Glossary of Animal Science Final
Created by snethena
- In the US what percentage of land is devoted to pasture and range?
- what are the three primary types of livestock digestive systems?
- 1. Monogastric(one stomach)swine and poultry
2. Pseudo-ruminants (horses)
3. Poly-gastric (more than one stomach)ruminants, cows, sheep, and goats.
- what are some of the common Horse breeds developed in the US?
- Quarter horse
Tennessee walking horse
- The puberty of a horse...
What is the Estrus cycle?
- Beginning at approx. 12-15 months
- The puberty of a horse...
what is the age for first breeding?
- 2 yrs old
- Puberty in horses..
most mares breed to the ages of____yrs
- 14-16 yrs
- The estrus cycle...
what are the best months for ovulation?
- The Estrus cycle for a horse is between____--____days
- 21-23 days
- For horse the variable ovulation months are?
- what is the definition of a barrow?
- A castrated male pig
- what is the definition of a intact male pig?
- what is Docking?
- Tail removing
- what is the definition of Farrow?
- give birth to piglets (partition)
- what is the definition of fecundity?
- The ability to produce many offspring.
- what is the definition of a feeder pig?
- age and weight of a pig ready for finishing.
- what is a gilt?
- it is a young female pig before first farrowing.
- what is the definition of porcine?
- Pertaining to swine
- what is the definition of a sow?
- Female after giving birth to first liter.
- Domestic Pigs trace to...
- Southeast Asian Pig
- Domestic Pigs originated in which country...
- Southeast Asia
- True or False domestic pigs can easily revert to a feral state?
- The origin of Native American Pigs are...
- Razorbacks, Peccary, and Javalina.
- what are some positive aspects of swine production?
- hogs are good self feeders
Easy to start small operations
Higher dressing %
Price spread less that beef cattle
excellent converters of poor quality of feed.
- what country eats the most pork?
- what are the types of swine operations?
- Feeder-Pig production
Feeder pig to finish
Farrow to finish
- which has greater fecundity---Pigs or Cattle?
- Breeding (pigs) when is the Gilts first heat?
- 4-5 months
- Breeding (pigs)when are pigs typically bred?
- in the 3rd heat
- Breeding (pigs) when are pigs first bred?
- 7-8 months
- Breeding(pigs)when are piglets born?
- 11-12 months
- Is Linoleic and essential acid?
- Yes indeed it is! its an omega-3 fatty acid
- what are the two types of minerals?
- Macro and Micro
Macro > 100ppm Micro < 100ppm
- What are some Macro minerals?
- Ca, P, and Mg
Ca-P must be in proper ratio
Na, K, Cl
Na- Outside to inside cell,lymph,blood extracellular
Cl-HCl in gut for digestion
- what are some Micro minerals?
- Catalysts for enzymes
some important minerals
Zn- bone, fur, and feathers
Se- Musle Function
I-Thyroid Function (goiter)
- what is the definition of Vitamins?
- A diverse group of compounds...its and organic compound.
It is usually not synthesized
and small amounts needed
not structural member
- how many vitamins are required by monogastrics?
- 13 required
- what are the two classes of vitamins?
- 1. Fat Soluble-A,D,E,K
2. Water soluble- B-complex
B1 thaimin, B2 Riboflavin, Nicothinio (Niacin), B6 Pyridoxine, Pantotheric acid, Biotin, Folicin, Folic acid, B12 choline.
- Reproduction strategies
what are the two types of reproduction?
- 1 Asexual Production-Budding splitting off division not typical in livestock, plants lower animal life
2. Sexual- requires male and female contribution
- what is the definition of Segregation in terms of genetics..
- Each trait has two possibilities which pass to offspring in a random but predictable way.
- what is the definition of Independent Assortment in terms of genetics?
- Different traits pass to offspring without regard any other trait.
- is an animal physical size related to the number of chromosomes it contains?
horse >human >Mouse
- what organism did Mendel used to determine the genetic laws?
- where is the cite of sperm deposition in swine?
- where is the sperm deposition in a Horse?
- what is the shape of the cervis in Ruminants and swine?
- annular rings
- what is the shape of the cervix of horses and humans?
- Folds(finger like protection)
- what are the different uterus types?
- what does the Simplex uterus type contain?
- Uterus contains a body and no horns
- what does the Bipartite uterus contain? And what are some species that have a Bipartite uterus?
- uterus contain body and horns sometimes confused with Bicornate.
Examples of Bipartite Uterus:
Ruminants, Horses, Dogs, Cats
- what does the Bicornate type contain?
- Uterus contains horns, no body
- What does the Duplex uterus contain?
- Uterus contains no body and two cervix
- what is the function of the cervix?
- Closing structure of the uterus
- Males contain two cell types in the micro tubules what are they?
- Sperm cells
- The Natureal weaning of beef calves usually occurs at about___months
- 7 months
- During reproduction fertility typically occurs in which area of the female?
- when was the "golden age" of the horse?
- what terms refers to a castrated horse?
- How long does a typical milking session take for the average dairy cow?
- 3-6 minutes
- which swine body type is closet to the wild type?
