Glossary of Anatomy: Ch. 3 Cells
Created by slippman
- What are the 3 main regions within a cell?
- -plasma membrane
- What is the Plasma Membrane?
- -Flexible, semi-permeable, stretchy barrier
- What are the Lipid Bilayer Parts?
- 1. Phospholipid
4. Glycoprotein(protein and a carb)
5. Integral protein
6. Peripheral protein
- What make up Membrane Protiens?
- -Ion Channels
-they can be gated(cell can control when they can be opened or closed)
-integral, ions move through membrane
-involved in moving bigger stuff
-integral, move large molecules
-bind to things
-peripheral, receive information
-peripheral, speed up reactions
-Cell identity markers
-peripheral, identify cell type
- What is solute?
- can be dissolved
- What is a solvent?
- -Substance that dissolves something else into it
-does the dissolving
- What is Concentration gradient?
- -uneven areas of concentration
-solutes move down or with the gradient until it reaches equilibrium
- What are the types of Passive Transport?
- 1. Simple Diffustion
2. Facilitated diffusion
- What is Simple Diffusion?
- -lipid soluble move through the membrane
-ions move through ion channels
- What is Facilitated diffusion?
- -large molecules down gradient
- What is Osmosis?
- Diffusion of water
- What is Osmotic Pressure? And what are the three solutions that go with it?
- -Solute particles that can't pass through the membrane exert a force upon it
1. isotonic solution
-Concentration is equal on both sides of the membrane
2. Hypertonic solution
-More concentrated outside
-Crenation-blood cells shrink(shrivel up and cells)
3. Hypotonic solution
-More concentrated inside the cell
-Water rushes inside the cell that create equilibrium and the cell gets bigger and bursts
-Hemolysis-blood cells swell and burst
- What is Active Transport?
- -Energy is used to move substances against their concentration gradient
1. Transport in vesicles
-Phagocytosis-bring large particles into the cell
-large bulk phase endocytosis-bring a drop of extracellular fluid into the cell
2. Sodium-Potassium pump
Moves 3 NA(sodium) out and 2 K (potassium) in
- What is the cytoplasm?
- All cellular contents between the plasma membrane and the nucleus
- What is the Cytosol?
- Fluid portion that surrounds the organelles
- What are Organelles?
- Specialized structures inside the cell that have specific shapes and functions
- Name the Organelles in the body.
- What is the Cytoskeleton?
- Network of Protein filaments
- What are intermediate filaments?
- -Thin, found in parts of the cell that stretch, hold organelles in place and hold cells together
- What are microfilaments?
- -Found toward the edge of the cell, contribute to strength and shape
- What are the microtubules?
- -move organelles within a cell
- What is the Centrosome?
- -Found near the nucleus
-Made of centrioles and pericentriolar material
-involved in a cell division
- What are Cilia and Flagella?
- -Projections from the cell surface that are used for motion
-numberous, short, hair-like, move fluid across and around a cell
-long, whip-like, move an entire cell
- What are ribosomes?
- -Site of protein synthesis
-made of rRNA
-Contain a large and small subunit
-Some are attached to the ER and some move freely through the cytosol
- What is teh Endoplasmic Reticulum?
- -Network of folded membranes
-covered with ribosomes, protein synthesis
-Lacks ribosomes, lipid synthesis
- What is the Golgi Complex?
- -modify and package proteins
- What are Lysosomes?
- -Contain digestive enzymes
-Break down worn out cell parts
- What are Peroxisomes?
- -Contain enzymes that are used to detoxify harmful substances
- What is Proteasome?
- -Destroy un-needed , damaged, or faulty proteins
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