This is an exampl

a negative feedback mechanism
In the pH of the duodenum drops, cells of the duodenum are stimulates to secrete ____
hormone secretin
During the NEG. FEEDBACK MECHANISM --> the pH of the duodenum drops and the cells of it is stimulated to produce the hormone secretin. Where does the secretin go and what does it stimulate?
The secretin goes to the pancreas and stimulates the production of the bicarbonate
What raises the pH level of the duodenum back up
Hormones can be classified as what 3 things

Name 5 steroid hormones

T or F: Amines have 4 carbon rings

Amines are derived from _______
Name 4 amines

name 5 peptides and proteins
ACTH =(Adrenocorticotropic Hormone)
TSH (=Thyroid Stimulating Hormone)
LH (=Luteinizing Hormone)

_______ are relatively large molecules
PEPTIDES and proteins
Other than a hormone being a steroid, amine, and peptide... hormones can also be classified how
if it can be divided into water/ lipid (fat) soluble
Water soluble hormones include ______ and most _______
most amines
Which amine is the exception in the water soluble hormone
Fat soluble hormones include ______ and nonpolar ________
What is the first hormone to know how it works
Lipid soluble molecules pass through _______ of target organ cells (steroid)
phospholipid plasma membrane
Lipid soluble molecules unite with receptors _______ cells
Lipid soluble molecules promotes synthesis of _____
When Lipid soluble molecules promote the synthesis of m_ RNA (=transcription) , it leads to making specific/ additional ________ that bring about the action of the cell (= TRANSLATION)

Testosterone leading to the growth of bone and muscle is and example of
translation of Lipid soluble molecules
water soluble hormones bind to ________ of target cells
receptors in the plasma membrane
When the water soluble hormones (eg. INSULIN) bind to receptors in plasma membrane of target cells. It initiates _________
signal transduction pathway
The mechanism linking a mechanical or chemical stimulus to a specific cellular response
signal transduction pathway
______________ initiates the production of enzymes that causes glycogen in the ____________ cells to break down into glucose molecules
liver cells
What makes glycogen turn into glucose in liver cells
After glycogen is broken down into glucose molecules, the glucose leaves the lives and is used as _______ for other cells throughout the body
How large would you say the size of the Pituitary gland is
the size of a garden pea
\"master gland\"
Pituitary gland
The secretion of what gland affects all other glands
pituitary gland
Where it the pituitary gland located at
the base of the brain
What are the 2 part of the pituitary gland
anterior pit.
posterior pit.
When you are under stress, your body produces a lot of
The anterior pituitary gland is made up of _____ cells
__________ secretes TROPIC hormones (ie. affect other endocrine glands)
anterior pit. gland
When a hormone affects other glands it is called a _____ gland
tropic gland
name 6 tropic glands that are secreted by the anterior pit. gland
1 Prolactin
2 GH
4 LH

Which hormone stimulates bone and muscle growth which is needed for NORMAL growth
Growth hormone
Which hormone stimulates the milk production from breast after mammary glands have developed
Which hormone (in males) stimulates spermatogenesis (= the making of sperm)
Follicle-stimulating hormone (=FSH)
Which hormone in females stimulates the development follicle = cavity that the egg drops in
ollicle-stimulating hormone (=FSH)
Which hormone in males stimulates the testes to produce testosterone
Luteinizing Hormone
Which hormone in females causes ovulation (rupture of follicle and release of egg) and development of corpus luteum from ruptured follicle
Luteinizing Hormone
Which hormone stimulates the thyroid glad to produce and release thyroxine
Thyroid stimulating hormone
The Thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH) produces and releases what
Which hormone stimulates the release of cortisol from the adrenal gland
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulates the release of what from the adrenal gland
The posterior pit. gland is made up of
nervous tissue
The Posterior pit. gland stores and releases 2 glands. What 2

ADH (=antidiuretic hormone)

