Glossary of Anatomy Lab Practical

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central nervous system
consists of the brain and spinal cord, integrating center that interprets incoming information, makes decisions, and initiates signals to create responses within the body.
peripheral nervous system
includes the cranial nerves and spinal nerves, serves to carry out signals to and from the integrating center, providing routes of communication between the body periphery and the CNS
input component of the PNS, consists of sensory receptors that respond to stimuli from the internal and external environments
output, consists of neurons that conduct motor signals from the CNS to various effector organs
Somatic nervous system
targets skeletal muscle cells
autonomic nervous system
portion which targets smooth and cardiac muscle, and glands
excitable cells of the nervous system specialized to conduct electrical signals known as action potentials
cell body (soma)
contains most of the organelles of the neuron including the nucleus
extend from the soma and receive electrical impulses from other neurons
extends from the soma and propogates the electrical signals away from the soma and towards the axon terminals
chemicals used to transfer electrical signals from one excitable cell to another
two processes coming off
multiple processes coming off
sensory neurons
conduct action potentials toward the CNS
motor neurons
conduct motor impulses away from the CNS
reside entirely within the CNS and link sensory and motor
neuroglia- fxns
nerve glue, provide support to neurons
produce CSF, produce myelin sheaths, form the blood-CSF and blood-brain barriers, act as phagocytes, repair damaged neurons
cerebrospinal fluid, cushions and supports the brain and spinal cord withink the dorsal body cavity
myelin sheaths
surround myelinated axons and increase the speed of condution of action potentials
center of intelligence, memory, and emotion
four principal parts of the brain
cerebrum, cerebellum, diencephalon, brain stem
connects the cerebrum to the brain stem, thalamus and hypothalamus
brain stem
continuous with spinal cord, includes pons, medulla, and midbrain
white matter
composed of myelinated axons and many different neurons
gray matter
absence of myelin, the gray matter in the cerebrum is called the cerebral cortex
convolutions caused by folding of the brain when gray matter grows faster than white matter
longitudinal fissure
divides the cerebrum into the right and left cerebral hemispheres
corpus callosum
internal structure that links the right and left hemispheres
central sulcus
depression that divides the brain into the anterior and posterior components
cerebellum white and gray matter
called the arbor vitae (tree of life), gray matter is cerebellar cortex
connective tissue coverings that surround the brain and spinal cord, protect the underlying neural tissues and provide stability
dura mater
toughest outermost meningeal layer, outer layer fuses with periosteum of skull, inner layer folds into cranial cavity
3 major dural folds
falx cerebri, falx cerebelli, tentorium cerebelli
falx cerebri
extends into the longitudinal fissure
falx cerebelli
extends between the cerebellar hemispheres
tentorium cerebelli
extends between the cerebrum and cerebellum, forming a tent of dura mater over the cerebellum
at points where the inner dura folds into the cranial cavity, contains venous blood
arachnoid meningeal layer
deep to the dura mater, comprised of collagen and some elastic fibers, web-like fashion
subarachnoid space
cerebrospinal fluid flows around the brain and spinal cord
pia mater
deepest and most delicate layer. adheres to the brain surface, penetrating every sulci and fissure
inflammation of one or more of the meningeal layers
cerebrospinal fluid
CSF is a clear, colorless fluid comprised of water, glucose, ions, and proteins, circulates around the brain
fxn of cerebrospinal fluid
cushion and provide a shock absorbing medium for the brain within the cranial cavity, creates an optimal enrionment for the generation of action potentials, and provides a means for the exchange of nutrients and wastes between the blood and the tissues of the CNS
CSF formed where?
in ventricles of the brain
flow into the 3rd ventricle by the interventricular foramen, through 4th ventricle through cerebral aqueduct, through apertures to subarachnoid space and central canal
arachnoid villi
extensions of the arachnoid layer, serve as sites of reabsorption of CSF into the dural sinuses
three basic types of functional areas of the brain
sensory, motor, association
association areas
involved in the development of memory of sensory stimuli or motor skills
primary motor area
location: pre-central gyrus, anterior to central sulcus
fxn: coordinate the voluntary activation of skeletal muscle
premotor area
loc: anterior to primary motor area
fxn: control output of primary motor area, develops patterns of nueronal signalling for complex motor skills such as walking, running, or riding bike
motor speech area
Broca's area
loc: inferior to premotor area
fxn: control activity of the muscles involved in production of speech, translation of conscious thought into speech
primary somatosensory area
loc: post-central gyrus
fxn: receive and interpret info from sensory neurons regarding stimuli such as touch, pain, temp, and pressure
somatosensory association area
loc: posterior to primary somatosensory area
fxn: stores the memory of past sensory stimuli
primary auditory area
loc: temporal lobe
fxn: receive sensory input from the vestibulocochlear nerve that innervates the hearing apparatus of ear, basic info on characteristics of sound interpretted
auditory association area
loc: posterior to primary auditory
fxn: act to interpret sound
primary visual area
loc: occipital lobe
fxn: receive sensory inputs from the optic nerve regarding visual stimuli, interprets incoming info on the color, shape, and movement of a visual stimulus
visual association area
loc: anterior to pirmary visual
fxn: memory of visual stimuli develops here for recognizing objects already seen
serves as a relay station for incoming sensory stimuli, routed by the thalamus to the appropriate region for interpretation
contribute to maintenence of homeostasis, regulation of the activities of the centers in the pons and medulla that control heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, reg of hormonal secretions of pituitary gland, body temp regulation, reg of eating and drinking
medulla oblongata
centers for the regulation of breathing and cardiovascular function
controls breathing, bridge between medulla and the rest of the brain
contains the cerebral peduncles (bundles of axons within the CNS that relay motor and sensory impulses to and from the cortex) and the corpora quadrigemina (fxn in visual and auditory reflexes)
provides proprioceptive feedback from muscles and tendons during body movements, assists in posture and balance
provide info on the location and position of various body segments
name the twelve cranial nerves and their type

