Glossary of Anatomy Ch 3
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- (1) are the structural units of all livings things
- Who was Robert Hooke?
- first observed plants cells
first observed plants cells
- Robert Hooke
- Whao was Mathisa Schlieden and Theordor Schwann?
- insisted that all livings things are composed of cells
- Who is Rudolf Virchow?
- said that cells arise from other cells
said that other arise from other cells
- Rudolf Virchow
- What is theory of sponateous generation?
- says that organisisms arise spontaneously from garbage or other nonliving material
says that organisms arise sponaneously from garbage or other nonliving material
- sponateous generation
- What are the four concepts of the cell theory?
- (1)a cell is the basic structural and functional unit of living organisms (2)the activity of an organism depends on both the individial and the collective activities of its cells (3) According to the principle of complementarity, the biochemical activites of the cell are dictated by their specific subcellar activies (4)Continituity of life has a cellular basis
- What is the priniciple of complementarity?
- states that the biochemical activties of cell are dictated by their specific subcellular structures
states that the biochemical activities of the cell are dictated by their specific subcellular structures
- priniciple of complementarity
- A cell's shape reflects its (1)
- A cell's (1) reflects its function
- What are the three main parts of the human cell?
- (1)plasma membrane (2)cytoplasm (3)nucleus
- What is the plasma membrane?
- a fragile barrier that is the outer boundary of the cell
is a fragile barrier that is the outer boundary of the cell
- plasma membrane
- What is the cytoplasm?
- the intracellular fluid that is packed w organelles
is intracellular fluid that is packed w organelles
controls cellular activities and lies near that cell's center
defines the extent of a cell therby separting two of the body's major fluid compartments
- plasma membrane
- What are the body's two major fluid compartments?
- (1)intracellular fluid (2)extracellular fluid
- What intracellular fluid?
- fluid w/in the cell
is fluid w/in the cell
- intracellular fluid
- What is extracellular fluid?
- is fluid outside the cell
if fluid outside the cell
- extracellular fluid
- T or F
nearly all cellular organelles are enclosed in a membrane
- Diagram the sturcture of the plasma membrane?
- p 66
- What are the function's of the plasma membrane?
- (1)external cell barrier (2)transport (3)mantians a resting potiental (4)important in cell to cell regonization
functions include a external barrier, transport, mantians a resting poteintal, and important in cell to cell regonization
- plasma membrane
is the cellular region btwn the nuclear and plasma membrane
- What does the cytoplasm consist of?
- cystol (2)organelles (3)inclusions
- (1) consisits of cystol, organelles, and inclusions
is the powerhous of the cell and the site of ATP syntheis
is the site of ATP synthesis
- What is the mitochondria?
- ATP synthesis
- What is Ribosomes?
- the sites of protein synthesis
are the sites of protien synthesis
- What is the rough er?
- has ribosomes
- rough er
does not have ribosomes
- smooth er
is the site of lipid and steriod snythesis, lipid metabolism, and drug detoxification
- smooth er
- What is smooth er?
- is the site of lipid and steriod synthesis, lipid metabolism, and drug detroxification
are the sites of intracelluar digestion
- What are lysomes?
- are the sites of intracellular digestion
- What are peroxisomes?
- detoxify a number of toxic substances
detoxify a lot of toxic substances
- What are mircotubles made up of ?
are made up of tublin
- what are mircofilaments made up of?
are made up of actin
- what are centrioles?
- are nine triplets of microtubles
are nine triplets of microtubles
- What is the fluid mosiac model?
- depicts the plasma membrane as a thin double layer of lipid molecules w protein molecules dispersed in it
depicts the plasma membrane as a thin double layer of lipid molecules w protein molecules dispersed in it
- fluid mosiac model
- (1) forms the fabric of the membrane
- lipid bilayer
- Each phosopholipid has a (1) and (2)
- (1)charged hydrophilic head (2)uncharged nonpolor hydrophobic tail
- What does hydrophillic mean?
- water loving
means water loving
- What does hydrophobic?
- fear of water
means fear of water
- T or F
the self-orienting property of phospholipids encourages biolgiocal membranes to self-assembly into closed, generally spherical, structures and to reseal themselves quickly when torn
- What are some functions of membrane proteins?
- (1)transport (2)enzymatic activity (3)receptors for signal transduction (4) intercellular joining (5) cell-cell recoginition (6)attachement to the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix
- The majority of membrane phosphilipds are (1)
- What are glycoplipids?
- phospholipids w attached sugar groups
are phospholipids w attached sugar groups
- What are lipid rafts?