Which hormone accelerates childbirth by stimulating contractions of the SMOOTH muscle
Which posterior pit. gland secrete breast milk
Which hormone helps maintain water balance of the body by affection excretion of water from the kidney
_______ controls homeostasis
___________ produces ADH and oxytocin then it is neuron transported to the posterior pit. gland where they are stored
The hypothalamus produces \"releasing\" hormones that influence secretions of the ________ which is transported by the ______
anterior pit. gland

circulatory system

The thyroid gland is located on the
The thyroid gland is influenced by _______
TSH =thyroid stimulating hormone
The thyroid gland produces _________ and _______ which increases the metabolic rate of the cells
thyroxine (T4)
triiodothyronine (T3)
____________ decreases blood calcium levels by stimulating bone growth
Thyroid gland secretes _______ which decreases blood calcium levels by stimulating bone growth
What is the antagonist to the thyroid gland
parathyroid gland
The Parathyroid is how many pea-size glands
Where are the parathyroid glands found
on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland
Parathyroid gland produces ______________
parathormone (PTH)
This increases calcium level in the blood by bone break down and reabsorption of Ca 2+ in the kidney and absorption in gut
What is reabsorbed with parathormone
Ca 2+
How many adrenal glands do you have
Where are your adrenal glands located
above the kidneys
What are the 2 parts of the adrenal gland called
What is the outer portion of the adrenal gland that consists of epithelial tissue
The cortex (outer portion) of the adrenal glands produces what 2 steroids
This hormone increases blood sugar level by breaking down FAT and PROTEINS

of the cortex of the adrenal gland

___________ secreted when under stress and can reduce inflammation

of the cortex of the adrenal glan

This hormone (of the cortex of the adrenal gland) helps maintain proper sodium levels, potassium and water levels in the body
What is the central part of the adrenal glands called
What part of the adrenal gland is made of nervous tissue
The medulla of the adrenal glands produced _______ and ______
and norepinephrine

(which stimulate respiration, dilate res. passageways, increase heart rate, and increase sugar levels)

what stimulates respiration and dilates respiratory passages
epinephrine and norepinephrine
What increases heart reat and increases blood sugar levels
_____ is made of endocrine and exocrine gland
The pancreas\' endocrine secretions come from cluster of cells called _________
THe pancreas produces 2 major hormones :
insulin and glucagon
What in the pancreas is secreted by beta cells in response to high blood sugar
What decreases blood sugar levels by stimulating cellular uptake of glucose and converting it to glycogen in the liver
Insulin glucose to __ in the liver
What hormone of the pancreas is secreted by alpha cells in response to low blood sugar levels
T of F: Glucagon is secreted by alpha cells
T or F: Glucagon is secreted by beta cells
false : Alpha cells
_________ increases blood sugar levels by stimulating the breakdown of stored glycogen into glucose
Glucagon turns glycogen into
_____ influences the development of and maintains the sex characteristics of the female
Glucagon\'s antagonist
What has to be running low for the hypothalamus to send a releasing hormone to the pituitary gland which is then sent to the thyroid gland
It would be the level of thyroxine (T4) and triiodonthyronine (T3). The hormones that are produced by the
thyroid gland.
A Bipolar neuron are ONLY found where in the human body?

The ear. and eye
A neuron that has a nucleus with 3 or more processes coming off of it, is called _______
Multipolar Neuron
A neuron that has a nucleus with 2 proccesses coming off of it , is called ________.
Bipolar Neuron
A neuron that has a nucleus with one process coming off of it is called ___________
Unipolar (or Pseudounipolar) Neuron
Which neuron classification is based on the number of processes that come off of the cell body?
Morphological Classification
Name the 6 parts of the anatomy of the neuron.
Cell body
Dendrites (=branches)
Axon (larger part and sometimes have myelin)
Axon Terminals
Schwann Cells (look like a jelly doughnut)
Nodes of Ranvier (bare spots)

-What transmits chemical and electrical signals from one location to another?
Which Glia cell makes fat cells?
Schwann Cells (looks like a jelly doughnut)
Which Glia Cell is very small?
Which Glia cells is a star shaped?
Which Glia Cell means few cells?
Surrounds and protects the neurons from toxins (creates “blood brain barrier”)
Glia Cells
__________ provide nutrients to the neurons.
Glia Cells
What percentage of the nervous tissue is made up of glia gells?
What are the “supporting” cells of the nervous system called?
Glia Cells
The myelin sheath of the nervous system makes up the ___________
Glia Cells
What aids in regeneration of injured neurons?
Glia Cells

What cell speeds up transmission of the impulses along the neuron?

