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Glossary of Anatomy Ch 3

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(1) are the structural units of all livings things
cells
Who was Robert Hooke?
first observed plants cells
NAME
first observed plants cells
Robert Hooke
Whao was Mathisa Schlieden and Theordor Schwann?
insisted that all livings things are composed of cells
Who is Rudolf Virchow?
said that cells arise from other cells
NAME
said that other arise from other cells
Rudolf Virchow
What is theory of sponateous generation?
says that organisisms arise spontaneously from garbage or other nonliving material
NAME
says that organisms arise sponaneously from garbage or other nonliving material
sponateous generation
What are the four concepts of the cell theory?
(1)a cell is the basic structural and functional unit of living organisms (2)the activity of an organism depends on both the individial and the collective activities of its cells (3) According to the principle of complementarity, the biochemical activites of the cell are dictated by their specific subcellar activies (4)Continituity of life has a cellular basis
What is the priniciple of complementarity?
states that the biochemical activties of cell are dictated by their specific subcellular structures
NAME
states that the biochemical activities of the cell are dictated by their specific subcellular structures
priniciple of complementarity
A cell's shape reflects its (1)
function
A cell's (1) reflects its function
shape
What are the three main parts of the human cell?
(1)plasma membrane (2)cytoplasm (3)nucleus
What is the plasma membrane?
a fragile barrier that is the outer boundary of the cell
NAME
is a fragile barrier that is the outer boundary of the cell
plasma membrane
What is the cytoplasm?
the intracellular fluid that is packed w organelles
NAME
is intracellular fluid that is packed w organelles
cytoplasm
NAME
controls cellular activities and lies near that cell's center
nucleus
NAME
defines the extent of a cell therby separting two of the body's major fluid compartments
plasma membrane
What are the body's two major fluid compartments?
(1)intracellular fluid (2)extracellular fluid
What intracellular fluid?
fluid w/in the cell
NAME
is fluid w/in the cell
intracellular fluid
What is extracellular fluid?
is fluid outside the cell
NAME
if fluid outside the cell
extracellular fluid
T or F
nearly all cellular organelles are enclosed in a membrane
True
Diagram the sturcture of the plasma membrane?
p 66
What are the function's of the plasma membrane?
(1)external cell barrier (2)transport (3)mantians a resting potiental (4)important in cell to cell regonization
NAME
functions include a external barrier, transport, mantians a resting poteintal, and important in cell to cell regonization
plasma membrane
NAME
is the cellular region btwn the nuclear and plasma membrane
cytoplasm
What does the cytoplasm consist of?
cystol (2)organelles (3)inclusions
(1) consisits of cystol, organelles, and inclusions
cytoplasm
NAME
is the powerhous of the cell and the site of ATP syntheis
Mitochondria
NAME
is the site of ATP synthesis
mitochondria
What is the mitochondria?
ATP synthesis
What is Ribosomes?
the sites of protein synthesis
NAME
are the sites of protien synthesis
ribosomes
What is the rough er?
has ribosomes
NAME
has ribosomes
rough er
NAME
does not have ribosomes
smooth er
NAME
is the site of lipid and steriod snythesis, lipid metabolism, and drug detoxification
smooth er
What is smooth er?
is the site of lipid and steriod synthesis, lipid metabolism, and drug detroxification
NAME
are the sites of intracelluar digestion
lysomes
What are lysomes?
are the sites of intracellular digestion
What are peroxisomes?
detoxify a number of toxic substances
NAME
detoxify a lot of toxic substances
peroxisomes
What are mircotubles made up of ?
tublin
NAME
are made up of tublin
mircotubles
what are mircofilaments made up of?
actin
NAME
are made up of actin
mircofilaments
what are centrioles?
are nine triplets of microtubles
NAME
are nine triplets of microtubles
centrioles
What is the fluid mosiac model?
