cueFlash

Glossary of Anatomy and Physiology Lab

Start Studying! Add Cards ↓

Created by alexluft16

Anterior/Posterior

Assuming the person is in the anatomical position 

  • Front/back
  • In humans, the most anterior structures are those that are the most forward
    • The face, chest, abdomen
  • Posterior structures are those toward the backside of the body
    • The spine, i

Cephalad (cranial)/Caudal

More absolute 

  • Toward the head/toward the tail
  • In humans, used interchangeably with superior/inferior
  • In quadrupeds, they are synonymous with anterior and posterior, respectively

Dorsal body cavity

    Cranial cavity

    Spinal cavity 

Dorsal: can be subdivided into cranial and vertebral/spinal cavities

 

  • Cranial - encloses the brain
  • Vertebral/spinal - spinal cord is protected by the bon

Dorsal/ventral 

More absolute

  • Backside/bellyside
  • In humans, these terms are used interchangeably with posterior/anterior, respectively
  • In quadrupeds, these terms are used interchageably with inferior and superior, respectively

Frontal/coronal plane

     

  • Divides the body/organ into anterior or posterior parts

 

Medial/lateral

Assuming the person is in the anatomical position 

  • Toward the midlin/away from midline or median plane
  • The sternum is medial to the ribs
  • The ear is lateral to the nose

Proximal/Distal

More absolute

  • Nearer the trunk or attached end/Farther from the trunk or point of attachment
  • The fingers are distal to the elbow
  • The knee is proximal to the toes

Sagittal plane

    Midsagittal plane

    Parasaggital plane 

Sagittal plane: a plane that runs longitudinally and divides the body into right and left parts.  If it divides the body into equal parts, right down the median plane of the body, it is called a median, or midsagittal

Serosa (serous membrane)

  • Parietal serosa
  • Visceral serosa
  • Peritoneum
  • Pleura
  • Pericardium

Serosa - a thin, double-layered membrane that covers the walls of the ventral body cavity and the outer surfaces of the organs it contains 

  • Parietal - lines the cavity walls
  • Visceral - covers the external surface of the organs w

Superior/Inferior

Assuming the person is in the anatomical position 

  • Above/below
  • Nose is superior to the mouth
  • Abdomen is inferior to chest

Transverse plane

    Cross section 

  • Runs horizontally, dividing the body into superior and inferior parts
    • When organs are sectioned along the transverse plane, the sections are commonly called cross sections

Ventral body cavity

    Thoracic body cavity

    Abdominopelvic body cavity

        Abdominal cavity

        Pelvic cavity

Ventra body cavity is subdivided into:

  • Superior thoracic cavity - separated from the rest of the ventral cavity by the diaphragm.  Contains heart and lungs.
  • Inferior abdominopelvic cavity:
Abdominal
Pertaining to the anterior body trunk region inferior to the ribs
Abdominopelvic quadrants

Named according to their relative position

  • Right upper
  • Right lower
  • Left upper
  • Left lower
The terms left and right refer to the left and right of the figure, not your own.  The left and right of the figur
Abdominopelvic regions
  • Umbillical
  • Epigastric
  • Hypogastric (pubic)
  • Illiac/inguinal
  • Lumbar
  • Hypochondriac
Acromial
Pertaining to the point of the shoulder
Anatomical Position  
  • A universally accepted standard position
  • Human body is erect
  • Feet only slightly apart
  • Head and toes pointed forward
  • Arms hanging at the sides with palms facing forward
Antebrachial
Pertaining to the forearm
Antecubital
Pertaining to the anterior surface of the elbow
Appendicular
Relating to limbs and their attachmens to the axis
Axial        
Relating to head, neck, and trunk; the axis of the body  
Axillary
Pertaining to the armpit
Brachial
Pertaining to the arm
Buccal
Pertaining to the cheek
Calcaneal
Pertaining to the heel of the foot
Carpal
Pertaining to the wrist
Cephalic
Pertaining to the head
Cervical
Pertaining to the neck region
Coxal
Pertaining to the hip
Crural
Pertaining to the leg
Digital
Pertaining to the fingers or toes
Dorsum
Pertaining to the back
Femoral
Pertaining to the thigh
Fibular (peroneal)
Pertaining to the side of the leg
Frontal
Pertaining to the forehead
Gluteal
Pertaining to the buttocks or rump
Hallux
Pertaining to the great toe
Inguinal
Pertaining to the groin
Lumbar
Pertaining to the area of the back between the ribs and hips; the loin
Mammary
Pertaining to the breast
Manus
Pertaining to the hand
Mental
Pertaining to the chin
Middle ear cavities

Carved into the skull

Cotain tiny bones that transmit sound vibrations to the organ of hearing in the inner ears 

Nasal
Pertaining to the nose
Nasal cavity

Located within and posterior to the nose

 

Occipital
Pertaining to the posterior aspect of the head or base of the skull
Olecranal
Pertaining to the posterior aspect of the elbow
Oral
Pertaining to the mouth
Oral cavity

Commonly called the mouth

  • Contains:
    • Tongue
    • Teeth
Open to the anus
Orbital
Pertaining to the eye socket (orbit); bony
Orbital cavities
(orbits) house the eyes and presetn them in an anterior position
Otic
Pertaining to the ear
Palmar
Pertaining to the palm of the hand
Patellar
Pertaining to the anterior knee (kneecap) region
Pedal
Pertaining to the foot
Pelvic
Pertaining to the pelvic region
Perineal
Pertaining to the region between the anus and external genitalia
Plantar
Pertaining to the sole of the foot
Pollex
Pertaining to the thumb
Popliteal
Pertaining to the back of the knee
Pubic
Pertaining to the genital region
Sacral
Pertaining to the region between the hips (overlying the sacrum)
Scapular
Pertaining to the scapula or shoulder blade area
Sternal
Pertaining to the region of the breast bone
Superficial (external)/deep (internal)
  • Toward or at the body surface/away from the body surface
  • The skin is superficial to the skeletal muscles
  • The lungs are deep to the rib cage
Sural
Pertaining to the calf or posterior surface of the leg
Synovial cavities

Joint cavities - they are enclosed within fibrous capsules that surround the freely movable joints of the body, such as those between the vertebrae and the knee and hip joints.

  • They secrete a lubricating fluid (just like serous membranes of
Tarsal
Pertaining to the ankle
Thoracic
Pertaining to the chest
Umbillical
Pertaining to the navel
Vertebral
Pertaining to the area of the spinal column

Add Cards

You must Login or Register to add cards