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Glossary of Animal Science Final

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Created by snethena

In the US what percentage of land is devoted to pasture and range?
~30%
what are the three primary types of livestock digestive systems?
1. Monogastric(one stomach)swine and poultry

2. Pseudo-ruminants (horses)
3. Poly-gastric (more than one stomach)ruminants, cows, sheep, and goats.


what are some of the common Horse breeds developed in the US?
Quarter horse
Morgan
Standard bred
Tennessee walking horse
"color Breeds"
palomino
Appaloosa
Paint






The puberty of a horse...
What is the Estrus cycle?
Beginning at approx. 12-15 months
The puberty of a horse...
what is the age for first breeding?
2 yrs old
Puberty in horses..
most mares breed to the ages of____yrs
14-16 yrs
The estrus cycle...
what are the best months for ovulation?
April-Sept.
The Estrus cycle for a horse is between____--____days
21-23 days
For horse the variable ovulation months are?
Sept-Nov
Feb-April
what is the definition of a barrow?



A castrated male pig
what is the definition of a intact male pig?
Boar
what is Docking?
Tail removing
what is the definition of Farrow?
give birth to piglets (partition)
what is the definition of fecundity?
The ability to produce many offspring.
what is the definition of a feeder pig?
age and weight of a pig ready for finishing.
what is a gilt?
it is a young female pig before first farrowing.
what is the definition of porcine?
Pertaining to swine
what is the definition of a sow?
Female after giving birth to first liter.
Domestic Pigs trace to...
Southeast Asian Pig
Domestic Pigs originated in which country...
Southeast Asia
True or False domestic pigs can easily revert to a feral state?
True
The origin of Native American Pigs are...
Razorbacks, Peccary, and Javalina.
what are some positive aspects of swine production?
hogs are good self feeders
Easy to start small operations
Higher dressing %
Price spread less that beef cattle
excellent converters of poor quality of feed.



what country eats the most pork?
Dennark
what are the types of swine operations?
Feeder-Pig production
Feeder pig to finish
Farrow to finish
seed-stock


which has greater fecundity---Pigs or Cattle?
Pigs
Breeding (pigs) when is the Gilts first heat?
4-5 months
Breeding (pigs)when are pigs typically bred?
in the 3rd heat
Breeding (pigs) when are pigs first bred?
7-8 months
Breeding(pigs)when are piglets born?
11-12 months
Is Linoleic and essential acid?
Yes indeed it is! its an omega-3 fatty acid
what are the two types of minerals?
Macro and Micro

Macro > 100ppm Micro < 100ppm
What are some Macro minerals?
Ca, P, and Mg

Ca-P must be in proper ratio
P-energy metabolism
Mg-Enzyme co-factor

Na, K, Cl

Na- Outside to inside cell,lymph,blood extracellular

K-inside cells

Cl-HCl in gut for digestion











what are some Micro minerals?
Catalysts for enzymes

some important minerals

Mn-Perosis
Zn- bone, fur, and feathers
Se- Musle Function
I-Thyroid Function (goiter)








what is the definition of Vitamins?
A diverse group of compounds...its and organic compound.

It is usually not synthesized
and small amounts needed
not structural member



how many vitamins are required by monogastrics?
13 required
what are the two classes of vitamins?
1. Fat Soluble-A,D,E,K

2. Water soluble- B-complex

B1 thaimin, B2 Riboflavin, Nicothinio (Niacin), B6 Pyridoxine, Pantotheric acid, Biotin, Folicin, Folic acid, B12 choline.



Reproduction strategies
what are the two types of reproduction?
1 Asexual Production-Budding splitting off division not typical in livestock, plants lower animal life

2. Sexual- requires male and female contribution

what is the definition of Segregation in terms of genetics..
Each trait has two possibilities which pass to offspring in a random but predictable way.
what is the definition of Independent Assortment in terms of genetics?
Different traits pass to offspring without regard any other trait.
is an animal physical size related to the number of chromosomes it contains?
NO!!

horse >human >Mouse

what organism did Mendel used to determine the genetic laws?
Peas!
where is the cite of sperm deposition in swine?
cervix
where is the sperm deposition in a Horse?
Uterus
what is the shape of the cervis in Ruminants and swine?
annular rings
what is the shape of the cervix of horses and humans?
Folds(finger like protection)
what are the different uterus types?
Simplex
Bipartiate
Bicornuate
Duplex


what does the Simplex uterus type contain?
Uterus contains a body and no horns
what does the Bipartite uterus contain? And what are some species that have a Bipartite uterus?
uterus contain body and horns sometimes confused with Bicornate.

Examples of Bipartite Uterus:
Ruminants, Horses, Dogs, Cats


what does the Bicornate type contain?
Uterus contains horns, no body
What does the Duplex uterus contain?
Uterus contains no body and two cervix
what is the function of the cervix?
Closing structure of the uterus
Males contain two cell types in the micro tubules what are they?
Sperm cells

