cueFlash

Glossary of Anatomy I Chapter 4:Tissues

Start Studying! Add Cards ↓

What are tissues?
are a group of cells that are similar in structure and perform a common or related function
NAME
are a group of cells that are similar in structure and perform a common or related function
tissues
What are the four primary tissues?
(1)epithelial (2)connective (3)muscle (4)nervous
NAME
are the "fabric of the body"
primary tissues
In one word describe the genereal role of epithelial tissue?
covering
NAME
the general role of this main tissue type is covering
epithelial
What is the general role of the connective tissue?
support
NAME
the general role of this main tissue is for support
connective
What is the general role of the muscle tissue?
movement
NAME
the general role of this main tissue is for movement
muscle
NAME
the general role of this main tissue is for control
nervous
What is the general role of the nervous tissue?
nervous
What is histology?
is the study of the tissues
NAME
is the study of the tissues
histology
Epithelial tissue is also called (1)
epithelium
(1) tissue is also called epithelium
Epithelial
What is Epithelial?
is a sheet of cells that covers a body surface or lines a body cavity
NAME
is a sheet of cells that covers a body surface or lines a body cavity
Epithelial
How can epithelial tissue ocur in the as body? (2)
(1)covering and lining epithelium (2)glandular epitheleum
The covering and lining epithelium forms the outer later of the (1),(2), and (3)
(1)skin (2)dips into and lines the open cavities of the cardiovascular, digestive, and respiratory system (3)covers the walls and organs of the closed ventral body cavity
(1) and (2) of (3) forms the outer layer of the skin, dips into and lines the open cavities of the cardiovascular, digestive, and respirartory system, and covers the walls and organs of the closed ventral body cavity
(1)covering (2)lining (3)epithelium
What are some of the main functions of Epithelial tissue? (6)
(1)protection (2)absorption (3)filtration (4)excretion (5)secretion (6)sensory reception
NAME
this main tissue's functions include protection, absorption, filtration, excretion, secretion, sensory, and reception
Epithelial tissue
What are the specail charracteristics of Epithelial tissue?
(1)cellulartiy (2)specialized contacts (3)polarity (4)supported by connective tissue
NAME
this main tissue's special characteristics include, cellularity, specialized contactsm polarity, and supported by connective tissue
Epithelial tissue
NAME
this means that cells are tightly packed together
Cellularity
How does Epithelial tissue have specialized contacts?
Epithelial cells fit close together to form continous sheets (2)Adjacent cells are bond together at many points
NAME
this main tissue has cells that fit close to together to form continous sheets and adjacent cells bond together at many points
Epithelial tissue
All (1) tissue has a apical surface
Epithelia
What is apical surface?
is an upper free surface exposed to the body exterior or the cavity of the internal organ and a lower attached basal body
NAME
is an upper free surface exposed to the body exterior or the cavity of the internal organ and a lower attached basal body
apical surface
All epithlea have an (1)
apical surface
What does it mean that all epithelia exhibit polarity?
means that cell regions near the apical surface differ from those near the basal surface in both structure and function
NAME
means that cell regions near the apical surface differ from those near the basal surface structure and function
epithelia tissue exhibiting polarity
NAME
are fingerlike extensions of the plasma membrane
microvilli
What are microvilli?
are fingerlike extensions of the plasma membrane
(1) tremendously increase the exposed surface area and in epithelia that absorb and secrete
microvilli
What is a brush border?
is because the mircovilli are so dense that the cell's apeice have a fuzzy appearnce
NAME
refers the mircovilli's fuzzy appearance due to thier density
brush border
NAME
propel substances along thier surface
cilla
Lying adjacent to the basal surface of an Epithelial tissue is a thin supporting sheet called the (1)
basal lamina
What is the basal lamina?
is a this supporting sheet that lies adjacent to the basal surface of an epitelial tissue
The basal lamina consists of (1) secreted by the epithelia cells
glycoprotiens
NAME
acts as a selective filter that determines which molecules diffusing from the underlying connective tissue will be allowed to enter the Epithelial tissue
basal lamina
the basal lamina acts as a (1) that determines which (2)
(1)selective filter (2)molecules diffusing from the underlying connective tissue will be
All epitheal tissues rest upon and are supported by (1)
connective tissue
All (1) tissue rest upon and are surrported by a connective tissue
epitheal tissue
Just deep to the basal lamina is the (1)
reticular lamina
Just (1) to the (2) is the reticular lamina
(1)deep (2)basal lamina
What is the reticular lamina?
