Glossary of Anatomy Chapter 2
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- Why do u need to study chemistry in anatomy?
- bc your body is composed of tons of chemicals
- What is matter?
- is anything that occupies space and has mass
is anything that occupies space and has mass
- Matter can exist in (1), (2), or (3)
- (1)liquid (2)gas (3)solid
- Compared w matter, energy is (1)
- less tangible
- T or F
energy has mass and takes up space
- What is energy?
- is the capacity to do work
is the capacity to do work
- What is kinetic energy?
- is the energy of motion
is the energy of motion
- kinetic energy
- What is potiental energy?
- is stored energy
is stored energy
- potiental energy
- What are the differ forms of energy? (4)
- (1)chemical energy (2)electrical energy (3)mechinical (4)radiant energy
- What is chemical energy?
- is in energy stored in the bonds of chemical substances
is energy stored in bonds of chemical substances
- chemical energy
- T or F
food fuels can be used to energize body activities directly
- What does ATP stand for?
- Adenoisine triphosphate
- What is electrical energy?
- results from the movement of charged particles
energy resulting from the movement of charged particles
- electrical energy
- What is mechinical energy?
- is energy directly involved in moving matter
is energy directly involved in moving matter
- mechinical energy
- Radiant energy is also called (1)
- electromagentic energy
- (1) is also called electromagenitic energy
- Radiant energy
- What is radiant energy?
- is energy that travels in waves
is energy that travels in waves
- radiant energy
- When energy is converted, (1)
- heat is lossed
- All matter is composed of (1)
- All (1) is composed of elements
- What is an element?
- substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordiniary methods
are substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordiniary methods
- How many elements are there?
- How many elements ocur in nature?
- What are the four elements that make up 96% of body wieght?
- Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen
are the buiding blocks
- Each element is unique in (1) and (2) properties
- (1)chemical (2)physical
- What are physical properties?
- are those that we can detect w our senses
are those that we can detect w our senses
- physical properties
- What are chemical properties?
- is the way that atoms interact w other atoms
is the way that atoms interact w other atoms
- chemical properties
- What does the word atom come from?
- the greek word meaning indivisible
- How much do protons and nuetrons weigh?
- about the same - 1 amu
- What does amu stand for?
- atomic mass unit
- (1) is entirely dense and accounts for nearly the entire mass of the atom
- All atoms are eletrically (1)
- Why are all atoms eletrically neutral?
- bc the number of protons and electrons are normally equally
- What is a planetary model?
- model of the atomic structure
is the model of the atomic structure
- planetary model
- T or F
can determine the exact location of the electrons
- What is orbitals?
- regions around the nucleus in which the given electron or electron pair are likley to be found
are regions around the nucleus in which the given electron or electron pair are likely to be found
- What is orbital model?
- is useful for predicting the chemical behhavior of atoms
is useful for predicting the chemcial behavior of atoms
- orbital model
- Most of the vol an atom is (1)and nearly all of its mass is located in the (2)
- empty space (2)nucleus
- Atoms of different elements are composed of different (1), (2),and (3)
- (1)p (2)e (3)n
- What is the atomic number?
- number of protons
is the number of protons
- atomic number
- What is the mass number?
- is the number of p + n
is p + n
- mass number
- 4 HE
How many protons are there? electrons? and mass numeber?
- 4=mass number
2= protons and electrons
- What are istopes?
- elements that have the same number of protons but differ numbers of nuetrons
elements that have the same number of protons but differ number of neutrons
- What are the most abundant istopes of Carbon?
- 12C, 13C, and 14 C
- What is atomic wieght?
- is an average of the relative weights of all istopes in an element
is an average of the relative weights of all istopes in an element
- atomic wieght
- The heavier istopes of many elements are (1)and (2)
- unstable (2)their atoms decompose spontaneously into more stable forms
- What is radioactivity?
- this process of atomic decay
is the process of atomic decay
are istopes that exhibit radioactivity behavior
- What are radioistopes?
- are istopes that exhibit radioactivity behavior
- the disintegration of radioactive nucleus may be compared to any tiny explosion. Explain when/how it ocurs
- alpha, beta, and /or gamma rays are ejected from the nucleus
- The time required for radioistopes to lose one-half of their activity is called (1)
- How are radioistopes useflly for medical purposes?