fxns of the twelve types of nerves
write down
white of eye, adds to shape of eye and provides protection
anteriormost portion of sclera, appears cloudy, first portion of eye to receive light
mucous membrane that protects cornea from mechanical damage
optic nerve
carries info regarding visual stimuli to occipital lobe
ciliary body
black pigmented body that appears as a halo encircling lengs, mostly muscle, secretes aqueous humor
biconvex structure that is hard, change in shape affects focusing of light on retina
suspensory ligaments
halo of delicate fibers attaching the lens to the ciliary body
anterior continuation of ciliary body penetrated by the pupil, gives the eye its color
posterior continuation of the ciliary body, iridescent in nocturnal animals
delicate yellowish-white membrane that easily separates from the choroid layer, contains the photoreceptors necessary for vision
tapetum lucidum
iridescent layer found in nocturnal animals for maximizing vision
aqueous humor
watery liquid circulates anterior cavity of eye
vitreous humor
thick, gelatinous substance located in the posterior cavity of the eye behind the lens, helps maintain position of the retina
rapid, automatic responses to particular internal or external stimuli
reflex arc
wiring of a reflex
path of reflex
sensory receptor, sensory neuron, integrating center, motor neuron, effector
integrating center either...
spinal cord or brain dependinig on where afferent information is processed
one synapse formed
multiple synapses formed
muscle spindles
reflex which activates stretch receptors
babinski's sign
abnormal reponse to plantar reflex test, toes separate and big toe extends, normal in newborns
somatic (general) sensation
pain, touch, temp, proprioception, less complex and distributed throughout the body namely the skin
special sensation
vision, hearing, smell, taste, equilibrium, found in more localized regions
three types of somatic sensory receptors
mechanoreceptors, thermorecpetors, nociceptors
provide sensations of touch, pressure, and proprioception, those that respond to touch or pressure are tactile receptors
respond to pain
respond to temperature
tactile receptors
free nerve endings, root hair plexuses, merkel discs, meissner's corpuscles, pacinian corpuscles, end organs of ruffini
two proprioreceptive mechanoreceptors
golgi tendon organs and muscle spindles, respond to muscle tension development and stretch respectively
free nerve endings
dendrites of sensory neurons located in the superficial layers of the skin. these receptors are sensitive to touch and pressure
meisnner's corpuscles
large structures found in abundance in dermis of eyelids, lips, and fingertips, respond to sensations of fine touch and pressure
hair root plexuses
dendrites arranged in networks around hair follicles that monitor the mechanical distortions of hair
end organs of ruffini
receptors in the deeper parts of the dermis that are sensitive to pressure and distortion of skin
merkel discs
fine touch and pressure receptors located in the epidermis of the skin
pacinian corpuscles
receptors in the dermis that respond to deep pressure
negative afterimages
when temperature stimulus changed rapidly and significantly in magnitude, two factors which enhance sensation of temp.
receptive field
term that describes the area within which a cutaneous receptor can respond to a particular stimulus, larger the field less ability to interpret exact location of stimulus
referred pain
sensation experienced when pain seems to be arising in one area of the body, although the actual site of the painful stimulus is elsewhere

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