a layer of extracellular material containing a fine network of collagen protien fibers that "belongs" to the underlying connective tissue
NAME
is a layer of extracellular material containing a fine network of collagen protien fibers that "belongs" to the underlying connective tissue
reticular lamina
What is the basement membrane?
is the combo of the two laminae
The reticular lamina and the basal lamina make up the (1)
basement membrane
what makes up the basement membrane? (2)
(1)basal lamina (2)reticular lamina
What is an important characteristic of cancerous epithelial cells?
they fail to respect the epitheal boundry which they penetrate to invade the tissues beneath
NAME
these cells tend to fail to respect the epithelial boundry by they penetrate to invade the tissue beneath
cancerous epithelial cells
the (1) reinforces the epitheial sheet, helping it to resist streching and tearing forces, and defines the epithelial boundry
basement membrane
What does innervated mean?
suppiled by the nere cells
NAME
means supplied by the nerve fibers
innervated
What does avascular mean?
means contains no blood
NAME
means contains no blood
avascular
NAME
these main tissue is avasular but innervated
epithelium
NAME
this main tissue has a high regenerative capacity
epithelium
T or F
as longs as epithelium cells reecieve adquate nutrion, they can replace lost cells by cell division
true
Each epithelium has two given (1)
names
What do each of the two names given to epithelium tissue refer to?
(1)the first name indicates the number of cell layers present and (2)the secound describes the shape of its cells
Based on the cell layers, what are two types of epithelium tissue?
(1)simple (2)straified
What is simple epithelia?
are composed of single cell layer
NAME
is tissue that is composed of a single cell layer
simple epithelia
NAME
this type of tissue is typically found where absorption and filtration ocurs
simple epithelia
What is stratified epithelia?
is consisting of two or more cell layers stacked one on top of the other
NAME
is consisting of two or more cell layers stacked one on top of the other
straified epithelia
NAME
this tissue can be found in high abrasion areas where protection is important such as the skin surface and the lining of the mouth
strafied epithelia
Strafied epithelia can be found in areas of (1) where (2) is imporant in areas like the skin surface and the lining of the mouth
(1)high-abrasion (2)protection
What are the three common shapes of epithelia cells?
(1)squamous (2)cuboidal (3)columnar
What are squamous cells?
are flattened scalelike
NAME
are flattened and scalelike
squamous cells
what are cuboidal cells?
are boxlike
NAME
are boxlike
cuboidal cells
What are columnar cells?
are tall and column shaped
NAME
are tall and column shaped
columnar cells
in Strafied epithelia, the cell shapes (1)
differ amoung differ layers
In (1) epithelia, the cell shapes differ amoung the different layers
Strafied
(1) are most concerned w absorption, secretion, and filtration
simple epithelia
Simple epithelia are most concerned w (1), (2), and (3)
(1)absorption (2)secretion (3)filtration
What are simple squamous epthelium?
are flattened latterly and thier cytoplasm is sparse
NAME
are flattened laterly and thier cytoplasm is sparse
simple squamous epthelium
What are two differ types of simple squamous epithelia that have two special names that reflect thier location?
(1)Endothelium (2)Mesothelium
What is Endothelium?
provides a slick, friction-reducing lining in the lymphatic vessels
Endothelium and Mesoethelim are two types of (1) tissue named after thier location
epithelium
NAME
provides a skick, friction-reducing lining in the lymphatic vessels
endothelium
What is the mesothelium?
is the epithelium found in the serous membrane lining the ventral body cavity and covering its organs
NAME
is the epithelium found in the serous membrane lining the ventral body cavity and covering its organs
mesothelium
NAME
is a single layer of flattened cells w disc shaped central nuclei and sparse cytoplasm
simple squamous epithelium
NAME
is the simplest of the epithelia
simple squamous epithelium
What are the functions of the simple squamous epithelium? (2)
(1)allows the passage of materials by diffusion and filtration (2)secretes lubricating substances in seroasae
NAME
functions of this tissue include allows passage of diffusion and filtration and secretes lubricating substances in seroase
simple squamous epithelium
What is simple cuboidail epithelium?
consists of stable layer of cells as tall as they are wide
NAME
consists of stable layer of cells as tall as they are wide
simple cubiodial epithelium
NAME
this epithelum forms the walls of the smallest ducts and of many kidney tubules
simple cuboidal epithelium
Simple cuboidal epithelium forms the walls of the (1) and of many (2)
smallest ducts (2)kindey tubules
What is simple columnar epithelium?
is seen in a single layer of tall, closely packed cell, aligned like soliders in a row
NAME
is seen in a single layer of tall, closely packed cell, aligned like soliders in a row
simple columnar epithelium
NAME
this tissue lines the digestive tract from the stomach through the rectum
Simple columnar epithelium
Simple columnar epithelium lines the (1) from the (2) through the (3)
(1)digestive tract (2)stomach (3)rectum
What are two functions that make simple columnar epitheileum for a dual function?