Glia Cells
What are the 2 types of cells that are found in the nervous system?
Glia cell (=supporting cells)

This function of the nervous system conducts signals to effector organs (gland and muscles) that carry out the response of the body to the stimuli
Motor output
What system, the peripheral or central nervous system, puts the motor output into work?
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
What system, the peripheral or central nervous system, takes in the sensory input?
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
What are the 3 major functions of the nervous system?
Sensory input
Motor Output

Neurons are often divided into organs. Give some examples of these divisions)
Brain, ganglia, nerve cord, peripheral nerves
This function of the nervous system conducts impulses from sensory receptors (chemoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, photoreceptors) that can be stimulated by stimuli to integration centers (eg. Spinal cord, brain)
Sensory input
If the mechanoreceptor (or chemo or photo) was stimulated by stimuli, the information would be sent to ________________
Integration centers
This function of the nervous system interprets the sensory information and responds to it (occurs mainly in the brain and spinal cord)
How fast can a neuron send an impulse?
The nervous system’s neurons send electrical impulses to ________ and __________.
Muscles and Gland (effector organs)
What system, the peripheral or central nervous system, makes sense of the information that is being processed in your body?
Central Nervous System (CNS)
T or F: The effector organs that the nervous impulses are being sent to are really not organs just muscles and glands.

What is the specialized cells of the nervous system?

If one has a brain tumor, the ___________ cells of the nervous system is what is taking nutrients from the body and growing out of control.
Glia Cells
If a neuron carries information to the central nervous system (CNS) , the neuron is classified as a _____________
Sensory neurons
If a neuron carries information away from the central nervous system (CNS), the neuron is classified as a ______________.
Motor Neurons
A link that connects sensory neurons with motor neurons ; local connections
Interneurons (or) association neurons
What are the most neurons of the brain?
Interneurons (aka) association neurons
What 2 ways does Neurons work?
resting potential
action potential
If a neuron transmits information to make glands secrete and muscles contract... this is an example of which potential, resting or action
resting pot.
When the neurons aren\'t firing but the water is running to make it fire, it is known as
resting potential
What makes the mV negative in resting potential
it is -70mV bc of AMINO ACIDS
In resting potential, the resting neuron has a __________ and _________ gradient across the neuron membrane.
In resting potential is there more of the following inside or outside:

# of anions =amino acids
# of cations

> # anions inside
> # of cations outside
> Na+ outside
>K+ inside

Is the membrane during the resting potential more positive on the inside or outside
In resting potential, is there more sodium on the inside or the outside
Resting potential is maintained by ____ pumps in the plasma membrane
Na+/K+ pumps
When the membrane is at rest (resting potential), there is a slow leak of _______ in and ______ out.
Na+ in
K+ out
What pump maintains the gradient during resting potential?
Na+/K+ pump
In neurons, the membrane potential can change to what
Action potential or \"impulse\"
In action potential, the neuron membrane has __________ that open and close /
Voltage sensitive channels
Voltage sensitive channels open and close in response to ______ and _______ changes.

the stimuli is sensitive to light

How are neurons different from other cells?
bc they have voltage sensitive channels
What allows the ions to flow in and out of the neuron?
The neurons are said to be in a _________ when the channels are closed
resting state
Stimuli changes the _______ of the membrane of the neuron. Which causes Na+ to rush in at the site of the stimulus.
If the stimuli changes the permeability of the membrane of the neuron, what happens?
The Na+ channels open up and allows the Na+ to rush in
If the membrane is more positive on the inside and more negative on the outside... the membrane is said to be _____
In action potential, if the stimulus is strong and enough sodium has entered in... the _____ will be reached

Threshold = -50mV

What does the mV have to be for the threshold to be reached
Na+ makes it -55mV
When the threshold is reached (-55mV) by sodium, what happens
all channels open up!
What ions cause rush in and cause the upstroke of the action potential = DEPOLARIZATION
Sodium Ions
What causes the Sodium ions to rush in which results in the depolarization phase?
While in resting potential, it is more _____ on the outside than inside
What ions causes repolarization
After the stimulus opens the channels up, what does the voltage have to be to shut the channels down so sodium will stop coming in and potassium will start rushing out.... which causes the downstroke
+35 mV
When the voltage reaches +35 mV , the voltage sensitive ______ close down and the voltage sensitive ____ channels open up.
Sodium - close
K+ - open
After the downstroke of potassium ions, the membrane potential becomes negative again. (It repolarizes the K+ moving out) As voltage gets down to -75 mV, it is below the resting potential... to get it back up to a -50 mV... it is called _____
Action potential is _________ along the length of the neuron
propagated (=repeated)
How does action potential get propagated along the neuron? (=repeated)
It leads to one action pot. at that site which leads to another then another

(like dominos falling)