sertoli cells

The Natureal weaning of beef calves usually occurs at about___months
7 months
During reproduction fertility typically occurs in which area of the female?
Oviduct
when was the "golden age" of the horse?
1890-1920
what terms refers to a castrated horse?
Gelding.
How long does a typical milking session take for the average dairy cow?
3-6 minutes
which swine body type is closet to the wild type?
Lard type.
what is the term used for a your female pig prior to its first parturition?
Gilt
Most pigs in the US are produced on farms of what size?
very large farms >5000
Most of the non-cow milk producted in the US is used for what produced?
Cheese
what are major ingredients in typical commercial poultry feed?
Corn and Soybean
what are the enviromental condition is stimulatory for chickens to lay eggs?
Long days
the process ensured that the cream fracton did not separate from the mile after processing is _____
Homogenization
In the testes, sperm cells develop....
in a series of tubuals
what uterine type does not have horns?
Simplex
what types of animals are the primary interest when studying Animal Science?
Livestock and Poultry
which species of producion animals is produced in the largest numbers?
Chickens
which country is the largest producer of sheep?
Australia
what is Mohair?
Goat hair used for fabric
The wool of what breed of sheep is considered to be the best?
Merino
The genetic code is a system where triplets of nucleotides that position other compounds into the correct sequence so they can become functional what are these compounds?
Amino Acids
Who was the first to understand the science of genetics?
Gregor Mendel
Which of the following is a true statement regarding the science of genetics?
The unit of heredity is the gene
what is the primary product that uses sheep milk?
Cheese
what time of the year would estrus cycling begin in sheep?
Fall
what is the gestation period of and ewe?
about 5 months
When an animal accidentally ingests shards of barb wire this is called...
Hardware Disease
In a Ruminant what are the four stomachs, and which is called the "true stomach"?
Rumen
Reticulum
Omansum
Abomasum

Abomasum is considered the true stomach.




Inside the rumen there are three different kinds of organisms what are they?
Bacteria
Protozoa
Fungi

how many different species of bacteria are in the rumen?
>200 species

99.5% obligate anaerobes

what microbe has been recently discovered inside the rumen of a ruminant?
Fungi and has only been known for ~20 yrs.
what are the classes of ingredients?
concentrates and Roughages
what classifies a concentrate?
Seeds of plants

High energy
Low fiber
High digestibility
high density
lots of nutrients





what classifies roughages?
Leaves and stems

Moderate energy
High fiber
low digestibility



what is the primary source of energy?
Carbohydrates
what are the three forms of Carbohydrates?
Monosaccharides

Disaccharides

Polysaccharides



what do animals use to break down monosaccharides?
Saliva---Amylase
what nutrient class provide the highest energy per gram?
Fats
Digestion of carbs results in what compound that is absorbed in the small intestine?
Monosaccarides
what is the primary energy source in livestock and poultry diets?
Carbs
fat is glycerol bound to fatty acids
...yes!
Animal science=???
Animal production
what is the definition of reproduction?
the method of an organism to replace itself
what is cryptorchidism?
non descended testis
infertile male
what is an autosome?
a non sex-chromosome
what is the definition of Locus?
gene site on the chromosome.
what is the definition of Alleles?
forms of a gene that can occupy a locus
what are some allelic interactions?
Complete dominance
Co-Dominance
Incomplete dominance

what are the best ovulation months for a horse?
April-Sept
what are the poorest ovulation months for a horse?
Nov-April
where did the original domestication of the horse occur?
central Asia, Mongolia
where did the Indian tribes of the North American West get their horses?
Feral horse brought from Spain b the Spanish explorers.
what is the "let-down" reflex in cows?
a hormonal response caused b washing and drying the udder prior to milking.
What is the definition of Mitosis?!
The process of somatic cell division.
what is the definition of Meiosis?
The process that forms sex cells. Cells formed through meiosis have half the number of chromosomes of the parent cells.
Examples of saturated fats, what defines saturated fat?
Animal Fat
Coconut Oil
Palm Oil

what defines saturated fat? Solid at room temp.



what is the definition of fat? what are the examples?
Liquid at room temp.

corn oil
soybean oil
vegetable oil





how are fats digested?
Bile from the liver

Lipase from pancreas

protien is the energy- The "FIRE" to run the body!
... yeeas
what are the two ways to calculate protein?
Crude Protein

Amino Acids

what does Vitamin A do?
helps with vision
low or lacking vitamins in diet results in?
Poor Production
Poor Health
Mucus membrane problems

animal low or lacking in vitamin D results what issue?
Ricketts
what does Vitamin D do for livestock?
helps with the absorption and deposition of Ca
What purpose does vitamin E do?
Nervous and Muscular maintance
what results from having a vitamin E deficiency?
encephalopathy
Exudativediathesis
Muscular dystrophy



what does Vitamin K do for the body?
Blood Clotting

A few weeks before docking is given

what vitamin is lowest in grains?
Riboflavin--B2
what vitamin is most in grains?
B12 growth
Most species the site of sperm deposition is....
the Vagina
what are steroids?
ovary

any of a large group of fat-soluble organic compounds, as the sterols, bile acids, and sex hormones, most of which have specific physiological action.

what is an ectopic pregnancy?
implanted in the wrong place and damage will occur
what are the two primary function of the ovary?
ovum (egg cells) and

Hormones (estrogen, Progesterone)



what does estrogen affect?
the whole system
what is a vasectomy?
sever only the vas deferns
what is cremaster muscle?
quick movement of testis "fight or flight"
what is panagenesis?
sperm and egg all parts of the bod each giving its own traits.
what is preformationism?
completely formed miniature individual inside sperm and egg cells
what is Germplasm?
sex cells are fundamentally different that body cells--somatoplasm
Do chromosomes occur in pairs?
yeah swine have 19 actually
Livestock are genetically diploid
...yuppers!
what Phase in Mitosis does most of cell life happen?
Interphase

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