Glossary of BIOL LAB
Created by firstname.lastname@example.org
- Indeterminate growth
- grow throughout lifetime
- Determinate Growth
- Growing Stops at a certain point
- Regions of growth in plants that continue to dvide and make new cells
- Apical meristems
- regions of cell division that result in elongation growth at tips of roots and stems
- Primary Meristems
- Ground meristem, protoderm and procambium
- Primary growth
- the elongation of the root or stem that results
- What is one advantage of seeds?
- They can remain dormant for extended periods until the conditions for growth are met
- What is the first structure to emerge from the seed?
- The roots
- What is the root cap?
- Covers the meristem and provides protection as it pushes through the soil
- What are cotyledons?
- Energy source for germination
- structures that are newly developed and not fully formed
- Simple/Complex tissues
- Simple: one cell type
Complex: more than one cell type
- What defining cell wall feature does the Kingdom Plantae have?
- cellulose cell walls
- What is the role of pectins?
- Give cell walls the ability to expand during cell growth
- What is the role of lignin?
- Makes cell walls rigid
- What are the three categories of plant tissues?
- Ground, dermal and vascular
- What does ground tissue do?
- Support, storage, metabolism
- What are Parennchyma cells?
- basic cell unit for vascular plants
thin cell walls
found in mature tissue and meristems
plant cells arise from parenchyma
- What are collenchyma?
- function in support of soft or growing stems and leaves
leaves cell walls uneven
- What are Sclerenchyma?
dead at maturity
- Dermal Tissue
- -forms the outer protective covering of plants
-primary cell type in dermal tissue is parenchyma
- outer covering of dermal tissue
- Many protective layers in dermal tissues
- openings in the epidermis and cuticle that allow gases into and out of the plant
- Guard Cells
- have the ability to open/close stomata in response to conditions such as light or water loss
- Vascular tissue?
- responsible for internal transport
-xylem and phloem
- responsible for transporting water and minerals from the roots to leaves
-able to do this with long, hollow tubes made of stacks of cells (tracheids or vessel elements)
- transportation of sugars produced by photosynthesis to the rest of plant for use or storage
- What are leucoplasts?
- store stratch in colorless plastids
- What are the differences between monocots and dicots?
- -according to how many cotyledons are contained in their seeds
-Monocot examples: corn, onions, palms, tulips, lilies, and grasses
-Dicot examples: trees (oak, elm, maple), shrubs (lilac, rose, raspberry), benas, peas, geraniums, carrots, potatoes, etc.
-Monocots: multiples of three
-Dicot: multiples of four or five
- What is in the mesophyll layer?
- photosynthetic parenchyma cells
- What is a pith?
- center ring of vascular bundles
- What happens in secondary growth?
- lateral growth
-increase in width of a stem or root
- Lateral Meristems?
- produce cambia: paralell rows of cells
- Why do growth rings form?
- Differential growth of xylem at different times of the year
- What are fruits?
- ripened ovaries of seed-bearing plant
- edible plant parts from a cultivated plat, such as the root, leaf, or flower buds
- part of the stem where new stems and leaves develop or flowers are formed
-terminal (apical buds) found at tips
-lateral buds (axillary) located in leaf axil above petiole and stem joining
- -location on stem where petioles attach
- part of stem between two nodes
- What are brussel sprouts?
- small axillary buds
- What is broccoli?
- consists of large cluster of flower buds
- Lateral Meristems
- consist of vascular cambium
-growth occurs to increase diameter of stem and root
- Cork Cambium
- involved in producing cork, the protective outer covering of the stem and root
- Why do roots have hairs on them?
- Extension of the epidermal cells
-protection of outside of the plant
-helps in the movement/absorption of water
- alive at maturity
-storage, photosynthesis, wound healing, bulk of ground and vascular tissues
-retain capacity to divide
-thin cell wall
-more typical in herbaceous plants rather than woody
- found in the periphery of young stems where it functions in support
-alive at maturity
-thick primary cell wall
-occur as long strands on the periphery of young stems, petioles and roots
-found just beneath the epidermis
- 1. Schleried: short stumpy cell; fleshy parts of pear, wheel
2. Fiber: Elongated and spindle shaped
-Support and protect the plant
-Characterized by thickenings in their secondary walls
-Dead at maturity
- outermost layer of cells in herbaceous plant
- -dead cells: tracheids, vessel elements
-evaporation and h20 cohesion
-transportation of water and minerals
- Live cells
- 1 cotyledon
parallel leaf veins
vascular bundles scattered
fibrous root system
multiples of three
second growth rare
- 2 cotyledon
netlike leaf veins
vascular bundles in rings in stems
taproot usually present
multples of 4 or 5
second growth common
- Palisade mesophyll
- region of ground tissue in a leaf where the cells are elongated and arranged perpendicular to the epidermis in the upper half of the leaf
- Spongy mesophyll
- region of ground tissue in a leaf where parenchyma cells are branched and intercellular air spaces are extensive, usually in the lower half of leaf
You must Login or Register to add cards