Why are human neurons fast?
bc the impulses jump from node to node
If you increase the diameter of the neuron, what does that do to the speed?
increases the speed
In neurons with myelin sheath, action potential jumps from what to what
nodes of ranvier to node of ranvier
What is the conduction called where neurons jumps from node to node
Saltatory (jumping) conduction
Do we have saltatory conduction or point to point conduction ?
Saltatory Conduction
the disease that involves with the breakdown of the myelin sheath
________ speeds up the impulse transmission bc it jumps.
Saltatory Conduction
How does information get passed from one neuron to the next?
between junctions called SYNAPSE
What is the junctions between two neurons that sends information?
What happens when action potential gets to the end of the presynaptic neuron (aka Synaptic terminal)
Ca 2+ influx which leads to exocytosis of synaptic vesicles
When you get to the end of the synaptic terminal, and the Ca 2+ influxes ... that leads to ___________ of the synaptic vesicles
Give 4 examples of neurotransmitters

Which neurotransmitter deals with adreneline?
Where does the neurotransmitters release the info from the synaptic vesicles to
synaptic cleft
______ of the presynaptic neurons excite or inhibit postsynaptic neurons
When a neurontransmitter causes the Na+ channels to open . It is a _________
What leads to excitement of the postsynaptic neuron?
Na+ influx
T or F: The membrane potential becomes more negative during excite.
FALSE. during Inhibitition
During ________ the membrane potential becomes more positive . (the membrane potential gets closet to the threshold = 50 mV)
\"Excites\" postsynaptic neuron effect is short-lived due to ______
Degradation of the neurotransmitter
Excitatory leads to ___________
Excitatory Postsynaptic potential
What ion is used with the excitatory postsynaptic neurons
What ions are used in the inhibitory postsynaptic neurons
T or F: If it makes the membrane more neg. on the inside, it inhibits
When the neurotransmitters cause the K+ channels to open up, it ___________
What causes inhibition?
K+ efflux
If the membranes is - 70mV, it is an ____________ postsynaptic neuron
Inhibit leads to ____________

IF K+ was going out

or Cl- was coming in

IPSP= inhibitory postsynaptic potential
______ is believed to play an important role in regulation of anger, aggression, body temperate, mood, sleep, vomiting, sexuality, and appetite.
Know the 6 major neurotransmitters
GABA (= gamma aminobutyric acid)
Met-enkephalin (endorphin)

Neurotransmitters are located inside where
synaptic vesicles
What determines if an action potential occurs in the postsynaptic neuron?
Additive effect (summation) of the presynatic neurons (ADD EPSP and IPSP )

or if threshold is met

Is threshold met if you have more excitatory than inhibit. ?
T or F: once the message leaves the neuron you can decide to stop it.
False. It is the all or none rule.
Which type of summation when dealing with neurons is

a single or few neurons REPEATEDLY fire and excite the postsynaptic neuron to the threshold state

Temporal summation
Which kind of summation when dealing with neurons is :

when different neurons excite the postsynaptic neuron at the same time

Spatial summation
T or F:

The spatial summation is when different neurons excite the post synaptic neuron at different times.

false: at the same time
The forebrain region that is the largest in brain region in mammals
The cerebrum\'s outer region is called the ______
cerebral cortex
Name the 3 parts to the forebrain

Part of the brain (in mammals) that contains an important reflex center for blinking, focusing lens, changing diameter of pupil
3 parts of the hind brain
Medulla Oblongata

Part of the hindbrain that is enlarged in mammals and regulates BREATHING
What part of the hindbrain is concerned with equilibrium, posture, and movement?
If your knee gets tapped and it moves… the tap leads to a _______
An unconscious programmed response = REFLEX
An unconscious programmed response is a _______
____________ can integrate simple responses to certain kinds of stimuli (eg tap on the knee)
Spinal cord
The white matter on the spinal cord contains ______ ( which is a collection of neurons that go to or form same regions of the brain)
Nerve tracts
The neuron synapse is in the ______ matter.
ON the spinal cord, the gray matter is on the __________ and the white matter is on the _______ of the cord.
Gray-> inside of the cord
White-> outside

The spinal cord is surrounded a protective membrane. What is it called?
Meninges (there are 3 of them)
The nonvital reflex centers of the medulla oblongata affects what 5 things?
swallowing, hiccupping, vomiting, coughing, and sneezing
The vital reflex center of the medulla oblongata regulates what 3 things?
Heart rate
Breathing rate
Vasomotor tone

What connects the brain to the spinal cord? (many sensory neurons pass through it)
Medulla oblongata

The Hypothalamus produces a releasing hormone that regulates the _____________ secretions.

