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Glossary of Anatomy I Chapter 1

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What is anatomy?
is the study of the structure of the body parts and their relatiohsips to one another
NAME
is the study of the structure of the body parts and their relationships to one another
anatomy
What is physiology?
the study of the function of the body's structual machinery
NAME
is how all the different body parts work togehter
physiology
What are the differ types of anatomy? (3)
(1)Gross or macroscopic (2) microscopic (3)Devlopment
What is Gross anatomy?
is the study of the large body structures visible to the naked eye such as the heart, lungs, and kindey
NAME
is the study of the large body structures visible to the naked eye such as the heart, lungs, and kindey
Gross Anatomy
Gross anatomy is also called (1)
marcoscopic antomoy
NAME
is a person was studying the kidneys, lungs, and heart, what anatomy are they most likely studying?
gross anatomy
Macroscopic anatomy is also called (1) anatomy
gross
What are some of the different types of gross anatomy? (3)
(1)regional anatomy (2)systemic anatomy (3)surface anatomy
What is regional atnatomy
is the study of all the structures of in a particular area
NAME
is the study of all the structures in a particular area
regional atantomy
What is systemic anatomy?
is the study of the different systems of the body
NAME
is the study of the different systems of the body
systemic anatomy
What is surface anatomy?
is the study of the internal structures and how they relate to the skin's surface
NAME
is the study of the internal structures and how they relate to the skin's surface
surface anatomy
What is microscopic anatomy?
is the study of structures too small to be seen w the eye
NAME
is the study of the structures of that are to small to be seen w the eye
Microscopic anatomy
What is cytology?
is the study of the cells
NAME
is the study of the cells
cytology
What is Developmental anatomy?
traces structural changes through life like embrolyogy
NAME
studies and traces the structural changes through life like embrolygoy
Developmental anatomy
NAME
is the study of the function of the body's structural machinery
physiology
What is Mesenchyme?
is a embyroic tissue
NAME
is a embyroic or early on tissue
Mesenchyme
Why is Mesenchyme important?
bc all living things form from this tissue
NAME
all living things form from this tissue
Mesenchyme
What are some speacalized branches of anatomy? (3)
(1)Pathological (2)Radiographic (3) molecular biology
What is pathological anatomy?
is the study of the structural changes caused by diseases
NAME
is the study of the structural changes caused by diseases
pathological anatomy
What is radiographic?
is the study of the internal structures visualized by X ray
NAME
is the study of the internal structures visualized by X rays
radiographic
What is molecular biology?
is the study of anatomical structures at a subcellular level
NAME
is the study of the anatomical structures at a subcellular level
molecular biology
NAME
considers the operation of specifc organ systems
Physiology
What are the differ types of physiology?
(1)renal (2)neurophysiology (3)cardiovascular
What is renal physiology?
studies kindey function and urine production
NAME
studies kidney function and urine production
renal physiology
What does a sturcures function depend on?
its form
a structures (1) depends on its form
function
What are the four basic types of tissue?
(1)epithelium (2)muscle (3)connective (4)nervous
NAME
epithelium, muscle, connective, and nervous
types of tissues
What is the heirichy of the different levels of organisms? (5)
(1)cellular (2)tissue (3)organs (4)organ system (5)organismal
(1) combine to form molecules
atoms
atoms combine to form (1)
molecules
What is a organ?
is a structure composed of at least two tissues
NAME
is a structure composed of at least two tisssues
organ
What are moelcules made of?
cells
(1) are made of cells
molecules
NAME LEVEL
atoms combine to form molecules
chemical
NAME LEVEL
cells are made up of molecules
cellular level
Every organism must mantian its (1)
boundries
What is catabolism?
includes the breaking down substances
NAME
is the breaking down of substances
catabolism
What is anabolism?
synthesizing of substances
NAME
is the synthesizing of substances
anabolism
What are five things all people need to survie? (5)
(1)nutrients (2)oxygen (3)water (4)nomrmal body temp (5)atmospheirc pressure
What are the name systems the different types of systems? (11)
(1)integumentary (2)skeletal (3)muscualar (4)nervous (5)endocrine (6)cardiovascular (7)lympthatic (8)respiartory system (9)digestive system (10)urinary (11)reproductive
What is the integumentary system? (3)
forms the external covering (2)protects deeper tissue from injury (3)synthesizes Vitamin D
What is the skeletal system?
