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Glossary of Autonomic & Endocrine System - Medsci

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Nerves
coordinate our actions and bodily functions
Preganglionic neurons
Myelinated neurons from the Spinal cord to the Autonomic Ganglion
Postganglionic Neuron
Unmyelinated neurons from the Autonomic Ganglion to the Smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands
What do cholinergic sympathetic postganglionic neurons stimulate out of the 3 innervated by the ANS?
Sweat glands

[The postganglionic neurons release Acetylcholine instead of Norepinephrine]

Somatic and Autonomic Neurons are what kind of neurons? Efferent or Afferent?
Efferent as they are stimulate other cells in the PNS (They are motor neurons)
Raynaud's Disease is due to what kind of stimulation?
Excessive sympathetic stimulation causing chronic vasoconstriction
How many hormones do the hypothalamus release?
9, inhibitory and releasing hormones which act on the pituitary
How many hormones does the Pituitary release?
7, to control endocrine organs
What is the principal action of the adrenal medulla?
Enhances the sympathetic autonomic alarm response
What is the other name for Epinephrine?
Adrenalin
What kind of neurons are adrenergic?
Sympathetic Postganglionic Neurons (i.e. they use Adrenalin/Epinephrine)
What is the primary stimulus for the release of aldosterone by the adrenal cortex?
Angiotensin II and Increased K+ in blood
What is the primary stimulus for the release of cortisol and corticosterone by the adrenal cortex?
ACTH from Pituitary
(CRH fron Hypothalamus)
How many subsequent actions of cortisol are there?
6
Release of Mineralocorticoids causes what in the blood?
Increase in Na and water = Increase Blood Volume and therefore blood pressure
Release of Glucocorticoids causes what?
-Resistance reaction to stress
-Dampen inflammation
-Depress immune response

Which part of the pituitary (ANTERIOR/POSTERIOR) is the Corticotropin (ACTH) released?
Anterior
What is the negative feed back response of increase cortisol?
Inhibits ACTH release in the Anterior Pituitary and the CRH in the Hypothalamus
Gluconeogenisis
Conversion of a substance (NOT glycogen) into glucose
Lipolysis
The breakdown of triglycerides and release of fatty acids from adipose tissue into blood
How do glucocorticoids increase blood pressure?
Make blood vessels more sensitive to hormones that cause vasoconstriction
What is a negative affect of the use of glucocorticoids for treatment?
Retard tissue repair (slow wound healing)
How are Glucocorticoids anti-inflammatory?
Inhibit histamine cells
Why are glucocorticoids used in for organ transplant patients?
Glucocorticoids depress immune responses. This can be used to retard tissue rejection by the immune system
How is the Fight or Flight sympathetic response triggered?
Initiated by Nerve impulses from the hypothalamus.
How is the Resistance reaction response triggered?
Hypothalamic release of Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
Activities from the Neuroendocrine System are coordinated by?
ANS & Hormones (e.g. Cortisol)
Activites from the Immune system are coordinated by?
Cytokines (immune hormones)
Do Lipid soluble hormones have receptors in the cell nucleus or the cell surface?
Cell nucleus
How does a lipid soluble hormone form new proteins?
Binds to receptor in the cell, which alters DNA and gene expression.

New RNA is made and undergoes translation thus forming a new protein

What kind of surface proteins are the receptors of water-soluble hormones?
Integral transmembrane proteins
cAMP is one kind of second messenger. What other kinds of molecules can be second messengers?
Neurotransmitters, Neuropeptides and sensory transduction mechanisms
What does an activated G protein activate?
Adenylate Cyclase
What is a Protein Kinase?
An enzyme that phosphorylates (adds a phosphate group) other cellular proteins
What enzyme can inactivate cAMP?
Phosphodiesterase

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