Glossary of Autonomic & Endocrine System - Medsci
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- coordinate our actions and bodily functions
- Preganglionic neurons
- Myelinated neurons from the Spinal cord to the Autonomic Ganglion
- Postganglionic Neuron
- Unmyelinated neurons from the Autonomic Ganglion to the Smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands
- What do cholinergic sympathetic postganglionic neurons stimulate out of the 3 innervated by the ANS?
- Sweat glands
[The postganglionic neurons release Acetylcholine instead of Norepinephrine]
- Somatic and Autonomic Neurons are what kind of neurons? Efferent or Afferent?
- Efferent as they are stimulate other cells in the PNS (They are motor neurons)
- Raynaud's Disease is due to what kind of stimulation?
- Excessive sympathetic stimulation causing chronic vasoconstriction
- How many hormones do the hypothalamus release?
- 9, inhibitory and releasing hormones which act on the pituitary
- How many hormones does the Pituitary release?
- 7, to control endocrine organs
- What is the principal action of the adrenal medulla?
- Enhances the sympathetic autonomic alarm response
- What is the other name for Epinephrine?
- What kind of neurons are adrenergic?
- Sympathetic Postganglionic Neurons (i.e. they use Adrenalin/Epinephrine)
- What is the primary stimulus for the release of aldosterone by the adrenal cortex?
- Angiotensin II and Increased K+ in blood
- What is the primary stimulus for the release of cortisol and corticosterone by the adrenal cortex?
- ACTH from Pituitary
(CRH fron Hypothalamus)
- How many subsequent actions of cortisol are there?
- Release of Mineralocorticoids causes what in the blood?
- Increase in Na and water = Increase Blood Volume and therefore blood pressure
- Release of Glucocorticoids causes what?
- -Resistance reaction to stress
-Depress immune response
- Which part of the pituitary (ANTERIOR/POSTERIOR) is the Corticotropin (ACTH) released?
- What is the negative feed back response of increase cortisol?
- Inhibits ACTH release in the Anterior Pituitary and the CRH in the Hypothalamus
- Conversion of a substance (NOT glycogen) into glucose
- The breakdown of triglycerides and release of fatty acids from adipose tissue into blood
- How do glucocorticoids increase blood pressure?
- Make blood vessels more sensitive to hormones that cause vasoconstriction
- What is a negative affect of the use of glucocorticoids for treatment?
- Retard tissue repair (slow wound healing)
- How are Glucocorticoids anti-inflammatory?
- Inhibit histamine cells
- Why are glucocorticoids used in for organ transplant patients?
- Glucocorticoids depress immune responses. This can be used to retard tissue rejection by the immune system
- How is the Fight or Flight sympathetic response triggered?
- Initiated by Nerve impulses from the hypothalamus.
- How is the Resistance reaction response triggered?
- Hypothalamic release of Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
- Activities from the Neuroendocrine System are coordinated by?
- ANS & Hormones (e.g. Cortisol)
- Activites from the Immune system are coordinated by?
- Cytokines (immune hormones)
- Do Lipid soluble hormones have receptors in the cell nucleus or the cell surface?
- Cell nucleus
- How does a lipid soluble hormone form new proteins?
- Binds to receptor in the cell, which alters DNA and gene expression.
New RNA is made and undergoes translation thus forming a new protein
- What kind of surface proteins are the receptors of water-soluble hormones?
- Integral transmembrane proteins
- cAMP is one kind of second messenger. What other kinds of molecules can be second messengers?
- Neurotransmitters, Neuropeptides and sensory transduction mechanisms
- What does an activated G protein activate?
- Adenylate Cyclase
- What is a Protein Kinase?
- An enzyme that phosphorylates (adds a phosphate group) other cellular proteins
- What enzyme can inactivate cAMP?
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