Glossary of Anatomy Chapter 10D: Muscles of the Arm and Forearm

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Triceps Brachii

O: infraglenoid tubercle of scapula

I: olecranon process of ulna

A: forearm extensor (unbend elbow)
Biceps Brachii
Two-headed, superficial anterior arm muscle.

O: coracoid process of scapula

I: radial tuberosity

A: elbow flexion (bending), supination
Anterior arm muscle deep to biceps brachii on distal humerus.

O: front of distal humerus

I: coronoid process of ulna

A: forearm flexion (elbow bending--lifts ulna as biceps lifts radius)
Superficial lateral forearm muscle from distal humerus to distal forearm.

O: lateral supercondylar ridge of humerus

I: base of styloid process of radius

A: forearm flexion (elbow bending) synergist
Pronator Teres
Two-headed muscle extending from distal/medial humerus to lateral radius diagonally. Situated between brachioradialis and flexor carpi radialis.

O: medial epicondyle of humerus

I: lateral radius, midshaft

A: forearm pronation
Flexor Carpi Radialis
Runs diagonally across forearm and is replaced by a flat tendon to the wrist.

O: medial epicondyle of humerus

I: base of metacarpals 2/3

A: wrist flexor (bend toward inner arm)
Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
Most medial muscle of anterior forearm group, two-headed, attaches to wrist via long tendon.

O: medial epicondyle of humerus

I: pisiform, hamate, metacarpal 5

A: wrist flexor (bend in to anterior)
Palmaris Longus
Muscle between flexor carpi radialis and flexor carpi ulnaris. Long insertion tendon connecting to branching palmar aponeurosis.

O: medial epicondyle of humerus

I: palmar aponeurosis

A: weak wrist flexor (bend into ant. arm)
Flexor Digitorum Superficialis
Two-headed muscle deep to flexor carpis and palmaris longus which connects to fingers via long cords of tendon

O: medial epicondyle of humerus and coronoid process of ulna

I: 4 tendons to middle phalanges 2-5

A: flexes wrist and middle phalanges 2-5
Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis
Posterior forearm muscle running deep to extensor carpi radialis longus, paralleling bracioradialis on lateral forearm

O: lateral epicondyle of humerus

I: base of metacarpal 3

A: wrist extension/abduction (extensor carpi radialis longus synergist)
Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus
Parallels brachioradialis on lateral posterior forearm. Superficial/lateral to extensor carpi radialis brevis.

O: lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus

I: base of metacarpal 2
Extensor Digitorum
Muscle medial to extensor carpi radialis brevis, inserts via short tendons to fingers

O: lateral epicondyle of humerus

I: by 4 tendons to distal phalanges 2-5

A: prime mover of finger extension (pulling back flat)
Extensor Carpi Ulnaris
Most medial of superficial posterior forearm muscles.

O: lateral epicondyle of humerus and posterior border of ulna

I: base of metacarpal 5

A: wrist extension (extensor carpi radialis synergist) and wrist adduction (flexor carpi ulnaris synergist)
Deep muscle at posterior aspect of elbow, concealed by superficial muscles. Very short

O: lateral epicondyle of humerus

I: proximal end of radius

A: supination of forearm (biceps brachii synergist)

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