Glossary of Arch Lec 2
Created by mikel190
- When was archaeology established as an academic field in the US?
- late 19th century
- how many fields is anthropology divided into?
- what is ethnography?
- the descriptive study of human studies
- what is an artifact?
- any object used or modified or made by humans
- what are features?
- non-portable artifacts
- what are ecofacts?
- Non-artifactual material remains that have cultural relevance
- what is a region?
- the largest spatial clusters of archaeological sites
- what are the three types of surveys?
- aerial, subsurface, surface
- when is a surface survey useful?
- when difficult topography is encountered
- what is a draw back of a surface survey?
- they can be biased
- what is the difference between and unsystematic and a systematic survey?
- systematic requires a sampling strategy and provides a more complete and unbiased look at the distribution of sites
- this sampling strategy is not systematic and based on specific research interest
the results can be very biased
- judgement sampling
- Sampling units in the form of long strips
Component of random sampling
Fairly representative sample
- what is subsurface sampling?
- Intrusive approach to find archaeological remains hidden by ground cover or buried.
- what is it called when you explore vertically?
- what is it called when you explore horizontally?
- site margins
- when are shovel tests useful?
- if there are remains close to the surface
- this is Used to create maps of subsurface human activities and is non-intrusive
- geophysical survey
- what are 3 important things to record post-survey?
- the size of the unit
- what are 3 important things to record post survey?
- reasons for choosing to excavate a particular site, size of the unit,relationships between artifacts and features
- what are some features of vertical excavation?
- Diachronic perspective
Small excavation area
Limited view of cultural processe
- the laying down or depositing of strata or layers one above another – based on the law of superposition: The underlying layer was deposited first and therefore older than the overlaying deposit.
- what are some of the features of a horizontal excavation?
- Synchronic perspective
Spatial distribution of artifacts
Extensive view of cultural process
Focus on activity areas
- what are activity areas?
- Locations where some particular behavior occurred once or repeatedly, leaving identifiable evidence.
- what are subdivisions in strata based on natural divisions in the sediment called?
- natural levels
- what are subdivisions in strata based on unnatural features called
- non arbitrary
- what are subdivisions in strata based on the lack of natural strata called?
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