- for diagnosis and to localize and elminate damaged or cancerous tissues
- What is iodine-13 used for?
- to detect for thyroid cancer
is used to detect thyriod cancer
- What is one disadvantage of radioactivity?
- they all damage living tissue
- (1) emission has the lowest penetration power and is the least damaging
- (1) emission has the greatest penetrating power
- T or F
most atoms do not exist in a free state
- What is a molecule?
- is two or more atoms held together by a chemical bond
is two or more atoms held together by a chemical bond
- When two oxygen combine, a (1) of oxygen is formed
- What is compound?
- when two or more different kinds of atoms bind
are when two or more different kinds of atoms bind
- What are mixtures?
- are substances composed of two or more componenets physically intermixed
are substances composed of two or more componenents physically intermixed
- What are the three types of mixtures?(3)
- (1)solutions (2)colloids (3)suspensions
- What is a solution?
- are homogenous mixtures of components that may be gases, liquids, or solids
are homogenous mixtures of components that may be gases, liquids, or solids
- What is a solvent?
- if the substance present in the greatest amount
if the substance present in the greatest
- Solvents are usally (1)
- What are solutes?
- are substances present in smaller amounts
are substances present in smaller amount
- Water is the body's (1)
- chief solvent
is the body's cheif solvent
- T or F
most solutions in the body are true solution
- True solutions are usally (1)
- Solutions used in a college lab or hospital are often described in terms of (1) of tthe solute in the solution
- What is molarity?
- moles per liter
refers to moles per liter
- Another way to express the concentration of a solution of a solution in terms of (1)
- A (1) of any element or compound its (2)
- (1)mole (2)atomic wieght
- T or F
a mole of any element or compound is equal to tis atomic wieght weighed out in grams
- What is Avoagadros number?
- 6.02 *10^23
- What are colloids?
- areheterogeneous mixtures that often appear transluccent or milky
are heterogeneous mixtures that often appear translucent or milky
- What are sol-gel transformations?
- to change reversibly from a fluid state to a more solid state
to change reversibly from a fluid state to a more solid state
- sol-gel transformations
- Give ex of a sol-gel transformation?
- jell-O or any gelatin product
ex is a jell-o or any gelatin product
- sol-gel transformation
- What are suspensions?
- are heterogeneous mixtures w large, often visble soltues that tend to settle out
are heterogenous mixtures w large, often visible solutes thattend to settle out
- Give a ex of suspensions?
- of sand and water and (2)blood
exs include sand water and blood
- T or F
all living types of mixtures are found in both living and nonliving systems
- What are three ways that mixtures differ from compounds?
- (1)the chief difference is that there are no chemical bonds in mixtures (2)depending on the mixtures, its components can be separted by physcially means and compounds can only be seperated by chemical means (3)Some mixtures are homogeneous whereas other are heterogenous mixtures,and pure compounds are homogeneous
- What is a chemical bond?
- it is a energy relationship btwn the electrons of the reacting atoms
it is an energy relationship btwn the electrons of the reacting atoms
- chemical bond
- What are electron shells?
- regions of space in which electrons are ocupied
are regions of space in which electrons ocupy
- electron shell
- Each electron shell represents a different (1)
- energy level
- Each (1) represents a different energy level
- electron shell
- What does the amount of poteintal energy depend on?
- the energy level
- The amount of (1) depends on the energy level
- potential energy
- Why do electrons the furtherest away from the nucelus have the greatest potiental energy and are more likely to interact chemically w other atoms?
- bc attraction btwn the + charge nucleus and - charged electrons is greatest closest to the nucleus and falls off w increasing distance
- Each shell can only hold (1) electrons
- Which electrons are the most important?
- those in the outer shell
- What is the valence shell?
- indicates an atom's outermost energy level
indicates an atom's outermost energy level or that portion of it containing the electrons that are chemically reactive
- valance shell
- Except for shell 1, the shells follow the (1)
- octet rule
- What are the three major types of chemical bonds?
- (1)ionic (2)covalent (3)hydrogen
- What is a ion?