- dynamic assemblies of satuarted phospholipids associated w unique lipids called sphingolipids and lots of cholesterol
dynamic assmeblies of saturated phospholipds assocaited w unique lipids called sphinogolipids and lots of cholestral
- lipid raft
- What are the two types of protiens in the membrane?
- (1)integral (2)peripheral
- What are integral proteins?
- are protiens firmly inserted into the lipid bilayer
are responsible for most of the speacilized membrane functions
are protiens firmly inserted into lipid bilayer
- inegral protiens
- What are transmembrane protiens?
- protiens that span the entire width of the memrbane and protude on both sides
are proteins that span the entire width of the membrane and protude on both sides
- transmembrane proteins
- Most integral protiens are (1)
- transmembrane protiens
- T or F
all integral protiens have both hydrophobic and hydrophillic regions
- transmembrane protiens are mainly inovled in (1)
when protiens act as receptors for hormones or other chemical messengers and relay messages to the cell interior
- signal transduction
- What is signal transduction?
- when protiens act as receptors for hormones or other chemical messengers and relay messages to the cell interior
- What is the function of the cystol?
the function is soultion and space
- What is the funciton of the rough er?
- make and transport protiens
their function is make and transport protiens
- rough er
- What is the function of smooth er?
- transport protiens
their function is to transport proitens
- smooth er
- What is the function of the nucleus?
- cell control and storage of gentic info
their function is cell control and genitic info
- What is the function of the nucleolus?
- translate genes for protien manifucturing
function is for the translating genes and protien manifucturing
- What is the function of the nuclear membrane?
- allow entry and egress to nucleus
thier function is to allow entry and egress to the nucleus
- nuclear membrane
- What is the function of the plasma membrane?
- control entry and egress of cells
their function includes the control and entry and egress of the cell
- plasma membrane
- What is the function of the golgi Apparatus?
- package protiens
thier function includs package protiens
- Golgi Apparatus
- What is the function of the mitochondria?
- produce ATP
- What is the function of the lysosome?
- waste disposal
function in waste disposal
- What is the function of Vacuole in plants?
- water storage
functions in water storage
- vacuole in plants
- What is the function of amyloplast?
- starch storage
function in starch storage
- What is the function of Pinocytotic?
- entry of large molecules
function in the entry of large molecules
- What is the function of centrioles during cell division only?
- control cell division
function in controling cell division
- What is the function of chloroplast?
- make glucose
function in making glucose from light energy
- What is the function of the cell wall in plants?
- structure and strength
function in struture and strength
- cell wall in plants
- What is the cytoskelton made up of? (2)
- (1)microfilaments and (2)mircotubules
is made up of mircofilaments and mircotubules
- What is the function of the cytoskelton?
- cell strucutre and molecule transport
functions in cell structure and molecule transport
- What the different types of vesicles?(4)
- (1)lysosme (2)vacuole (3)amyloplast (4)Pinocytotic
- What are glycolipids?
- lipids w sugar
- What are glycoprotiens?
- protiens w sugar
- Fill in the blanks of the diagram of the cell
- p 65
- Fill in the blanks fo the diagram of the plasma membrane
- p 66
- What are peripheral protiens
- proteins not embeded in the lipid-bilyaer but loosely attached
are protiens that are not embeded in the lipid bilayer but loosely attached
- peripheral protiens
- What does glycocalyx mean?
- sugar covering
means sugar covering
- What is teh Glycocalyx?
- is the fuzzy sticky carb rich area at the cell surface that allows the differ cells stick to each other
is a fuzzy sticky carb rich area that allows for differ cells to stick to each other
- What happens when a cell becomes canerous?
- there are definite changes in the glycocalyx of the cancer cell-- allowing it keep ahead of the body's immune system
this is indicated when the cell's glycocalyx is continouslay chagnging-therefore, allowing it to keep ahead of the body's immune system
- cancerous cells
- (1)is like olive oil
- the plasma membrane
- What are mircovilli?
- are minute fingerlike extensions of the plasma membrane that project from a free, or exposed cell surface
are minute fingerlike extensions of the plasma membrane that project from a free or exposed cell surface
- Where are mircovilli often found?
- on the surface of the kindney or intestines
- What are three factors that bind cells togehter? (3)
- (1)Glycoprotins in the glycoalyx act as an adhesive (2) wavy contours of the membranes of adjacent cells fit together in a tongue and groove fashion (3)speacial membrane junactions are formed
- What is a tight junction?