(1)dense mircovilli on the apical surface of absorpotive cells (2)globet cells that secrete a protective lubricating mucus
What are globet cells?
are cells that secrete a protective lubricating mucus
NAME
are cells that secrete a protective lubricating mucus
globet cells
NAME
this tissue the cells vary in height resting on the basement membrane, but only the tallest reach the free surface of the epithelium
pseudostratifed columnar epithelium
What is pseudostratified columnar epithelium?
in this tissue the cells vary in height resting on the basement membrane, but only the tallest reach the free surface of the epithelium
What is the major role of pseudostratified columnar epithelium?
protection
NAME
the major role of this tissue is protection
pseudostratified columnar epithelium
NAME
single layer of cells of differing hieghts, some not reaching the free surface, nuclei are seen at all different levels and many contain globet cells
pseudostratified columnar epithelium
What is the function of pseudostratified columnar epithelium? (2)?
(1)secretion particullay mucous (2)propulsion of mucous by cillary action
NAME
functions include secretion particually mucous and propulsion of mucous by cillary action
pseudostratified columnar epithelium
NAME
single layer of cubelike cells w large, sperhical central nuclei
simple cubiodal epithelium
NAME
thier functions include secretion and absorption
simple cubiodal epithelium
What are the functions of simple cubiodal epithelium? (2)
(1)secretion (2)absorption
NAME
are simple layer of tall cells w round to oval nuclei;some cells bear cilla; layer may contain mucous secreting unicellular glands
simple columnar epithelium
What are the functions of simple columnar epithelium? (4)
(1)absorption (2)secretion of mucous (3)cillated type propel mucous (4)cilla action
NAME
functions include absorption, secrtion of mucous, cillated type propel mucous and cilla action
simple cilumnar epithelium
What is strafied squamous epithelium?
is the most widespread of the strafied epithelium
NAME
is the most widespread of the strafied epithelium
strafied squamous epithelium?
NAME
composed of several layers, it is thick and well suited for its protective role in the body
strafied squamous epithelium?
Where are strafied squamous epithelium most likly found?
in areas subjected to wear and tear and where its surface cells are constantly being rubbed away
NAME
is most likley to be found in areas subjected to wear and tear and where its surface cells are constantly being rubbed away
strafied squamous epithelium?
the outer layer of the epidermis is (1)
keratnized
the outer layer of the (1) is keratnized
epidermis
strafied squamous epithelium is (1)the other strafied epithelia are (2)
(1)keratinized (2)nonkeratnized
strafied squamous epithelium forms the (1)
external part of the skin
(1) forms the external part of the skin
strafied squamous epithelium?
What is the strafied cuboidal epithelium?
is a quite a rare in the body and is mostly found in the ducts of some of the larger glands
NAME
is quite a rare in the body in the body and is mostly found in the ducts of some of the larger glands
strafied cubiodal epithelium
What is the stratifed columnar epithelium?
has limited distrubtion in the body
NAME
has limited distrubtion in the body
strafied columnar epithelium
What is transitional epithelium?
forms the lining of the hollow urinary organs which strech as they fill w urine
NAME
forms the linings of the hollow urinary organs which strech as they fill w urine
transitional epithelium
NAME
thick membrane composed of several cell layers, basal cells are cubiodal or columnar and metabolically active; surface cells are flattened; in the kertanized type; the surface cells are full of kertain and dead; basal cells are active in mitois
strafied squamous epithelium
NAME
in the kertanized type; the surface cells are full of kertain and dead; basal cells are active in mitoisis and produce the cells of the more superfical layers
strafied squamous epithelium
NAME
resembles both strafied and squamous and strafied cuboidal; basal cells dome shaped or squamous;depending on degree of organ strech
transitional epithelium
What are the functions of the transitional epitehlium?
streches readily and permits the distension of urinary organ by contained urine
NAME
function of these tissue is that it streches readily and permits the distension of urinary organ by contained urine
transitional eptiehlium
What is the function of the strafied squamous epithelium?