Anterior pituitary hormone
_______ helps maintain homeostasis.
The thalamus plays a role in memory and _______ state.
The ______ lies next to the thalamus.
The Hypothalamus produces _____ and ____ which is released by the posterior pituitary gland.
Oxytocin and ADH
This regulates the body’s temperature, water balance, appetite, and thirst.
-Plays a role in sensing pain, temp., and light touch
Which part of the Diencephalon (forebrain) is the relay site that analyzes and passes sensory info to higher brain centers?
Which lobe is concerned with memory, judgment, reasoning and emotions?
Frontal lobe of the cerebrum
Which lobe deals with speech, hearing, taste, and reading?
The frontal lobe of the cerebrum
The ___________ is what makes you remember and identify information and have conscious motor activity
Site of integration (the site of intelligence)
The site of integration is in what part of the forebrain?
In primates 70% of all neurons are located in the ____
Cerebral cortex
What are the 3 original regions of the developing brain?
Forebrain, midbrain , and hindbrain
______ nerve carries information out.
• Motor
____ nerve brings information in
• Sensory
Which nervous system consists of networks of neurons that carry sensory input in and motor output from CNS
• PNS= peripheral nervous system
Which nervous system is responsible for integration of sensory input with motor output?
• Central nervous system = CNS
Which nervous system is composed of the brain and the spinal cord?
• Central nervous system
The two systems the nervous system can be divided into
• CNS= Central nervous system
• PNS= peripheral nervous system

The 2 divisions of the peripheral nervous system ?
Sensory (AFFERENT) division
Motor (EFFERENT) division

Which division of the PNS contains neurons that carry signals from receptors TO the CNS?
Sensory (afferent) division
Which division of the PNS is part of the cranial(brain) nerves and spinal nerves?
Sensory (afferent) division
The neurons of the Sensory (afferent) division pass through the _________ of the spinal cord. “ sensory information”
Dorsal Root
Which division of the PNS contains neurons that lead AWAY from the CNS?
Motor (efferent) division
In the Motor (efferent) division the neurons pass out through the ______ of the spinal nerve.
Ventral root

The motor (efferent) division is divided into 2 systems.

Somatic NS
Autonomic NS

Which division of the PNS stick is where the neurons stick to muscles and glands (=effector organs)
Motor (efferent) division (the neurons connect to the effector organs)

In the somatic system, the neurons go to the ________ muscles.


Is the somatic system voluntary or involuntary?

The voluntary system
IS the autonomic system voluntary or involuntary?
Which part of the motor division of the PNS controls movements of the heart, gut, blood vessel diameter, urinary bladder, iris of the eye, secretions of exocrine glans (salivary), etc?
Autonomic System
The Autonomic system innervates (=sticks to) glands and what 2 kind of muscles?

The somatic or autonomic system is more primitive or lower down in the brain.
Autonomic system
In the autonomic system, the neurons synapse after they leave the _________ and before they get into the effector organ.
spinal cord
Neurons synapse. The synapses occur in clusters and form ______.
Between post and preganglionic, _______ are released.
The autonomic nervous system is a ______________ system.
2 neuron efferent system (= 2 neurons OUTSIDE the CNS)
If the neuron is before the ganglion, it is called
Preganglionic neurons
If the neuron is after the ganglion, it is called
Postganglionic neurons
The 2 subdivisions of the autonomic nervous system.
Parasympathetic system
Sympathetic system

In the parasympathetic system, the nerves emerge from the ____ and ____ region of the spinal cord.
Brain stem
Sacral region

What is the antagonist for the sympathetic system?
Parasympathetic system
In the parasympathetic system, the pre- and postganglionic neurons release _______ which makes the skeletal muscles contract.
________ helps the body return to a relaxed state
parasympathetic system
IN the parasympathetic system which ganglionic (pre or post) Is longer?
The pre is longer than the post
In the Sympathetic system which ganglionic (pre or post) is longer?
Post is longer!
In the sympathetic system, the neurons originate from the ____ and ____ region of the spinal cord
Lumbar and thoracic regions
In the sympathetic system the pre and postganglionic neurons do not produce the same thing. What does the pre produce?
Acetylcholine( which makes your skeletal muscles contract)
In the sympathetic system the pre and postganglionic neurons do not produce the same thing. What does the post- produce?
In the sympathetic system ,the ganglia connect together and form ________ along each side of the spinal cord.
Sympathetic chain
T or F: It is in the Parasympathetic system that you see the sympathetic chain of ganglia along the spinal cord.
FALSE!!! The Sympathetic system
______ prepares body to fight or to run away.
Sympathetic system
_____ dominates under stress.
Sympathetic system

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