depicts the plasma membrane as a thin double layer of lipid molecules w protein molecules dispersed in it
NAME
depicts the plasma membrane as a thin double layer of lipid molecules w protein molecules dispersed in it
fluid mosiac model
(1) forms the fabric of the membrane
lipid bilayer
Each phosopholipid has a (1) and (2)
(1)charged hydrophilic head (2)uncharged nonpolor hydrophobic tail
What does hydrophillic mean?
water loving
NAME
means water loving
hydrophillic
What does hydrophobic?
fear of water
NAME
means fear of water
hydrophobic
T or F
the self-orienting property of phospholipids encourages biolgiocal membranes to self-assembly into closed, generally spherical, structures and to reseal themselves quickly when torn
True
What are some functions of membrane proteins?
(1)transport (2)enzymatic activity (3)receptors for signal transduction (4) intercellular joining (5) cell-cell recoginition (6)attachement to the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix
The majority of membrane phosphilipds are (1)
Unsaturated
What are glycoplipids?
phospholipids w attached sugar groups
NAME
are phospholipids w attached sugar groups
glycoplipids
What are lipid rafts?
dynamic assemblies of satuarted phospholipids associated w unique lipids called sphingolipids and lots of cholesterol
NAME
dynamic assmeblies of saturated phospholipds assocaited w unique lipids called sphinogolipids and lots of cholestral
lipid raft
What are the two types of protiens in the membrane?
(1)integral (2)peripheral
What are integral proteins?
are protiens firmly inserted into the lipid bilayer
NAME
are responsible for most of the speacilized membrane functions
protiens
NAME
are protiens firmly inserted into lipid bilayer
inegral protiens
What are transmembrane protiens?
protiens that span the entire width of the memrbane and protude on both sides
NAME
are proteins that span the entire width of the membrane and protude on both sides
transmembrane proteins
Most integral protiens are (1)
transmembrane protiens
T or F
all integral protiens have both hydrophobic and hydrophillic regions
True
transmembrane protiens are mainly inovled in (1)
transport
NAME
when protiens act as receptors for hormones or other chemical messengers and relay messages to the cell interior
signal transduction
What is signal transduction?
when protiens act as receptors for hormones or other chemical messengers and relay messages to the cell interior
What is the function of the cystol?
solution/space
NAME
the function is soultion and space
cystol
What is the funciton of the rough er?
make and transport protiens
NAME
their function is make and transport protiens
rough er
What is the function of smooth er?
transport protiens
NAME
their function is to transport proitens
smooth er
What is the function of the nucleus?
cell control and storage of gentic info
NAME
their function is cell control and genitic info
nucleus
What is the function of the nucleolus?
translate genes for protien manifucturing
NAME
function is for the translating genes and protien manifucturing
nucleolus
What is the function of the nuclear membrane?
allow entry and egress to nucleus
NAME
thier function is to allow entry and egress to the nucleus
nuclear membrane
What is the function of the plasma membrane?
control entry and egress of cells
NAME
their function includes the control and entry and egress of the cell
plasma membrane
What is the function of the golgi Apparatus?
package protiens
NAME
thier function includs package protiens
Golgi Apparatus
What is the function of the mitochondria?
produce ATP
NAME
produces ATP
mitochondria
What is the function of the lysosome?
waste disposal
NAME
function in waste disposal
lyososome
What is the function of Vacuole in plants?
water storage
NAME
functions in water storage
vacuole in plants
What is the function of amyloplast?
starch storage
NAME
function in starch storage
amyloplast
What is the function of Pinocytotic?
entry of large molecules
NAME
function in the entry of large molecules
Pinocytotic
What is the function of centrioles during cell division only?
control cell division
NAME
function in controling cell division
centrioles
What is the function of chloroplast?
make glucose
NAME
function in making glucose from light energy
chloroplast
What is the function of the cell wall in plants?