- a series of intergral protiens in the plasma membrane fused together forming an impermeable juntion the encricles the cell
is a series of integral protiens in the plasma membrane fused together forming an impermeable junction that encircles the cell
- tight junction
- (1)this junction, prevents molecules from passing through extracellualar spcae such as how in btwn epitheal cells and digestive ennzymes keep microbes and digestive enzymes out of the intestines
- tight junction
- Give a ex of a tight junction
- btwn eptiheal cells and digestive enzymes--keeps out mircobes and digestive enzymes out of the intestines
- What are desmosomes?
- are anchoring junctions
are anchoring junctions
- What are the different types of cell junctions? (3)
- (1)tight (2)desmosomes (3)gap
- What does one mean by anchoring junction?
- mechanical couplings scattered like rivets alongs the sides of abutting cells to prevent separation
is the mechanical coupling scattered like rivets along the sides of abutting cells to prevent separation
- anchoring junction or desmosomes
- Where are desmosomes the most abundant?
- tissues subject to great mechanical stress
are most abundant in tissues that are subject to great mechanical stress
- What is a gap junction?
- is communicating junction taht allows chemical substances to pass btwn adjacent cells
is a communicating junction that allows chemical substances to pass btwn adjacent cells
- gap junction
- Where are gap junctions present?
- in electrically exictable tissues such as the heart and smooth muscles
are present in electrically exictable tissues such as the heart and the smooth muscles
- gap junctions
- Cells are bathed in extracellular fluid called (1)that is derived from the blood
- interstitial fluid
- What is interstitial fluid?
- an extracellular fluid derived from our blood that baths our cells
- To remain health all of our cells must extracts nutrienst from the (1)at specfic times
- extracellular fluid
- Tell which junction are which
- pg 69
- the plasma mebrane has (1)
- selctive permeable barrier
- (1) has a selective permeable barrier
- plasma membrane
- What is selectively permearble?
- means that it allows some substances to pass throught the membrane well not others
means that it allows some substances to pass through the membrane well not others
- selectively permearble
- What happens to burn patients?
- the selective permeability of their's cells becomes void allowing fluids, protiens, and ions to weep from the dead and damaged cells
in these patients the seletive permeability of their cells becomes void allowing for protiens, fluids, and ions to weap from the dead and damaged skin
- burn patients
- What are the two ways that substances move throught the plasma membrane?
- (1)activly (2)passivly
- What is passive transport?
- when substances cross the membrane w out any using energy
is when substance pass through the membrane w out using any energy
- passive transport
- What is active transport?
- is in which active transporters or solute pumps move solutes and most importantly ions againsts the conceration gradient
is when substances pass through the membrane w the help of ATP
- active transport
- What are the two different types of pasive transport?
- (1)diffuision (2) filtration
- Diffusion and filtration are both exs of (1)
- passive transport
- What is diffusion?
- is the tendency of molecules or ions to scatter evenly throughout the environment
is the tendency of molecules or ions to scatter evenly throughout the environent
- Molecules allows moves from areas of (1) concentration or areas of (2) concentration
- (1)higher (2) lower
- Molecules diffuse (1)concentration gradient
- along or down
- What influences the speed of diffusion? (2)
- (1)size of the molecules (2) temperature
- Bc of the (1) the plasma membrane is a physical barrier to free diffusion
- hydrophobic core
- When will a molecule diffuse through the membrane?
- if it is (1)lipid souble (2)small enough to pass through the membrane channels (3)assisted by a carrier molecule
- What is simple diffusion?
- the unassisted diffusion of lipid souble or very small particles
is the unassisted diffusion of lipid souble or very small particles
- simple diffusion
- Which substances can be moved by simple diffusion?
- nonpolor and lipid souble substances
- Oxygen is continously diffusing from (1) into the (2)
- (1)blood (2)cells
- What is facilated diffusion?
- is in which the transported substance either binds to the protien carriers in the membrane is carried off or moces through water filled protien channels
is in which the transported substance either binds to the protien carrier in the membrane and is carried across or moves through water filled protiens
- facilated diffusion
- What is permease or carrier protiens
- is a transmembrane integral priteins that shows specificty for molecules of certian polar substances or class of substances that are to large to pass though membrane channels
is transmembrane intergral protiens that show speciticty for molecules of certain polar substances or class of substances that are to large to pass through the membrane channels
- permease or carrier protiens
- Carrier proteins are sometimes refered to as (1)
- (1) is normally in higher concentration in the blood then in the cells
- is carrier meddiated transport limited? explain why?
- yes by the number of recepetors present
- What are channel protiens?
- are trasnmembrane protiens that serve to transport substances unsally ions or water through aqueious channels from one side of the membrane to the other
are transmembrane protiens that serve to transport substances usally ions or water through aqueous channels from one side of the membrane to the other
- channel protiens
- Explain if when channel protiens open? (4)
- (1)open for water and small ions, (2)selctive to pore size and the charge of the amino acid (3)are always open (4)gated and open for chemical or electrical signals
- Is facilate diffusion controlble?