- a charge particle
is a charged particle
- What is a ionic bond?
- is a chemical bond btwn atoms formed by the transfer of one or more eletrons from one atom to the other
is a chemical bond btwn atoms formed by the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to the other
- ionic bond
- What is anion?
- is the electron acceptor that has a negative charge
- What is an e acceptor?
- the atom that gains electrons
is that atom that gains one ore more electrons
is the electron acceptor w a negative charge
- What is a cation?
- is the electron donor that has a postive charge
is the electron donor that has a postive charge
- What is a electron donor?
- the atom that loses a electron and gains a postive charge
is a atom taht loses a electron and gains a postive charge
- electron donor
- Give a ex of ionic bond
- Most ionic compounds are (1)
- Ionic bonds such as salts are normoally in the form of (1)
- What are crystals?
- are large arrays of cations and anions held together by ionic bonds
are large arrays of cations and anions held together by ionic bonds
- What are covalent bonds?
- bonds formed by the sharing of two Electrons
bond formed by the sharing of two electrons
- covalent bonds
- What are nonpolar molecules?
- eletrically balanced molecules
are electrically balanced molecules
- nonpolar molecules
- What are polar molecules?
- molecules w in unequal electron pair sharing
are molecules w in unequal electron pair sharing
- polar molecules
- What is electronegativity?
- the ability to attract elcetrons
is the abilty to attract electrons
- Most atoms w only one or two valence shells tend to be (1)
- Most atoms w only (1) valence shells tend to be electropostive
- one or two
- What is electropostive?
- mean their electron-attracting ability is so low that they usally lose their valance shell electrons to other atoms
means that their electron-attracting ability is so low that they usally lose their valence shell electrons to other atoms
- dipole refers to a (1)
- polar molecule
- Hydrogen bonding is common btwn (1)
- dipoles such as water molecules
- (1) bonding is common btwn dipoles such as water molecules
- Wy is hyrdogen bonding common in water molecules?
- bc the slightly negative charge of oxygen atoms attracts the sligthly postive hydrogen atom of other molecules
- What is surface tension?
- is the tendecny of water molecules to cling together and form films
is the tendency of water molecules to cling together and form film
- surface tension
- T or F
all particles of matter are in constant motion bc of kinetic energy
- What is a chemical reaction?
- ocurs when ever chemical bonds are formed, rearranged, or broken
ocurs when ever chemical bonds are formed, rearranged, or broken
- chemical reaction
- What are the reactants?
- the begining products of a chemical reaction
- What are the products?
- are the end products of the chemical reaction
- What is syntesis reaction?
- is when atoms or molecules combine to form a more complex molecule
is when atoms or molecules combine to form a more complex molecule
- synthesis reaction
- Synthesis reactions are the basis of constructive (1) reactions
- What is a decompostion reaction?
- when a molecule is broken down into smaller molecules
is when a molecule is broken down into smaller molecules
- decompostion reaction
- (1) is also called displacement reaction
- Exchange reaction is also called displacement reaction
- What is a displacement reaction?
- when bonds are both broken and formed
is a reactin in which bonds are both broken and formed
- displacement reaction
- An (1) reaction ocurs when ATP reacts w glucose and transfers its end phosphate group
- An exchange reaction ocurs when (1)
- ATP reacts w glucose and transfers its end phosphate group
- (1) are the basis of all reactions in which food fuels are catbolized for energy
- redox reactions
- redox reactions are the basis of allr reactions in which (1) are catablized for (2)
- (1)food fuels (2)energy
- What is oxidation?
- is the reactant losing the electron
is the reactant losing the eletron
if the reactant is an electron donor
- What is reduction?
- is reactant taking up the extra electron
is the reactant taking up the extra electron
if the rectant is the electron acceptor
- T or F
all redox reaction involve complete transfer of electrons
- What is the formula for cellular respiration?
- C6H12O6 +6O2= 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP
- What are exergonic reactions?
- are reactions that release energy
are reactions that release energy
- exergonic reactions
- What are endergonic reactions?
- is when the reaction's products absorb energy
are reactions in which the products are absorb energy
- endergonic reactions
- Do endergonic or exergoinc reactions have more potenital energy?
