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Glossary of BIOL LAB

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Indeterminate growth
grow throughout lifetime
Primary growth
Determinate Growth
Growing Stops at a certain point
Meristems
Regions of growth in plants that continue to dvide and make new cells
Apical meristems
regions of cell division that result in elongation growth at tips of roots and stems
Primary Meristems
Ground meristem, protoderm and procambium
Primary growth
the elongation of the root or stem that results
What is one advantage of seeds?
They can remain dormant for extended periods until the conditions for growth are met
What is the first structure to emerge from the seed?
The roots
What is the root cap?
Covers the meristem and provides protection as it pushes through the soil

-slimy

What are cotyledons?
Energy source for germination
Primordia
structures that are newly developed and not fully formed
Simple/Complex tissues

Simple: one cell type
Complex: more than one cell type
What defining cell wall feature does the Kingdom Plantae have?
cellulose cell walls
What is the role of pectins?
Give cell walls the ability to expand during cell growth
What is the role of lignin?
Makes cell walls rigid
What are the three categories of plant tissues?
Ground, dermal and vascular
What does ground tissue do?
Support, storage, metabolism
What are Parennchyma cells?
basic cell unit for vascular plants
Relatively large
thin cell walls
storage
found in mature tissue and meristems
plant cells arise from parenchyma






What are collenchyma?
function in support of soft or growing stems and leaves
leaves cell walls uneven
What are Sclerenchyma?
Specialized
support/structure
dead at maturity



Dermal Tissue
-forms the outer protective covering of plants
-primary cell type in dermal tissue is parenchyma
Epidermis?
outer covering of dermal tissue
Peridem
Many protective layers in dermal tissues
Stomata?
openings in the epidermis and cuticle that allow gases into and out of the plant
Guard Cells
have the ability to open/close stomata in response to conditions such as light or water loss
Vascular tissue?
responsible for internal transport
-xylem and phloem
Xylem?
responsible for transporting water and minerals from the roots to leaves
-able to do this with long, hollow tubes made of stacks of cells (tracheids or vessel elements)
Phloem?
transportation of sugars produced by photosynthesis to the rest of plant for use or storage
What are leucoplasts?
store stratch in colorless plastids
What are the differences between monocots and dicots?
-according to how many cotyledons are contained in their seeds
-Monocot examples: corn, onions, palms, tulips, lilies, and grasses
-Dicot examples: trees (oak, elm, maple), shrubs (lilac, rose, raspberry), benas, peas, geraniums, carrots, potatoes, etc.
-Monocots: multiples of three
-Dicot: multiples of four or five



What is in the mesophyll layer?
photosynthetic parenchyma cells
What is a pith?
center ring of vascular bundles
What happens in secondary growth?
lateral growth
-increase in width of a stem or root


Lateral Meristems?
produce cambia: paralell rows of cells
Why do growth rings form?
Differential growth of xylem at different times of the year
What are fruits?
ripened ovaries of seed-bearing plant
Vegetables?
edible plant parts from a cultivated plat, such as the root, leaf, or flower buds
Buds
part of the stem where new stems and leaves develop or flowers are formed
-terminal (apical buds) found at tips
-lateral buds (axillary) located in leaf axil above petiole and stem joining



Node
-location on stem where petioles attach
internode
part of stem between two nodes
What are brussel sprouts?
small axillary buds
What is broccoli?
consists of large cluster of flower buds
Lateral Meristems
consist of vascular cambium
-growth occurs to increase diameter of stem and root
Cork Cambium
involved in producing cork, the protective outer covering of the stem and root
Why do roots have hairs on them?
Extension of the epidermal cells
-protection of outside of the plant
-helps in the movement/absorption of water

Parenchyma
alive at maturity
-storage, photosynthesis, wound healing, bulk of ground and vascular tissues
-retain capacity to divide
-thin cell wall
-MOST COMMON
-more typical in herbaceous plants rather than woody






Collenchyma
found in the periphery of young stems where it functions in support
-alive at maturity
-thick primary cell wall
-occur as long strands on the periphery of young stems, petioles and roots
-supports petioles
-found just beneath the epidermis




Sclerenchyma
1. Schleried: short stumpy cell; fleshy parts of pear, wheel
2. Fiber: Elongated and spindle shaped
-Support and protect the plant
-Characterized by thickenings in their secondary walls
-Dead at maturity





Epidermis
outermost layer of cells in herbaceous plant
-single layer
-thick
-waxy cuticle
-protection



Xylem
-dead cells: tracheids, vessel elements
-evaporation and h20 cohesion
-transportation of water and minerals



Phloem
Live cells
Monocots
1 cotyledon
parallel leaf veins
vascular bundles scattered
fibrous root system
multiples of three
second growth rare




Dicots
2 cotyledon
netlike leaf veins
vascular bundles in rings in stems
taproot usually present
multples of 4 or 5
second growth common




Palisade mesophyll
region of ground tissue in a leaf where the cells are elongated and arranged perpendicular to the epidermis in the upper half of the leaf
Spongy mesophyll
region of ground tissue in a leaf where parenchyma cells are branched and intercellular air spaces are extensive, usually in the lower half of leaf

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