protects and supports body organs (2)provides a framework the muscle use to cause movement (3)stores minerals
NAME
forms the external covering, protects deeper tissu from injury, and produces Vitamin D
integumentary system
NAME
protects and supports body organs, provides a framework the mulsce to use to cause movement and stores minerals
intergumentary system
NAME
allows the manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression
muscular system
What is the muscular system?
allows the maipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression
NAME
picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to the blood, disposes of debris in the lympathic system, and houses white blood cells
Lymphatic system
What is the lymphatic system (3)?
(1)picks up fluid from blood vessels and returns it to the blood (2)disposes debris in the lympathic system (3) houses white blood cells
NAME
keeps blood constantly supplied w oxygen and removes CO2, and the gaseous exchanges ocur through the walls of the air sacs in the lungs
Respirartory system
What is the respiratory sytem? (2)
(1)keeps blood constantly supplied w oxygen and removes the CO2 (2)the gaseous exchanges occur through the walls of the air sacs in the lungs
NAME
breaks down food into absorbale units that enter the blood for distibution to body cells and indigestible foods are eliminated as feces
Digestive system
What is the nervous system?(2)
(1)fast acting control system of the body (2)responds to internal and external by acitivating appropiate muscles and glands
NAME
fast acting control system of the body that responds to external and internal changes by activating appropiate muscles and glands
nervous system
What is the endorcine system?
glands that secrete hormones that regulate process such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use by body cells
NAME
are glands that secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use by body cells
endorcine system
What is the cardovascular system?
(1) blood vessels transport blood which carries oxygen, CO2, nutrients, and waste
NAME
blood vessels transport blood which carries oxygen, CO2, nutrients, and waster
Cardovasular system
What is urinary system?
eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body (2)regulates water, eletroyle, and acid-base balance of the blood
NAME
eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body and regulates water, eletroyle, and acid base-base balance of the blood
urinary system
NAME
overal all function is the production of offspring
reproductive system
NAME
this system includes most of the glands, nails, hoves, and hair
Intergumentrey system
Give some exs of the intergumentrey system? (4)
(1)glands (2)nails (3)hoves (4)hair
NAME
this system protects deep tissues from injury and synthesisezes Vitamin D
intergumentrey system
The prostate gland produces (1) for men
Vitamins D
(1) (do not give the system) produces Viamin D for men
prostate gland
Why is vitamin D so important for men?
because research has shown the Vatamin D can reduce the risks of prostate cancer
NAME
this vitamin can reduce prosate cancer
D
NAME
it is called the sun-shine vitamin
D
NAME
this vitamin help to absorb calicum in the bones
D
Vitamin D can help (1)
absorb calicum in the bones
NAME
this system allows manipulation of the environment and mantains pressure
Vitamin D
What are the 11 systems of the body?
(1)lymphatic (2)digestive (3)respiratory (4)reproductive (5)urinary (6)Cardovascular (7)integumentary (8)muscual (9)skeltal (10)nervous (11)endocrine
NAME
is composed of the red bone marrow, the lymus, the spleen, lymph nodes, and lympathic system
lympathic system
NAME
one ex of this system is the red bone marrow
lympathic system
NAME
this system is composed of the kidneys, urters, urinary, bladder, and urtetha
Urinary system
What is Homeostatis?
is the ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment in an ever changing outside world
NAME
is the ability to maintian a relatively stable internal environment in an ever changing outside world
homeostatis
T or F
the internal environment of the body is a dynamic state of equilibrim
True
How is homeostatis mantained? (3)
(1)chemical (2)thermal (3)neural factors
chemical, thermal, and neural factors interact to maintain (1)
homeostatis
Homeostatis will not work w out (1)
hemeostastic control mechananisms
(1) produces a change in the body
variable
What are the three interdependent components of control mechanisms? (3)
(1)receptor (2)control center (3)Effector
NAME
monitors the environments and responds to changes
receptor
What is a receptor?
monitors the environments and responds to changes
What is negative feedback?
when the output shuts off the orignial stimulus
NAME
is when the output shuts off the oringial stiumuls
negative feedback
Give a ex of negative feedback
the regulation of the blood glucose levels
NAME
produces thousands of different hormones in the pintinary gland
Hyptothalumus
What is the Hyptothalumus?
produces thousands of different hormones in the pintinary gland
NAME
this organ produces a hormone called TSH
pintinary gland
the pintintary gland produces (1)
TSH
What is TSH stand for?