protects underlying tissue in areas subject to abrasion
NAME
protets underlying tissue in areas subject to abrasion
strafied squamous epithelium
What is gland?
consists of one or more cells that make and secrete a particular product
NAME
consists of one ore more cells that make and secrete a particular product
gland
What is secretion?
is an aqueous fluid that usally contains protiens, but there is a variation
NAME
is an aqueous fluid that usally contains protiens, but there is a variation
secretion
Glands are classifed as (1) or (2)
endocrine (2)exocrine
what does endocrine?
means internally secreting
NAME
means internally secreatng
endocrine
What does exocrine?
externally secreting
NAME
means externally secreting
exocrine
What are endocrine glands?
are glands that lose thier ducts
NAME
are glands that lose thier ducts
endocrine glands
(1) glands are often called the ductless glands
endocrine
endocrine glands are often called the (1) glands
ductless
What are horomones?
are regulatory chemicals that they secrete chemicals by exocytosis
NAME
are regulatory chemicals that they secrete chemicals by expocytosis
hormones
All (1) glands secrete thier substances on the skin or into the body cavities
exocrine
some individiual hormone producing cells are scattered in the digestive tract mucos and in the brain giving rise to thier collective description as the (1)
diffuse endocrine system
What are exocrine glands?
are far more numerous than endocrine glands and many of their products are familiar
NAME
are far more numerous than endocrine glands and many of thier products are familar
exocrine glands
What is a ex of unicellular exocrine gland?
goblet cell
NAME
goblet cell is a ex
unicellular exocrine gland
(1) cells are sprinkled in the epithelial linings of the intestinal
globet
Unicelllular exocrine glands all proudce (1)
mucin
(1) glands in humans all produce mucin
unicellular exocrine
What is mucin?
a complex glycoprotien that dissovles in water when secreted
NAME
is a complex glycoprotien that dissolves in water when secreted
mucin
Once dissolved, mucin formes (1)
mucus
Once disolved, (1) forms mucus
mucin
What is mucus?
a slimy coating that protects and lubricates surfaces
NAME
is a slimy coating that protects and lubricates surfaces
mucus
What are the two parts of multicellular exocrine glands?
(1)an epithelium-derived duct (2)secretery unit
NAME
consists of two parts an epithelium-derived duct and secretery unit
multicellular exocrine glands
in all but the simplest glands, (1) surrounds the secretory unit and supplies blood vessels and nerve fibers and forms a fibrous capusle
supportive connective tissue
in all but the simplest glands, supportive connective tissue surrounds the secretory unit and suppiles (1)and forms a fibrous capsule
blood vessels and nerve fibers
What are simple glands?
are glands that have an unbranched duct
NAME
are glands that have an unbranched duct
simplest glands
What are compound glands?
glands w a branched duct
NAME
are glands that have branched ducts
compound ducts
simple glands and compound glands are even further characterized by thier (1)
secretory units
What are the different varations of simple and compound glands? (3)
(1)tubular (2)alveolar (3)tubuloalveolar
What does tubular?
means that the gland's seceretory cells form tubes
NAME
means that the glands secreretory cells form tubes
tublar
What is alveolar?
means that the glands form small, flasklike sacs
NAME
means that the glands form small, flasklike sacs
alveolar
What does tubloalveolar?
are glands that have both types of secretory units (tubes and flastlike sacs)
NAME
are glands that have both types of secretory units (tubes and flastlike sacs)
tubloaveolar
Most multicellular exocrine glands are (1) which secrete thier products by exoctyotosis as they are produced
merocrine glands
most (1) are mecocrine glands that secrete thier products by exocyotosis ad they are produced
multicellular exocrine glands
What are mercorine glands?
glands that secrete thier products by exocytosis as they are produced
NAME
are glands that secrete thier products by exocytosis as they are produced
mercorine glands
What are holocrine glands?
are glands in which the secretory cells accumulate thier products within them unitl they rupture
NAME
are glands in which the secretory cells accumulate thier products within them unitl they rupture
holocrine glands
What are the three main types of connective tissue?
(1)connective tissue proper (2)cartilage (3)osseous (4)blood
What are the different (2) subclasses of connective tissue proper?
(1)loose connective tissue (2)dense connective tissue
What are the subclasses of loose connective tissue? (3)
(1)areolar (2)Adipose (3)Reticular
What are the subclassses of dense connective tissue? (3)
(1)regular (2)iregular (3)elastic
What are the (3) subclasses of cartilage?