- What is osmosis?
- the diffusion of water
is the diffusion of water
- Water move freely though water specific channels called (1)
- What are aquaporins?
- are water specfic channels by which water moves
- The extent to which water's concetration decreases depends on?
- the number of solute particles
- What is osmolarity?
- refers to the total concentration of all solutles particles in a soultion
refers to the total concentration of all solutes particles in a solution
- As water diffuses into the cell the (1) is equal to the (2)
- (1)hydrostatic pressure (2)osmotic pressure
- As (1) diffues into the cell the hydryostatic pressure is equal to the ostmotic pressure
- What is the hydrostatic pressure?
- the back pressure exerted by water against the membrane
is the back pressure exerted by water against the membrane
- hydrostatic pressure
- What is osmotic pressure?
- the cells tendency ot resisit futrther net entry
is the cell's tendecny to resisist further net entry
- osmotic pressure
- When does osmosis ocur?
- whenever the water concentration differs on the two side of the membrane
ocurs whenever the water concentration differs on two sides of the membrane
- Osmotic imbalance can cause animal cell to either (1) or (2)
- lyse or shrink
- Lyse means that the cell will (1)
- What is tonicity?
- is the ability of a solution to change the shape or tone of the cell altering their internal water volumne
is the ability of a solution to change the shape or tone of the cell altering their internal water volumne
- If a anaimal cell is placed in a (1) solution it will lyse
- What happens if a animal cell is palced in a hypotonic solution?
- it will lyse
- What happens if a animal cell is placed in a hypertonic solution?
- it will shrink
if a animal cell is placed in this solution it will shrink
- a solution;s osmolarity is based soley on (1)
- total solute concentration
- A solution's toncitiy is based on (1) or (2)
- (1)solute concentration (2)solute permeability of the plasma membrane
- (1)is extremly important in determining the distribution of water in various fluid-containing compartments of the body
- Is simple diffusion a selevtive process?
- Is osmosis a selective process?
- How can a dehydrated patient be treated?
- by giving them a hyptonic solution
these patients cna be treated w hypotonic solutions
- dehydrated patients
- What is filtration?
- is the process that forces water and solutes through a memrbane or capillary wall by fluid or hydrostatic pressure
is a process that forces water and solutes through a membrane or capillary wall by fluid or hydrostatic pressure
- The gradient for filtration is (1)
- passive granditent
- (1)for the gradient is a passive gradient
- What is a passive gradient?
- is when soulte containing fluid is pushed from a higher pressure area to a lower pressure area
is when solute containing fluid is pushed from a higher pressure area to a lower pressure area
- passive gradient
- (1) exerted by the blood forces fluid out of the capillaries
- hydrostaic pressure
- (1)also providse the fluid extercted by the kidneys as urine
- is filtration selective?
- What are the differ types of intergral protiens? (5)
- (1)structural (2)ionic (3)transport (4)carrier (5)enzaymtic protiens
- free ions can only be captured by (1)
- anti-oxidative agents
- Give some ex(s)of anit-oxidative agents? (4)
- (1)choclate (2)broccli (3)citrus fruits (4)nuts (5)oily foods like fish
- What does cholestral do?
- helps hold the membrane together
helps hold the membrane together
- (1)helps sugar get to the membrane
- What is isotatnic?
- solutions w the same solute concentration as that of the cystol
are solutions w the same solute concentration as that of the cystol
- What is hypertonic?
- solutions w a greater concentration then that of the cytosol
are soltuions w a greater concentration then that of the cytosol
- What is hyptonic?
- solutions having less concentrations then that of the cystol
is solutions having less conectration then that of the cystol
- What are the two major mechanisms of active transport?
- (1)active transport (2)vesicular transport
is when transporters or solute pumps move solutes and most importantly ions against the concentration gradient
- active transport
- What is a solute pump?
- are transporters responsible for moving solutes or ions
are transporters that are responslble for moving solutes or ions
- solute pumps
- How are the differ active transports distungished?
- by their energy source
- Where does the energy for primary active transport come from?
- directly from the hydrolysis of ATP
the energy for this transport comes directly from the hydrolysis of ATP
- primary active transport
- Where does the energy for secoundary active transport come from?
- indirectly from the energy stored in ionic gradients created by the operation of primary active transport pumps
the energy for this transport comes indirectly from the energy stored in ionic gradients created by the operation of primary active transport
- secoundary active transport
- Secoundary active transport systems are all (1)
- coupled systems
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