Thyroid Stim Hormone
What does the thyriod do?
regulates glucose levels
NAME
this organ regulates glucose levels
thyriod
What are two things that the pancreas produces?
(1)insulin (2)glucagon
NAME
this organ produces insulin and glucagon
pancreas
NAME
this organ has patches of called call lamphounas
pancreas
The pancreas is made of cells called (1)
lamphaounds
What kinds of cells are there of lamphaounds?
alpha and beta cells
What is postive feedback?
is when a result or stimulus enchances the orginal stimulus so that the the activity is accerleted
NAME
is when a result or stimulus enchances the orginal stimulus so that the acitivty is accerleted
postive feedback
What is the major energy fuel for the body?
carbs
Which can provide more fuel for the body, carbs or protiens?
protiens
All the nutrients in the world are useless if u dont have (1)
oxygen
What is the single most abudnent chemcial in the body making up 60% to 80% of it?
water
Water is the (1) in the body
the single most abundent chemical
(1) provides the watery environment necessery for chemical reactions and the fluid base for body secretions and excretions
water
What is the normal body temp?
37C
When the body temp increases what happens?
CHemical reactions increase and protiens can lose their chaqracterisitc shape
What happens if the body temp descreases?
metabolic reactions become slower and finally stop
What atmospheric pressure?
the force that air exerts on the surface of the body
NAME
is the force that air exerts on the surface of the body
atmpspheric pressure
37 C is the (1)
normal body temp
(1) and (2) depend on atmposheric pressure
(1)breathing and gas exchange in the lungs
T or F
the mere pressence of the survial factors is enough to sustain life
False
T or F
oxygen is essential but in in excessive amounts are toxic to the body cells
True
Draw the elements of the a control system
p 9
T or F
in order for homeostatis to ocur, only certain organs play a role
False (all)
What is a variable?
the factor or event being regulated
NAME
is the factor or event being regulated
variable
What are three interdependent components of homeostatic control?
(1)Receptor (2)control center (3)effector
What is the receptor?
is some type of sensor that moniters the environment and responds to stimuli
NAME
is some type of sensor that moniters the environment and responds to stimuli
receptor
what is the control center?
determines the set point , analzyes the input, it recieves and then determines the appropriate response or course of action to take
NAME
determines the set point, analyzes the input it recieves, and then determines the apporopriate response or action to take
control center
What is the effector?
provides the mean for the control center's response to the stimulus
NAME
provies the mean for the control center's response to the stimulus
effector
What are three examples of negative feedback?
(1)regulation of the body temp (2)the withdrawl reflex (3)reglation of the blood glucose levels
Draw the regulation of blood glucose levels by negative feedback mechanism involving the pancreas horomones?
p 11
(1) feedback mechanisms usally control infrequent events that do not require continous adjustments
postive
Postive feebacks are often refered to as (1)
cascades
Why are postive feeback rarely used?
bc they are likely to race out of control
Give two ex(s) of postive feeback?
(1)enchancemnt of labor contractions (2)blood clotting
NAME
enchancment of labor is a ex
postive feeback
NAME
blood clotting is a ex
postive feedback
NAME
regulation of body temp is a ex
negative feeback
NAME
the whithdrawl reflex like when u touch a hot surface is a ex
negative feedback
NAME
regulation of the blood glucose levels is a ex
negative feedback
What happens when a blood vessel has been damage? hint:postive feedback (4)
(1)blood elements called platelts immdeitatly begin to cling to the injured site (2)and release chemicals that attract more platelts (3)this rapidly growing pile up of platelets intitates the sequence of events that finaly forms the clot
NAME
most disease is regarded as a result of a disturbance, what is this condition
homeostatic inbalance
What is homeostatic inbalance?