- Lard type.
- what is the term used for a your female pig prior to its first parturition?
- Most pigs in the US are produced on farms of what size?
- very large farms >5000
- Most of the non-cow milk producted in the US is used for what produced?
- what are major ingredients in typical commercial poultry feed?
- Corn and Soybean
- what are the enviromental condition is stimulatory for chickens to lay eggs?
- Long days
- the process ensured that the cream fracton did not separate from the mile after processing is _____
- In the testes, sperm cells develop....
- in a series of tubuals
- what uterine type does not have horns?
- what types of animals are the primary interest when studying Animal Science?
- Livestock and Poultry
- which species of producion animals is produced in the largest numbers?
- which country is the largest producer of sheep?
- what is Mohair?
- Goat hair used for fabric
- The wool of what breed of sheep is considered to be the best?
- The genetic code is a system where triplets of nucleotides that position other compounds into the correct sequence so they can become functional what are these compounds?
- Amino Acids
- Who was the first to understand the science of genetics?
- Gregor Mendel
- Which of the following is a true statement regarding the science of genetics?
- The unit of heredity is the gene
- what is the primary product that uses sheep milk?
- what time of the year would estrus cycling begin in sheep?
- what is the gestation period of and ewe?
- about 5 months
- When an animal accidentally ingests shards of barb wire this is called...
- Hardware Disease
- In a Ruminant what are the four stomachs, and which is called the "true stomach"?
Abomasum is considered the true stomach.
- Inside the rumen there are three different kinds of organisms what are they?
- how many different species of bacteria are in the rumen?
- >200 species
99.5% obligate anaerobes
- what microbe has been recently discovered inside the rumen of a ruminant?
- Fungi and has only been known for ~20 yrs.
- what are the classes of ingredients?
- concentrates and Roughages
- what classifies a concentrate?
- Seeds of plants
lots of nutrients
- what classifies roughages?
- Leaves and stems
- what is the primary source of energy?
- what are the three forms of Carbohydrates?
- what do animals use to break down monosaccharides?
- what nutrient class provide the highest energy per gram?
- Digestion of carbs results in what compound that is absorbed in the small intestine?
- what is the primary energy source in livestock and poultry diets?
- fat is glycerol bound to fatty acids
- Animal science=???
- Animal production
- what is the definition of reproduction?
- the method of an organism to replace itself
- what is cryptorchidism?
- non descended testis
- what is an autosome?
- a non sex-chromosome
- what is the definition of Locus?
- gene site on the chromosome.
- what is the definition of Alleles?
- forms of a gene that can occupy a locus
- what are some allelic interactions?
- Complete dominance
- what are the best ovulation months for a horse?
- what are the poorest ovulation months for a horse?
- where did the original domestication of the horse occur?
- central Asia, Mongolia
- where did the Indian tribes of the North American West get their horses?
- Feral horse brought from Spain b the Spanish explorers.
- what is the "let-down" reflex in cows?
- a hormonal response caused b washing and drying the udder prior to milking.
- What is the definition of Mitosis?!
- The process of somatic cell division.
- what is the definition of Meiosis?
- The process that forms sex cells. Cells formed through meiosis have half the number of chromosomes of the parent cells.
- Examples of saturated fats, what defines saturated fat?
- Animal Fat
what defines saturated fat? Solid at room temp.
- what is the definition of fat? what are the examples?
- Liquid at room temp.
- how are fats digested?
- Bile from the liver
Lipase from pancreas
- protien is the energy- The "FIRE" to run the body!
- ... yeeas
- what are the two ways to calculate protein?
- Crude Protein
- what does Vitamin A do?
- helps with vision
- low or lacking vitamins in diet results in?
- Poor Production
Mucus membrane problems
- animal low or lacking in vitamin D results what issue?
- what does Vitamin D do for livestock?
- helps with the absorption and deposition of Ca
- What purpose does vitamin E do?
- Nervous and Muscular maintance
- what results from having a vitamin E deficiency?
- what does Vitamin K do for the body?
- Blood Clotting
A few weeks before docking is given
- what vitamin is lowest in grains?
- what vitamin is most in grains?
- B12 growth
- Most species the site of sperm deposition is....
- the Vagina
- what are steroids?
any of a large group of fat-soluble organic compounds, as the sterols, bile acids, and sex hormones, most of which have specific physiological action.
- what is an ectopic pregnancy?
- implanted in the wrong place and damage will occur
- what are the two primary function of the ovary?
- ovum (egg cells) and
Hormones (estrogen, Progesterone)
- what does estrogen affect?
- the whole system
- what is a vasectomy?
- sever only the vas deferns
- what is cremaster muscle?
- quick movement of testis "fight or flight"
- what is panagenesis?
- sperm and egg all parts of the bod each giving its own traits.
- what is preformationism?
- completely formed miniature individual inside sperm and egg cells
- what is Germplasm?
- sex cells are fundamentally different that body cells--somatoplasm
- Do chromosomes occur in pairs?
- yeah swine have 19 actually
- Livestock are genetically diploid
- what Phase in Mitosis does most of cell life happen?
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