structure and strength
NAME
function in struture and strength
cell wall in plants
What is the cytoskelton made up of? (2)
(1)microfilaments and (2)mircotubules
NAME
is made up of mircofilaments and mircotubules
cytoskelton
What is the function of the cytoskelton?
cell strucutre and molecule transport
NAME
functions in cell structure and molecule transport
cytoskelton
What the different types of vesicles?(4)
(1)lysosme (2)vacuole (3)amyloplast (4)Pinocytotic
What are glycolipids?
lipids w sugar
What are glycoprotiens?
protiens w sugar
Fill in the blanks of the diagram of the cell
p 65
Fill in the blanks fo the diagram of the plasma membrane
p 66
What are peripheral protiens
proteins not embeded in the lipid-bilyaer but loosely attached
NAME
are protiens that are not embeded in the lipid bilayer but loosely attached
peripheral protiens
What does glycocalyx mean?
sugar covering
NAME
means sugar covering
Glycococalyx
What is teh Glycocalyx?
is the fuzzy sticky carb rich area at the cell surface that allows the differ cells stick to each other
NAME
is a fuzzy sticky carb rich area that allows for differ cells to stick to each other
Glycolcalyx
What happens when a cell becomes canerous?
there are definite changes in the glycocalyx of the cancer cell-- allowing it keep ahead of the body's immune system
NAME
this is indicated when the cell's glycocalyx is continouslay chagnging-therefore, allowing it to keep ahead of the body's immune system
cancerous cells
(1)is like olive oil
the plasma membrane
What are mircovilli?
are minute fingerlike extensions of the plasma membrane that project from a free, or exposed cell surface
NAME
are minute fingerlike extensions of the plasma membrane that project from a free or exposed cell surface
microbilli
Where are mircovilli often found?
on the surface of the kindney or intestines
What are three factors that bind cells togehter? (3)
(1)Glycoprotins in the glycoalyx act as an adhesive (2) wavy contours of the membranes of adjacent cells fit together in a tongue and groove fashion (3)speacial membrane junactions are formed
What is a tight junction?
a series of intergral protiens in the plasma membrane fused together forming an impermeable juntion the encricles the cell
NAME
is a series of integral protiens in the plasma membrane fused together forming an impermeable junction that encircles the cell
tight junction
(1)this junction, prevents molecules from passing through extracellualar spcae such as how in btwn epitheal cells and digestive ennzymes keep microbes and digestive enzymes out of the intestines
tight junction
Give a ex of a tight junction
btwn eptiheal cells and digestive enzymes--keeps out mircobes and digestive enzymes out of the intestines
What are desmosomes?
are anchoring junctions
NAME
are anchoring junctions
desmosomes
What are the different types of cell junctions? (3)
(1)tight (2)desmosomes (3)gap
What does one mean by anchoring junction?
mechanical couplings scattered like rivets alongs the sides of abutting cells to prevent separation
NAME
is the mechanical coupling scattered like rivets along the sides of abutting cells to prevent separation
anchoring junction or desmosomes
Where are desmosomes the most abundant?
tissues subject to great mechanical stress
NAME
are most abundant in tissues that are subject to great mechanical stress
desmosomes
What is a gap junction?
is communicating junction taht allows chemical substances to pass btwn adjacent cells
NAME
is a communicating junction that allows chemical substances to pass btwn adjacent cells
gap junction
Where are gap junctions present?
in electrically exictable tissues such as the heart and smooth muscles
NAME
are present in electrically exictable tissues such as the heart and the smooth muscles
gap junctions
Cells are bathed in extracellular fluid called (1)that is derived from the blood
interstitial fluid
What is interstitial fluid?
an extracellular fluid derived from our blood that baths our cells
To remain health all of our cells must extracts nutrienst from the (1)at specfic times
extracellular fluid
Tell which junction are which
pg 69
the plasma mebrane has (1)
selctive permeable barrier
(1) has a selective permeable barrier
plasma membrane
What is selectively permearble?
means that it allows some substances to pass throught the membrane well not others
NAME
means that it allows some substances to pass through the membrane well not others
selectively permearble
What happens to burn patients?
the selective permeability of their's cells becomes void allowing fluids, protiens, and ions to weep from the dead and damaged cells
NAME
in these patients the seletive permeability of their cells becomes void allowing for protiens, fluids, and ions to weap from the dead and damaged skin
burn patients
What are the two ways that substances move throught the plasma membrane?