is a condition that causes most diseases bc of a disturbance
NAME
the anatmocial reference point reference point is a standard body postion called?
anatomical postion
the left and right terms refer to (1)
the sides of the cadaver being viewed
What is superior ?
if the first body part is towards the upper part of the body
NAME (2)
is if the first body part is towards the upper part of the body
superior or cranial
What is inferior?
if the first body part is toward the lower part of the body
NAME
if the first body part is toward the lower part of the body
inferior
inferior is also called?
caudal
(1) is also called caudal
inferior
(1) is also called cranial
superior
superior is also called (1)
cranial
Anterior is also called (1)
ventral
(1) is also called ventral
anterior
posterior is also called (1)
dorsal
(1) is also called dorsal
posterior
Superficial is also called (1)
external
(1) is also called external
superficial
(1)is also called internal
Deep
deep is also called (1)
internal
What is anterior?
if the first body part is toward or at the front of the body
nAME
is if the first body part is toward or at the front of the body
anterior
NAME
if the first body part is toward the back of the body
posterior
What is posterior?
if the first body part is toward the back of the body
NAME
if first body part is toward the midline of the body or on the inner side
medial
What is medial?
is if the first body part is toward the midline of the body or on the inner side
What is lateral?
is if the first body part is away from the midline of the body or on the outer side
NAME
is if the first body part is away from the midline of the body or one the outer side
lateral
What is intermediate?
is when comparing three body parts if the first one is in the middle
NAME
is when comparing three body parts if the first one is in the middle
intermediate
What is proxmial?
is if the first body part is closer to the body trunk
NAME
is if the first body part is closer to the body trunk
proxmial
NAME
is if the first body part is the fartherest away from the body trunk
distal
What is distal?
is if the first body part is the furtherest away from the body trunk
NAME
is if the first body part is the furtherest away from the body trunk
distal
What is superficial?
if if the first body part is towards or at the body surface
NAME
is if the first body part is towards or at the body surface
superficial
What is deep?
is if the first body part is away from the surface and internal
NAME
is if the first body part is away from the surface and internal
deep
the head is (1) to the abdomen
superior
the navel is (1) to the chin
inferior
the breastbone is (1) to the spine
anterior
the heart is (1) to the breastbone
posterior
the arms are (1) to the chest
lateral
the collarbone is (1) btwn the breastbone and the shoulder
intermediate
the elbow is (1) to the wrist
proximal
the wrist is (1) to the elbow
distal
the knee is (1) to the thigh
distal
the thigh is (1) to the knee
proximal
the skin is (1) to the skeletal muscles
superficial
the lungs are (1) to the skin
deep
Nasal refers to (1)
the nose
(1)refers to the nose
nasal
Oral refers to the (1)
mouth
(1) refers to the mouth
Oral
Cerivical refers to the (1)
neck
(1) refers to the neck
cerivical
Acromial refers to the (1)
point of the shoulder
(1) refers to the point of hte shoulder
Acromial
Axiallary refers to the (1)
arm pit
(1) refers to the arm pit
Axiallary
Abdonimal refers to the (1)
abdomen
(1) refers to the abdomen
Abdonimal
Brachial refers to the (1)
arm
(1) refers to the arm
Brachial
Anetcubital refers to the (1)
forearm
(1) refers to the forearm
Antebrachial
Antebrachial refers to the (1)
forearm
The pelvic refers to the (1)
pelvis
(1) refers to the pelvis
pelvic
Carpal refers to the (1)
wrist
(1) refers to the wrist
carpal
Pollex refers to the (1)
thumb
(1) refers to the thumb
pollex
the palmar refers to the (1)
palm
(1) refers to the palm
palmar
Digital refers to the (1)
fingers
(1) refers to the fingers
Digital
Pubic refers to the (1)
genital region
(1) refers to the genital region
pubic
Patellar refers to the (1)
anterior knee
(1) refers to the anterior knee
Patellar
The curral refers to the (1)
leg
(1) refers to the leg
curral
Pedal refers to the (1)
foot
(1) refers to the foot
Pedal
Tarsal refers to the (1)
ankle
(1) refers to the ankle
Tarsal
Digital refers to the (2)
toes and fingers

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