(1)hyaline cartalige (2)fibrocartilage (3)elastic cartilage
What are the two subclasses of osseuous ?
(1)compact bone (2)spongy bone
NAME CONNECTIVE TISSUE
contains fibroblast and fibrocyte
connective tissue proper
Connective tissue proper has (1)
fibroblasts
Cartilage has (1)
chondroblast
Osseous has (1)
Octeoblast
Blood has (1)
hematopoetic stem cells
NAME CONNECTIVE TISSUE
contains hematopeotic stem cells
blood
NAME CONNECTIVE TISSUE
contains octeoblasts and osteocyte
osseous
NAME CONNECTIVE TISSUE
contains chondoroblast and chondrocyte
cartilage
What is the only true example of holocrine glands?
sabaceous or oil glands of the skin
NAME
the only true example of this gland is sebaceous or oil glands of the skin
holocrine glands
what are apocrine glands?
are glands found in animals in which the glands accumulate thier products beneath the free surface and are eventually pinched off by the cell
NAME
are glands found in animals in which the glands accumulate thier products beneath the free surface and are eventually pinched off by the cell
apocrine glands
Do people have apocrine glands?
no one is quite sure
if the humans do have apocrine glands what would be the best possible answer?
mammary glands
NAME
this tissue is found every in the body
connective tissue
NAME
is the most abundant and widely distrubted of the primary tissues
connective tissue
does the brain have lots of connective tissue?
no
NAME
the four main classes of this tissue are connective tissue proper, cartilage, ossesous, and the blood
connective tissue
What are the major functions of connective tissue? (4)
(1)binding (2)support (3)insulation (3)transportation
(1)cushions insulate and protect body organs and provide reserve energy fuel
fat cushions
What are the three main characteristics of connective tissue?
(1)common orgin (2)degress of vasculatrity (3)extracellular matrix
NAME TISSUE
has a common orgin, has differ degrees of vasculatrity and extracellular matrix
connective tissue
What is the common tissue that all connective tissue forms from?
mesenchyme
NAME
all the differ types of this tissue form from mesenchyme
connective tissue
Connective tissue are (1)
extracellular matrix
What is the extracellular matrix?
is a largly nonliving matrix which often seprates the living cells of the tissue
NAME
is largely a nonliving matrix which often separates the living cells of the tissue
extracellular matrix
Why is connective tissue able to bear weight, withstand great tension and endure abuse such as physical trauma and abrasions that no other tissue would be able to tolerate
bc of the extracellular matrix
Why is conenctive tissue's extracellular matrix make connective tissue unique compared to the other primary tissues?
bc of the matrix, connective tissue is able to bear weight, withstand great tension, and endure abuses such as physical wieght that no other tissues would be able to tolerate
What are the three main elements of connective tissue? (3)
(1)ground substance (2)fibers (3)cells
NAME
the three main elements of this tissue are ground substances, fibers, and cells
connective tissue
What is the ground substance?
is the unstructured material that fills the space btwn cells and contains the fibers
NAME
is the unstructured material that fills the space btwn cells and contains the fibers
ground substance
What makes of the ground substance? (3)
(1)interstitial fluid (2)cell adhesion protiens (3)proteoglycans
NAME
it is composed of interstitial fluid, cell adhesion protiens, and proteoglycans
ground substance
(1) serve manily as a connective tissue glue that allows connective tissue cells to attach themselves to matrix elements
cell adhesion protiens
proteoglycans consist of a protien core to which (1) are attached
GAGs
(1) consist of a protien core to which GAGs are attached
proteglycans
What does GAGs stand for?
cosaminoglycans
What are some ex(s) of GAGs ? (3)
(1)kertain sulfates (2)chondroitin (3)hyaluronic acid
NAME
exs include kertain sulfates, chondroitin, and hyaluronic acid
GAGs
what is the function of the fibers of connective tissue?
to provide support
the (1) of connective tissue provide support
fibers
What are the three types of fibers found in connective tissue? (3)
(1)collagen (2)elastic (3)reticular
Which fibers of the connective tissue are the strongest?
collagen fibers
Collagen fibers are the most (1) of all the connective tissue fibers
strongest
NAME
this tissue's fibers are collagen, elastic, reticular fibers
connective tissue
What are connective tissue?
are made up of the protien collagen

Add Cards

You must Login or Register to add cards