(1)activly (2)passivly
What is passive transport?
when substances cross the membrane w out any using energy
NAME
is when substance pass through the membrane w out using any energy
passive transport
What is active transport?
is in which active transporters or solute pumps move solutes and most importantly ions againsts the conceration gradient
NAME
is when substances pass through the membrane w the help of ATP
active transport
What are the two different types of pasive transport?
(1)diffuision (2) filtration
Diffusion and filtration are both exs of (1)
passive transport
What is diffusion?
is the tendency of molecules or ions to scatter evenly throughout the environment
NAME
is the tendency of molecules or ions to scatter evenly throughout the environent
diffusion
Molecules allows moves from areas of (1) concentration or areas of (2) concentration
(1)higher (2) lower
Molecules diffuse (1)concentration gradient
along or down
What influences the speed of diffusion? (2)
(1)size of the molecules (2) temperature
Bc of the (1) the plasma membrane is a physical barrier to free diffusion
hydrophobic core
When will a molecule diffuse through the membrane?
if it is (1)lipid souble (2)small enough to pass through the membrane channels (3)assisted by a carrier molecule
What is simple diffusion?
the unassisted diffusion of lipid souble or very small particles
NAME
is the unassisted diffusion of lipid souble or very small particles
simple diffusion
Which substances can be moved by simple diffusion?
nonpolor and lipid souble substances
Oxygen is continously diffusing from (1) into the (2)
(1)blood (2)cells
What is facilated diffusion?
is in which the transported substance either binds to the protien carriers in the membrane is carried off or moces through water filled protien channels
NAME
is in which the transported substance either binds to the protien carrier in the membrane and is carried across or moves through water filled protiens
facilated diffusion
What is permease or carrier protiens
is a transmembrane integral priteins that shows specificty for molecules of certian polar substances or class of substances that are to large to pass though membrane channels
NAME
is transmembrane intergral protiens that show speciticty for molecules of certain polar substances or class of substances that are to large to pass through the membrane channels
permease or carrier protiens
Carrier proteins are sometimes refered to as (1)
permease
(1) is normally in higher concentration in the blood then in the cells
glucose
is carrier meddiated transport limited? explain why?
yes by the number of recepetors present
What are channel protiens?
are trasnmembrane protiens that serve to transport substances unsally ions or water through aqueious channels from one side of the membrane to the other
NAME
are transmembrane protiens that serve to transport substances usally ions or water through aqueous channels from one side of the membrane to the other
channel protiens
Explain if when channel protiens open? (4)
(1)open for water and small ions, (2)selctive to pore size and the charge of the amino acid (3)are always open (4)gated and open for chemical or electrical signals
Is facilate diffusion controlble?
yes
What is osmosis?
the diffusion of water
NAME
is the diffusion of water
osmosis
Water move freely though water specific channels called (1)
aquaporins
What are aquaporins?
are water specfic channels by which water moves
The extent to which water's concetration decreases depends on?
the number of solute particles
What is osmolarity?
refers to the total concentration of all solutles particles in a soultion
NAME
refers to the total concentration of all solutes particles in a solution
osmolarity
As water diffuses into the cell the (1) is equal to the (2)
(1)hydrostatic pressure (2)osmotic pressure
As (1) diffues into the cell the hydryostatic pressure is equal to the ostmotic pressure
water
What is the hydrostatic pressure?
the back pressure exerted by water against the membrane
NAME
is the back pressure exerted by water against the membrane
hydrostatic pressure
What is osmotic pressure?