- DO endergonic or exergonic reactions lose the most energy in their products?
- (1) reactions are typically energy-absorbing endergonic reactions
- Are all chemical reactions theoretically reversible?
- T or F
neither the foward reaction nor the reverse reaction is dominant
- What is chemcial elqubrim?
- when their is no net change
is when there is no net change in a chemcial reaction
- chemical elquilbrium
- Do reactions tend to be reversible?
- Give ex of a reaction that hardly ever is reversible?
- cellular resipiration
- For atoms and molecules to react chemically, what most happen?
- they most collide w enough force to overcome the repulsion btwn their electrons
- What happens when atoms and moleules collide w enough force to overcome the repulsion btwn their electrons?
- they react chemically
- Chemical reactions produce (1) w higher temperatures
- What are four factors that can speed up a chemical reaction? (4)
- (1)temperature (2)conecntration (3)particle size (4)catalysts
- What happens to a chemical reaction if there is a high presence of reacting particles?
- the chemical reaciton speeds up
- How does particle size influence a chemical reaction?
- smaller particles move faster than larger ones and tend to collide more frequently and more forcefully
- What are catalysts?
- are substances that increase the rate of chemical reactions w out themselves becoming chemcially changed or part of the product
are substances that increase the rate of chemical reactions w out themselves becoming chemically changed or part of the product
- What are enzymes?
- are biological catalyst
are biological catalysts
- What is biochemistry?
- is the study of the chemical compostion and reactions of living matter
is the study of the chemical compostion and reactions of living matter
- What are organic compounds?
- compounds containing carbon
are compounds containing carbon
- organic compounds
- All organic compounds are (1)
- covalently bounded
- All (1) compounds are covalently bonded
- organic compounds
- water, salts, and many acids and bases are ex(s) of (1) compounds
is the most abundant and important inorganic compound in living material
- What are the (5) properties of water?
- (1)high heat capacity (2)high heat of vaporization (3)polar solvent properties (4)reactivity (5)cushioning
- What does it mean that water has a high heat capacity?
- means that it absorbs and relases large amounts of heat w out changing the temp its self
- Water's (1) prevents sudden changes in temperature caused by external factors
- high heat capacity
- Water's (1) is highly benefictial when we sweat bc as the prespiration evaporates from our skin, large amounts of heat are removed from the body, providing a effective cooling mechanism
- high heat of vaporization
- Why is water's high heat of vaporization so beneficital to the human body?
- bc when we sweat bc as the prespiration evaporates from our skin, large amounts of heat are removed from the body, providing a effective cooling mechanism
is the universal solvent
- T or F
virtuall all chemical reactions occuring in the body depend on water
- ionic compounds and other small reactive molecules (1) in water
- (1) compounds dissociate in water
- Water can form (1)around large charged molecules such as protiens
- hydration layers
- What is a hydration layer?
- is when water forms a shield around large molecules like proteins protecting them from the effects of other charged substances and preventing them from settling out of the solution
is when water forms a shield around large molecules like proteins protecting them from the effects of other charged substances and preventing them from settling out of the solution
- hydration layer
- What are biolgical colloids?
- are protien water mixtures in which the protein is surrounded by a hydration layer
are protien water mixtures in which the protien is surrounded by a hydrogen layer
- biological colloids
- What are some exs of biolgical colloids? (2)
- (1)cerebrospinal fluid (2)blood
- Cerebrospinal fluid and blood are exs of (1)
- What does hydrolysis reaction mean?
- means water spilting
means water spilting
- What is dehydration synthesis?
- is when a water molecule is removed for every bond formed
is when a water molecule is removed from every bond formed
- dehydration synthesis
- What is hydrolysis reaction?
- is when a water molecule is added a bond is broken
is when a water molecules is added a bond is broken
- hydrolysis reaction
- How is water's ability for chusioning important?
- helps protect the body from physcial trauma
- Water can form a resilient (1) around certain body organs, helping protect them during physcial trauma
- What is a salt?
- is ionic compound containing cations other than H+ and OH
is an ionic compound containing cations other than H+ and OH
- All ions are (1)
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