the cells tendency ot resisit futrther net entry
NAME
is the cell's tendecny to resisist further net entry
osmotic pressure
When does osmosis ocur?
whenever the water concentration differs on the two side of the membrane
NAME
ocurs whenever the water concentration differs on two sides of the membrane
osmosis
Osmotic imbalance can cause animal cell to either (1) or (2)
lyse or shrink
Lyse means that the cell will (1)
burst
What is tonicity?
is the ability of a solution to change the shape or tone of the cell altering their internal water volumne
NAME
is the ability of a solution to change the shape or tone of the cell altering their internal water volumne
tonicity
If a anaimal cell is placed in a (1) solution it will lyse
hypotonic
What happens if a animal cell is palced in a hypotonic solution?
it will lyse
What happens if a animal cell is placed in a hypertonic solution?
it will shrink
NAME
if a animal cell is placed in this solution it will shrink
hypertonic
a solution;s osmolarity is based soley on (1)
total solute concentration
A solution's toncitiy is based on (1) or (2)
(1)solute concentration (2)solute permeability of the plasma membrane
(1)is extremly important in determining the distribution of water in various fluid-containing compartments of the body
osmosis
Is simple diffusion a selevtive process?
no
Is osmosis a selective process?
no
How can a dehydrated patient be treated?
by giving them a hyptonic solution
NAME
these patients cna be treated w hypotonic solutions
dehydrated patients
What is filtration?
is the process that forces water and solutes through a memrbane or capillary wall by fluid or hydrostatic pressure
NAME
is a process that forces water and solutes through a membrane or capillary wall by fluid or hydrostatic pressure
filtration
The gradient for filtration is (1)
passive granditent
(1)for the gradient is a passive gradient
filtration
What is a passive gradient?
is when soulte containing fluid is pushed from a higher pressure area to a lower pressure area
NAME
is when solute containing fluid is pushed from a higher pressure area to a lower pressure area
passive gradient
(1) exerted by the blood forces fluid out of the capillaries
hydrostaic pressure
(1)also providse the fluid extercted by the kidneys as urine
filtration
is filtration selective?
no
What are the differ types of intergral protiens? (5)
(1)structural (2)ionic (3)transport (4)carrier (5)enzaymtic protiens
free ions can only be captured by (1)
anti-oxidative agents
Give some ex(s)of anit-oxidative agents? (4)
(1)choclate (2)broccli (3)citrus fruits (4)nuts (5)oily foods like fish
What does cholestral do?
helps hold the membrane together
NAME
helps hold the membrane together
cholestral
(1)helps sugar get to the membrane
insulin
What is isotatnic?
solutions w the same solute concentration as that of the cystol
NAME
are solutions w the same solute concentration as that of the cystol
isotatinic
What is hypertonic?
solutions w a greater concentration then that of the cytosol
NAME
are soltuions w a greater concentration then that of the cytosol
hypertonic
What is hyptonic?
solutions having less concentrations then that of the cystol
NAME
is solutions having less conectration then that of the cystol
hypotonic
What are the two major mechanisms of active transport?
(1)active transport (2)vesicular transport
NAME
is when transporters or solute pumps move solutes and most importantly ions against the concentration gradient
active transport
What is a solute pump?
are transporters responsible for moving solutes or ions
NAME
are transporters that are responslble for moving solutes or ions
solute pumps
How are the differ active transports distungished?
by their energy source
Where does the energy for primary active transport come from?
directly from the hydrolysis of ATP
NAME
the energy for this transport comes directly from the hydrolysis of ATP
primary active transport
Where does the energy for secoundary active transport come from?
indirectly from the energy stored in ionic gradients created by the operation of primary active transport pumps
NAME
the energy for this transport comes indirectly from the energy stored in ionic gradients created by the operation of primary active transport
secoundary active transport
Secoundary active transport systems are all (1)
coupled systems

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